Article

How graphic novels support reading comprehension strategy development in children

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This qualitative case study explored the relationship between comprehension strategies and graphic novels in one Grade 4 classroom, utilising children as informants. The primary research questions related to children's applications of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies as well as the potential for graphic novels to support the students’ development as readers. Findings demonstrated that the children were able to apply two types of strategies to their reading of graphic novels: ‘keys’ that supported form-specific comprehension strategies and ‘master keys’ that supported more general comprehension strategies that could be applied to other types of texts. Student preferences for graphic novels aligned with their preferences for reading narrative novels and non-fiction, and did not align with preferences regarding comics or cartoons. Student preferences for reading graphic novels increased throughout the study. Fluent student responses to graphic novels through process drama were identified. Implications of the study involve the employment of graphic novels to support metacognitive strategies for reading and writing as well as to facilitate process drama.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Graphic novels and comic literature are no strangers to teaching settings. As a medium and an art form, both bring unique contributions to the student's reading experience and development of visual literacy skills (Brenna, 2013). The nature of the reading transaction in a visual context develops a more complex understanding of the story because it occurs on numerous learning and meaning-making levels. ...
... Effective teachers recognize that students can become heavily invested in learning new topics, and that interfacing with new material can engage diverse perspective and spark meaningful connections. Harnessing this engagement and interest from students neces-sarily involves the use of effective criteria in making these curriculum planning decisions (Boerman, 2015;Brenna, 2013). Understanding this relationship between learners, content, and pedagogy within the parameters of the curriculum and resources that one has to operate with often necessitates doing the best one can with the resources one has. ...
... Graphic novel adaptations of classic literary works have existed for decades, and sometimes have been used in classrooms as either supple-ments or substitutes for the reading of novels (Boerman-Cornell, 2013;Brenna, 2013). This practice has often been employed by students with dyslexia or other reading challenges, as a way to compensate for difficulties in reading fluency or reading comprehension (Smetana & Grisham, 2012;Smith et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of graphic literature and novels in schools is commonplace. An area of instruction that is currently lacking across much of schooling is the concerted and focused use of graphic literature and novels in teaching a variety of subjects and content. Teaching with this kind of literature as a vehicle for inquiry and meaning-making can be highly effective when utilized in the right fashion. Incorporating a dimension of aesthetics and critical inquiry within graphic novels will yield a much more immersive learning experience. Borrowing from an art teacher's pedagogy, any subject can be invigorated or simply re-presented in a visual means. Graphic literature has the ability to connect the important concepts and ideas that students learn in school, but in a way that blends in the kinds of imagery that are commensurate with what students see outside of school. Combining critical inquiry with graphic literature will be argued to present a more appropriate level of intellectual and aesthetic engagement for teachers and students in the process of teaching and learning.
... Without support and unaware of their significance, many students may overlook these conventions. Brenna (2013), in her study of a group of fourth graders, observed the students discovering some of these conventions related to perspective and time on their own, once the teacher had alerted them to look for them. A recent study with a group of elementary teachers found that when the teachers were exposed to professional development related to these factors, their attitudes toward graphic novels improved and they were able to share what they learned with their students. ...
... Another important process in successful reading is inferencing, the ability to grasp meaning not overtly stated (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983). Since graphic novels often lack the straight-forward recounting of events and characteristics of the topics being addressed, readers must use the visual aspects of the text and their understanding of graphic novel conventions to draw inferences within and across panels (Brenna, 2013;Smetana, 2010;Smetana, Odelson, Burns, & Grisham, 2009;Thompson, 2008). For example, in the initial pages of Takei's autobiographical They Called Us Enemy (2019, pp. ...
... This dramatic activity demonstrates not only the importance of synthesizing across images and words but also how it happens. Again, while the resources of synthesis are different with graphic novels, the basic mental process is essentially the same (Brenna, 2013). Using graphic novels to teach the process may transfer readily to print texts. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a brief introduction to the history of graphic novels in American schools, followed by a review of the literature regarding past graphic novel use. The authors then turn their attention to the real possibilities for use in schools in several major categories as described by current researchers, specifically in English language arts, math, social studies, science, and internet research. The chapter closes with suggestions as to what must take place in order for teachers to integrate graphic novels more effectively in their classrooms and highlights research areas that need to be addressed to support them.
... It is the combination of these visual images and the traditional text that we normally read that emphasizes the uniqueness of graphic novels. Consequently, graphic novels can also be used to meet traditional literacy goals of text comprehension as well as multiple literacies (Brenna 2013, Lapp et. al 2012, Risko et al. 2011, Schwarz 2006. ...
... Likewise, Mouly (2011) describes graphic novels under the guise of comics that aim to tell stories in pictures. Like many other researchers who support graphic novels (Brenna 2013, Lapp et al. 2012, Mouly 2011, Risko et al. 2011) 74% of the teacher trainees also felt the same. It was the power of pictures that drew the teacher trainees to choose graphic novels over traditional texts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Students in the ²¹st century are exposed to multimodal texts, which are texts with the combinations of the modes of prints, images, gestures and movements. Graphic novel is one of the examples of a multimodal text and this genre is introduced in the Language Arts module as part of the English language subject in the new Curriculum for Primary Schools in Malaysia. Hence, it is important that teachers should first be aware of how to make the most of multimodal texts before introducing their pupils to the strategies necessary for comprehending the text. However, without proper training on how to approach the genre, the teaching of graphic novels may pose difficulties for teachers in general and especially so for teacher trainees. This paper reports the findings of a survey conducted on teacher trainees to explore the challenges they faced in teaching graphic novels to primary schoolers. Results show that although the graphics succeeded to entice the pupils into reading the text, the teacher trainee felt that the graphics did not help their pupils in understanding the storyline. The pupils' eagerness to go through the graphics has caused them to ignore the words in the speech balloons. Consequently this has led to incomprehensible input and misinterpretation of the content. Results from these preliminary findings can be used to further investigate the strategies good readers use to read and comprehend graphic novels, so that teacher trainee would be better prepared to utilise graphic novels in their English classes. © 2017 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All rights reserved.
... Because 22 participants spent different amounts of time on reading the whole visitor guide, they were categorized into three groups based on distinctive characteristics of each group. Previous literature named readers who spend fewer, medium and longer time on reading as skimmers, scanners and intensive readers, respectively (Brenna, 2012;Lawrence, 2015). As 15 and 20 minutes are thresholds for concentration while reading (Nowak, 2013), the participants in this research were categorized as follows: skimmers (SKs) looked at the whole visitor guide less than 15 minutes; scanners (SCs) spent between 15 and 20 minutes reading; intensive readers (IRs) read the visitor guide more thoroughly and spent more than 20 minutes (Table II). ...
... Third, it contributes to the literature by understanding the pattern of selective attention of different types of readers. The three categories of readersskimmers, scanners and intensive readersidentified in previous research (Brenna, 2012 andLawrence, 2015) were validated through this study. Although they spent varying amounts of time on reading the visitor guide, they all had the reference-point reading behavior. ...
[Purpose] Destination management organizations deliver travel-related information through visitor guides to build destination awareness and attract potential tourists. Therefore, this research aims to investigate how people read such a guide, understand their attitudes and to provide recommendations on enhancing its design. ----- [Design/methodology/approach] This research used eye-tracking technology in tandem with surveys and in-depth interviews. Eye-tracking technology uncovered the elements of a visitor guide that attracted particular attention, whereas surveys and interviews provided deeper insights into people’s attitudes toward them. ----- [Findings] People do not spend attention equally on each page of a visitor guide. Instead, they look at the reference points (i.e. photo credits, photos, headings and bolded words) and then read the adjacent areas if the information triggers their interest. The characteristics of the attractive components of a visitor guide were discussed and suggestions on designing a more appealing guide were provided. ----- [Research limitations/implications] The triangulated approach not only generated objective and insightful results but also enhanced research validity. This exploratory sequential mixed method can usefully be applied to test other stimuli and assess attention. ----- [Practical implications] To be deemed appealing, a visitor guide should avoid ads unrelated to the destination, include more photos, use the list format and bolded words, add stories or selected comments from social media and provide well-designed maps. ----- [Originality/value] This research fills a gap in the literature by using a triangulated approach including eye-tracking, survey and interviews to examine a 68-page visitor guide. The concept of reference-point reading behavior is proposed. Practical implications are discussed to improve the design of a visitor guide.
... The study focus of approximately half of the studies either included or focused on, reader preference as one factor (n=25). 6 The question of preference comes in many shapes: it may use a gender perspective (whether boys and girls prefer different comics [Allen and Ingulsrud 2005;Davies and Brember 1993;Witty 1941b]); how students choose between different types of comics (Witty 1941a(Witty , 1941b; the aspects that students find appealing about a certain type of comic (Norton 2003;Pantaleo and Bombphray 2011); whether students prefer a comic or a 'traditional' version of a text (Bosma et al. 2013;Brenna 2013;Jennings et al. 2014); whether students enjoy a comic introduced, or created, by the researcher or teacher (Sharpe and Izadkhah 2014;Spiegel et al. 2013;Weitkamp and Burnet 2007); or whether students find a certain comic 'funny' (Weitkamp and Burnet 2007;Lazzarich 2013;Kuhlman and Danielson 2010;Rule and Auge 2005;Özdemir 2017). ...
... (Note that 'school subject' is not an exclusive category, and a study may include more than one subject.) Language arts include such topics as studies on grammar (Akkaya 2013), vocabulary uptake (Brugar et al. 2018;Edwards 2008), reading comprehension (Brenna 2013;Jennings et al. 2014) and literacy didactics (Kerneza and Kosir 2016;Wallner 2017bWallner , 2019), but do not include studies on English as a second/foreign language (ESL/EFL), or second-language acquisition (SLA, non-English). These were specifically categorized in the texts (Chiera-Macchia and Rossetto 2011;Chun 2009;Cimermanová 2015;Huh and Suh 2018;Ranker 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to increase knowledge on the use of comics as materials in K-9 education (ages 6–15). This is achieved through an integrative research review. Reference lists and websites have been searched, both by database searches and manually, and the results analysed and cross referenced to identify common areas of research and possible gaps in knowledge. Fifty-five texts (research articles and doctoral theses) were found, with 40 first authors from fourteen countries. The results revealed several gaps in knowledge. Most of the analysed studies had been carried out in North America, which suggests that more studies in other educational contexts, published in English, are needed, and that cross-national studies of comics in education will be productive. Furthermore, only three of the analysed texts describe studies that have high ecological validity, while all of the remaining 52 studies were ‘staged’ studies, in which the researcher had introduced material and observed the results. This suggests that further studies that utilize non-experimental research methods are needed. Finally, most studies focus on students’ reading preferences in regard to comics, rather than, for example, on how students compose comics or what they learn through comics. Thus, further studies that explore student work with comics, and examine the kinds of knowledge that reading comics enables, are desirable.
... We define graphic novels as book-length narratives told in the comic medium. Many have written about the appeal of graphic novels and their power to engage young adolescents (e.g., Brenna, 2013;Gavigan, 2011). However, the benefits extend beyond motivation as graphic novels provide rich, multimodal text with the potential to engage students with complex ideas (Brozo, Moorman, & Meyer, 2013). ...
... However, it was important to us to go beyond engagement. Research to date has already illuminated the engaging potential of graphic novels (e.g., Brenna, 2013;Gavigan, 2011). What we were most interested in was whether that engagement converted to learning of the content: both the design elements and typical features of graphic novels and historic information about the American Revolution. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examine evidence of transfer from reading instruction to students’ learning of language arts and historical content as demonstrated by their independent writing and growth in background knowledge. We taught a unit in a sixth-grade language arts classroom in which students learned about design elements of graphic novels (e.g., line, color) and typical features (e.g., gutter, panel) to bolster reading comprehension, using a historically accurate graphic novel about the American Revolution as an anchor text. We asked, (a) When students are taught about elements of graphic novels during content-area reading instruction, in what ways are they able to demonstrate understanding of those elements in independent compositions? (b) Does this type of instruction also build historical content knowledge? Results indicate that students were able to simultaneously learn about the graphic novel form and the content of the focal text.
... Carter (2007) reported that graphic novels transform the classroom by allowing students to navigate complex social issues. Graphic novels motivate and engage reluctant readers (Brenna, 2013;Crawford, 2004;Schwarz, 2007). For emerging bilingual students, graphic novels connect to their experiences and background (Danzak, 2011;Norton, 2003) and help them visualize text (Lyga, 2006). ...
... In early grades, graphic novels have been used to teach the literary concept of sequencing (Chase et al., 2014). In Brenna (2013), though fourth-grade students picked up graphic novel form-specific comprehension strategies (e.g. interpreting lettering style), the teaching of these strategies did not play a central role in literacy instruction. ...
Article
This article examines students’ identities in teacher–student interactions during an eight-week comic unit within a fourth-grade literacy classroom. Though researchers have increasingly studied how teachers incorporated graphic novels and comics into the school literacy curriculum, few have documented the social interactions that students’ multimodal composing is embedded in. Using microethnographic discourse analysis, we traced the identity work of two case studies at different reading levels during whole-class discussions and writing conferences and how their teacher supported their positive identity development through discourse moves. In this article, we show that the teacher’s dialogic approach to teaching provided both students with opportunities to position themselves and be positioned as expert and comic author. We encourage educators to use multimodal literacy to create a supportive learning environment that transforms verbocentric school literacy and students’ identities.
... This suggests that those participants were able to implicitly pick up and process the narrative structure implicitly. In addition, Brenna (2013) suggests that graphic novels offer richness in terms of context for teaching reading comprehension and found that students identified learning clues when interpreting the graphic format and mentioned utilizing the style of speech bubbles, text format, panels when generating meaning. ...
... The problem is, if the students don't have the digital literacy in navigating through the technology, whether it is software, an iPad, or any other device, then how are they to benefit from them? Comics are a genre with its own literacy, and thus guided experience with this genre is well worth careful exploration and experimentation (Brenna, 2013;Nakazawa, 2005;Panteleo, 2013). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Notions of accessibility bring to question the perceived deficits in narrative comprehension for autistic people. This deficit has been positioned as having a cognitive processing disposition towards local coherence, rather than global coherence. Rather than a unitary deficit in the individual, reduced performance on inferential narrative comprehension tasks may be an issue of modality. This dissertation adds to research that challenges this unitary deficit assumption, by situating cognitive processing dispositions in different narrative modalities. Furthermore, this project unifies several prominent inferential frameworks, conceptualizing inferential thinking as a continuum of integration, rather than a set of discrete skills. Repositioning Kintsch’s (1988) construction-integration theory as an ordinal continuum provides a basis for integrating other inferential-thinking frameworks, and thus theorizing a new cognitive processing disposition. The Integrated Inferential Reasoning (IIR) continuum is anchored by Pearson and Johnson’s (1978) text-implicit questions-answer relations (QARs; local), and script-implicit QARs (global). Building off of the idea of degrees of integration, a new level of QAR is introduced, in which the local and global clauses are integrated into one cohesive inferential response. In this study, the impact of narrative modality (comic plus text versus text-only) on inferential reasoning is compared between and among autistic (n=18) and neurotypical adolescents (n=112). Although the autistic respondents presented deficits in IIR when answering inferential reasoning items following narratives in a traditional text-only format, the situation with the comic plus text format was more nuanced. Considering format alone, the comic plus text did not promote IIR. However, autistic respondents with the highest level of self-rated comic experience performed comparably to their neurotypical peers on both formats. This is consistent with viewing comics not just as a format, but as a literacy. I present evidence that cognitive processing disposition varies as a function of context. Autistic respondents had a different experience when engaging with narratives in either the comic plus text and text-only format. This line of research provides alternate frameworks for thinking about autism and narrative meaning making. The work suggests that deficit explanations may not be as powerful as a neurodiversity lens in characterizing the experiences of neurotypical and autistic adolescents when they grapple with narrative accounts of social experiences.
... School teachers have reported the use of graphic novels as an instructional technique which is effective for illustrating narratives events, contrasts, scientific explanation, and social dilemmas (Martin 2009). Graphic novels can be considered as classroom resources that address a wide range of domains of teaching English Language-listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing -in addition to developing critical liter-acy skills (Brenna 2013;Pirnay-Dummer and Ifenthaler 2011), as well as positive academic performance and attitudes towards other courses in the curriculum (Brante et al. 2013;Clark 2014;Ercan 2014). Besides providing a source of motivation and an alternative mode for children to engage in traditional learning activities, the role of graphic novel in facilitating narrative production is uncertain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Past studies have shown that multimodal presentation of story can improve story-retelling performance in the first language. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether similar multimedia effects can be observed in second language learning and graphic novel reading. A total of 51 Chinese elementary school children, aged 7–8, who were learning English as a second language were recruited. They were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions that differed in the format of story presentation: English text, English text with pictorial illustrations or graphic novel. After reading the same story, the children retold the story in English. The narratives produced were then rated by two independent raters. The results of group comparison showed that children from the three experimental groups had similar performance, indicating that multimedia presentation may not always facilitate narrative production in English as a second language. Within-subject comparison further showed that the children were relatively strong in language skills and capturing the main ideas of the story, while showing weakness in story structure awareness, elaboration, as well as local and global cohesion. Suggestions for the application of multimodal presentation of narrative texts are discussed.
... The last two decades have seen a surge in researches concerning incorporation of graphic novels into the English classroom (for example, see Versaci, 2001;Chute, 2008;Chun, 2009;Corners, 2012;Bakis, 2013;Brenna, 2013;Brown, 2013;Moris, 2015;Cornell, 2016;Cook & Kirchoff, 2017;Brown & Begoray, 2017) The scope of how graphic novels are discussed is impressive. For instance, some pedagogues believe that combining print-based literacy and digital communication has the potential to increase student engagement as well as understanding of complex texts (Weiner, 2010;Brown, 2013). ...
Article
This article reports an empirical study which compared the effects of different writing tasks on the writing products of EFL students. This study recruited 50 students from two natural classes in a Chinese university. In the pre-test, they were given the same writing task with only textual instruction and no difference was found in their writing quality. In the test, one class was given graphic novel with textual information, while the other class was given the same graphic novel without textual information. It finds that the group given graphic novel performed better than the other group in terms of content richness, plot development, organization, and language accuracy. It concludes that graphic novel is a better way to scaffold EFL student’s narrative writing and visual information should be included in EFL literacy curricula.
... The researchers found that both third and sixth graders demonstrated better reading strategy performance than students in the traditional group, which did not experience explicit instruction on metacognitive reading strategies. Brenna (2013) also states that providing metacognitive reading instruction to fourth graders enhanced their reading comprehension of graphic novels. In this study, 21 fourth graders learned different metacognitive reading approaches, such as synthesizing and making inferences, from their teacher, and practiced using them in 10 literacy sessions (one hour each session) over five weeks. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on preservice teachers’ metacognitive reading strategies, in particular their awareness of such strategies as a reader and future teacher in three different stages (initial, middle, and final stages) of the teacher education program. The study had two research questions: (1) Are there any significant differences between metacognitive awareness and preservice teachers’ academic stages? and (2) What are preservice teachers’ perceptions of metacognitive awareness at the three different academic stages? One hundred sixteen preservice teachers participated in the study. Data included the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategy Inventory (MARSI) and open-ended questions. While the results indicated no significant differences between preservice teachers’ stages and the scores in the MARSI, they indicated significant differences among the mean scores for the sub-scores in the MARSI. Preservice teachers also viewed themselves as high-achieving readers, used various metacognitive reading strategies, and understood the importance of teaching these strategies to children.
... Unlike textbooks, the model of text punctuated with the occasional explanatory figure is flipped. This is valuable to educators who work with English-language learners or students with a wide range of reading comprehension abilities (Chun 2009, Smetana et al. 2009, Brenna 2013. ...
Article
Full-text available
In both large bookstore chains and local comic book stores, it is relatively easy to find comics that focus on politics , history, and autobiographies. These comics are often incorporated into the curriculum in social studies classes at the primary, secondary, and college level, but there are far fewer science comics and even less research about their implementation. In this article, a brief rationale for the use of science comics is given based on five qualities—that they are motivating, visual, permanent, intermediary, and popular. Research projects that have studied the effectiveness of comics are summarized, but in many cases these studies have a small sample size or lack control groups. Following an introduction to science comics and their implementation, guidelines and resources are provided to help science communicators produce their own comics and to encourage educational studies into their use. As case studies, comics that I have worked on are described along with the results of how they were used, including page views and research projects.
... The use of illustrations in children's storybooks is not merely aesthetic but also educational. Studies on the impact of pictures on children's reading comprehension, discussion about the text, and critical thinking skills show that illustrations have a unique function in addition to their artistic value (Brenna, 2013;Brookshire et al., 2002;Feathers & Arya, 2015;Greenhoot, et al., 2014;Orrantia et al., 2014). Indeed, the role of illustrations in children's storybooks is to provide a support for the text, especially for young children who cannot yet read conventionally. ...
... It is this need to analyze comics that drives our work with students and the instruction we share through this paper. In our classrooms, we use these suggestions to guide the critical inquiry with which our students engage, and as such, we use comics to foster visual learning (Eisner, 1998;Fisher & Frey, 2004;McCloud, 1993;Serafini, 2011;Smetana, 2010) and critical thinking (Brenna, 2013;Chun, 2009;Krusemark, 2015;Serafini, 2014) and task students with explicitly examining comic book superheroes through these relevant social lenses. The review of the literature that follows is meant to frame the analytical experiences our students undertake. ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide teachers and students useful methods for utilizing the power of comic books as literacy sponsors in ELA classrooms. Given the continued boom in the popularity of comics in popular culture, this provides a relevant way to introduce students to visual and critical analysis. Engaging in meaningful analysis of comic superheroes can help students develop the skills required to critically analyze the stereotypes and social issues both within comics and within the world that surrounds them. Through the study of traditional and contemporary comic book heroes, students can critique society and begin to develop voices for social change. In this article, we discuss one way we have implemented comic books into literacy instruction in high school English language arts classrooms to help students practice and develop visual literacy skills and to scaffold students’ entrance into the weighty conversations that accompany relevant social issues. Using four comics, Gotham Central, The Shadow Hero, The Authority, and Ms. Marvel, we offer teachers examples and guidance for incorporating this approach into their own classrooms.
... For instance, Smetana, Odelson, Burns, and Grisham (2009) showed that graphic novels promoted inferential reading skills in high school students experiencing reading difficulties. In addition, graphic novels may also elicit additional metacognitive strategies for reading comprehension, as shown in Brenna's (2013) qualitative case study of 21 fourth graders. ...
Article
Learners with poor reading skills are less able to acquire knowledge through text. Graphic novels may enhance reading comprehension skills owing to fewer words, more pictures, and an engaging storyline. This study considered the reading skills of 188 Chinese–English bilingual undergraduates, comparing their reading comprehension performance after reading pure texts and graphic novels. Results showed that students exhibited greater reading comprehension performance after reading graphic novels regardless of their varying cognitive styles and prior English reading abilities. In addition, students who read the graphic novels expressed a greater interest in exploring the topic further, as indicated by the number of further references they selected. Taking all of the findings together, the present study demonstrates that presentation mode plays an important role in 2nd language reading comprehension development. Therefore, educators need a more systematic way of educating preschool through Grade 12 students for visual literacy training.
... The use of graphic novels has been gaining popularity in educational circles for their ability to help visual learners (Brozo, Moorman, & Meyer, 2013;Murakami & Bryce, 2009), to motivate reluctant and struggling readers (Schwarz, 2002), to develop higher order thinking skills (Miller (2005), to address students having different learning styles (Seelow, 2010) and to provide rich context for increasing comprehension of the reading texts (Brenna, 2013). In addition to the above-listed benefits, graphic novels can be used creatively for other purposes, including vocabulary instruction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mastery of idiomatic expressions by foreign language learners is often equated with the fluency of native speakers of that language. However, learning these idiomatic expressions is one of the significant problems experienced by learners. The present quasi-experimental study conducted over four weeks in the ELT department of a Turkish university aims to investigate the effectiveness of teaching idioms via graphic novels compared to teaching them via traditional activities. The most frequent and useful forty figurative idioms from the Michigan Academic English Spoken Corpus (MICASE) were used in a script and the script was converted to a graphic novel with the use of a computer software. The results revealed that participants in the experimental group who had learned idioms through the graphic novel performed significantly better on the post-test, indicating the efficiency of the graphic novel in vocabulary teaching. The study also offers recommendations for the use of graphic novels in the teaching of vocabulary.
... The use of graphic novels has been gaining popularity in educational circles for their ability to help visual learners (Brozo, Moorman, & Meyer, 2013;Murakami & Bryce, 2009), to motivate reluctant and struggling readers (Schwarz, 2002), to develop higher order thinking skills (Miller (2005), to address students having different learning styles (Seelow, 2010) and to provide rich context for increasing comprehension of the reading texts (Brenna, 2013). In addition to the above-listed benefits, graphic novels can be used creatively for other purposes, including vocabulary instruction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mastery of idiomatic expressions by foreign language learners is often equated with the fluency of native speakers of that language. However, learning these idiomatic expressions is one of the significant problems experienced by learners. The present quasi-experimental study conducted over four weeks in the ELT department of a Turkish university aims to investigate the effectiveness of teaching idioms via graphic novels compared to teaching them via traditional activities.The most frequent and useful forty figurative idioms from the Michigan Academic English Spoken Corpus (MICASE) were used in a script and the script was converted to a graphic novel with the use of a computer software.The results revealed that participants in the experimental group who had learned idioms through the graphic novel performed significantly better on the post-test, indicating the efficiency of the graphic novel in vocabulary teaching. The study also offers recommendations for the use of graphic novels in the teaching of vocabulary.
... Studies were conducted to investigate the use of pictures to foster comprehension and answering of comprehension questions of expository texts as explained by Baggett and Graesser (1995) and Larkin and Simon (1987) as cited in Otero et al.(2002). Studies also supported the notion that the use of multimedia such as the graphic novels which are also comics, in secondary classrooms improved readers' comprehension skills such as making inference (Brenna, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Instilling the knowledge and value of nationhood has been conducted most of the time using linear form of writing in the National Language. The National Language is utilized because it is a language to be mastered by all the citizens of Malaysia. However there should be a diversity in the types of materials in dispersing nationhood and patriotism among the young generation. Nationhood and patriotism values should also be imparted through materials such as the comics. Materials regarding nationhood of Malaysia are also present in abundance in English. Hence the second language should also be used to inculcate nationhood and patriotism. It would contribute greater to the knowledge in history of Malaysia. The incapability in comprehending the materials read on nationhood and patriotism would hinder the students from obtaining knowledge and values of nationhood. The study focused on enhancing reading comprehension among the secondary school students in the notion of enabling them to read and understand nationhood reading materials regardless of types of text and language used.
... Relatedly, Brenna (2013) identified two types of comprehension strategies that help students improve comprehension of text generally, and graphic novels specifically: "master keys" comprehension strategies and "keys" comprehension strategies (Brenna, 2013, p. 91). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, education and literacy researchers have acknowledged educational merit in guided reading that incorporates interactive and authentic reading texts, such as graphic novels, which meet the needs of today’s predominantly multimodal learners (Jennings, Rule, & Zanden, 2014; Kist & Pytash, 2015). This qualitative study explores through interviews and a questionnaire the perceptions of pre-service teachers about the effectiveness of the comic book series known as TOON comics in guided reading with struggling readers and writers, from kindergarten through fifth grade. Pre-service teachers have expressed positive views concerning the use of these comic books in guided reading instruction with their struggling readers and writers. They plan to use this comic book series in the classroom in the future and they offer suggestions for addressing the challenges this genre may bring to their students.
... From the point the student engages these materials, or prompts, the student may take an expanding leading role and become increasingly responsible for their own work and progress. Teaching from a graphic novel involves more than the standard compliment of discussion questions (Brenna, 2013;Labio, 2011). Graphic novels and comic literature present their narratives in a closed space, so the value is carried even further by some of the smaller elements or representations of the story. ...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of literacy development at schools is a standing feature of the curriculum. In spite of this, the means to develop critical thinking in students often comes up short. The development of literacy and critical thinking can be presented in engaging and memorable ways, but schools often defer to what they have done in the past; namely through textbooks and worksheets. This article will argue that the greater and structured incorporation of graphic novels and comic literature, but from a critical literacy perspective, will have the effect of increasing engagement of the subject matter. A closer engagement through visual means, coupled with a teaching pedagogy that directly supports critical literacy skill development builds the best experience and engagement of student learning.
... invokes feelings of success and enjoyment (Applegate & Applegate, 2004;Brenna, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Strong oral reading fluency skills are an important indication of good reading. In addition, reading engagement is often correlated with reading success. Unfortunately, students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to read fluently and engage with text. Incorporating graphic novels as part of a comprehensive reading program may help support student engagement with text during reading fluency instruction. This article outlines how teachers can use graphic novels as part of a comprehensive reading program to help engage students with LD in reading during fluency instruction. A brief summary of the literature surrounding comprehensive fluency instruction and the use of graphic novels is provided. In addition, a scenario is provided to illustrate guidelines for fluency planning and instruction using graphic novels. Finally, conclusions are summarized.
... Este proceso, además puede promover el desarrollo de habilidades de comunicación multimodal si se anima al alumno a hacer uso de herramientas tecnológicas y digitales para buscar información de manera crítica, crear contenidos utilizando distintos modos (imagen, sonido, texto) y compartirlos. Por lo general, los estudios que se han realizado sobre el cómic en la enseñanza se basan en la lectura de éstos como estrategia de aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (Berger, 1971;Brenna, 2013;Carano y Clabough, 2016;Chute, 2008;Cook, 2017;Hill, 2017;Meskin, 2009;Rodríguez Diéguez, 1988;Smith, 2011;Tilley, 2008;Yunus, Salehi y Embi, 2012) o el análisis de los cómics como medio (Ball y Kuhlman, 2010;Hill, 2017;Tilley, 2008;Wartenberg, 2012) o como transmisores de cultura (Berger, 1971;D'Angelo y Cantoni, 2006;Yıldırım, 2013), pero también como medio para el desarrollo de competencias de alfabetización visual (Frey y Fisher, 2008;Gillenwater, 2009; Herbst, Chazan, Chen, Chieu y Weiss, 2011). En este estudio hemos querido ir más allá y además de la lectura de cómics relacionados, muchos de ellos, con la temática de las asignaturas, fueron los estudiantes quienes los han elaborado. ...
Article
The Latin American Comics Archive (LACA)1 is an ongoing project combining capabilities for Spanish language and culture teaching, research in the Humanities, and digital technologies as a tool for expanding the access and analysis of Latin American comics for both scholars and students. Thanks to a Digital Humanities Mellon Seed Grant, LACA started out with a small representative sample of Latin American comics that were digitized and encoded in CBML over the 2016-2017 academic year. In the Fall of 2017, a pilot course allowed students and researchers to access and explore these source materials as pedagogical tools for learning and researching about Spanish language and Latin American culture. The use of digital tagging and annotation tools on the archive enabled for the analysis of the visual and verbal language of comics, as well as cultural and linguistic items or themes, and a variety of formal categories. Students and researchers were able to collaborate in the definition of key terms to be annotated and used for the research of topics in the digitized comics, with the object of ultimately creating or collaborating in critical editions of comics for use by others, and the expansion of the archive, which will eventually be open to general scholarly use by students and researchers. Integrated applications could also allow for the production of short critical interventions in comic format.
... Otherwise the integrative work of cognitive functions is included in the processing of sign information (Brenna, 2012;Martín-Arnala et al., 2019;Schnotz, 2014). Despite the complexity of the interaction of the codes, they retain the main signs of the semantic integrity of the text as a language unit -an optional title; the division into paragraphs, which is provided, for example, by modularity and digital marking; logical completeness; the ability to formulate the concept of the text by linguistic means (Shulekina, 2018). ...
... Comic books have been used by many educators to increase students' comprehension of academic areas (Brenna, 2013;Frey and Fisher, 2004;Hosler and Boomer, 2010;Mallia, 2007). Interestingly, findings from this study reveal that comic books with either a scientific or historical focus demonstrated a moderately significant independent relationship with students' incentive to participate in 'Independent Self-Study' and 'Library Programmes' (see Table 8). ...
Article
Full-text available
Comic books and their characters are an integral part of popular culture. However, comic books, as educational material, still remain controversial in certain education systems, as this medium is regarded by some as sheer entertainment – thereby hindering students’ motivation to seek out other more formal, text-based literature to read. For this study, a region-wide questionnaire survey was sent out to explore school librarians’ perceptions and attitudes towards the educational value of comic books in Taiwan. A total of 789 responses were collected for this questionnaire survey study. The regression model was used to identify the causal relationship between different genres of comic books and students’ voluntary reading and learning incentives in the context of the school library. Findings from this study suggest that comic books (1) carry the potential to attract more students to visit the school library after class, (2) facilitate students’ reading comprehension skills and (3) foster students’ interest in voluntary reading. Because of this medium’s visual-based and serialised narrative approach to storytelling, findings of this study also suggest that comic books could function as a reading motivational tool, particularly useful in helping their students learn about the subjects of History and Science.
... Providing an alternative perspective, other research has demonstrated that studying graphic novels and comics in the elementary classroom (Brenna, 2013;Ranker, 2007) can be a valuable enterprise. Comics support the teaching and learning of many of the reading strategies taught through use of more traditional logocentric texts (Dallacqua, 2013). ...
Article
This study explores how an alternative writing unit with a focus on comics, choice, and publishing supported positive identity development in a fourth-grade classroom. Many traditional literacy practices with an emphasis on skills marginalize students from under-represented populations. This study reports literacy practices that countered the production of previously established unequal relationships and instead supported bilingual students’ negotiation of positive identities. We conducted an analysis of two bilingual case studies to examine the ways in which the shift from traditional literacy skills/practices to multimodal formats provided opportunities for students who were traditionally marginalized to renegotiate identities as experts and authors.
Article
This chapter presents snapshots of what researchers are finding about the effects of using graphic novels in lower and middle school classrooms. Graphic novels and other multimodal classroom content make abstract concepts more concrete, aid in teaching language usage and sequencing, and more clearly address twenty‐first century communication in our communities and workplaces. The chapter introduces many outstanding graphic novels that can and should be used in elementary and middle school classrooms. Graphic novels' burgeoning popularity is also in part due to growing changes in education. It is being increasingly noted by teachers that graphic novels' vibrant images, playful fonts, and inviting dialogues make reading the complex texts more fun and accessible for all kinds of readers and learners. Graphic novels motivate all kinds of readers and learners and have been found to engage students ‐ increasing the number of books they read, words they encounter, and worlds they explore.
Thesis
Full-text available
It is a challenge for practicing language teachers to search for or to create a contextualized reading intervention material that can motivate students to read as they develop their English reading comprehension skill. Thus, conception, development and application of the contextualized graphic novel, “The Orphans, the Dog and the Enchanted Pot” were proposed. Within the framework of this quasi- experimental research, effectiveness of novel was examined and established. Thirty (30) respondents from grade 7 Anthurium students of Lamao Nation High School in S.Y. 2016-2017 formed the experimental and comparison groups. Sample size was carefully matched and paired in terms of sex, age and General Weighted Average (GWA). Pretest was conducted to measure the respondents’ initial reading comprehension level, then, the novel was distributed to experimental group. They were instructed to read it for four (4) weeks or twenty- eight (28) days on their own free time whether in school during weekdays or at the comfort of their homes. On the other hand, the comparison group was not exposed to contextualized graphic novel but on other materials of their choice. After the experimental period expired, posttest was directed. Outcomes provided statistical evidences that contextualized graphic novel supported development of English reading comprehension: First, it was marked that the experimental group marked with higher posttest result than comparison group after the experimental period. Second, experimental group’s posttest reading comprehension result confirmed that there was a gradual increase on the basis of their pretest result while comparison group’s posttest result decreased in reference to their pretest result. Lastly, it was determined through the comparison of pretest and posttest results, gradual development was manifested through experimental group’s initial comprehension level as frustrated readers to instructional readers after the exposure. The study concluded that the effectiveness of contextualized graphic novel as a reading intervention was partially upheld.
Article
This study explores the possibilities for learning content that might accompany the use of an historically accurate graphic novel as part of a language arts instructional unit. During a 6-day unit, 16 sixth grade students engaged in graphic novels in ways that support comprehension, both in the context of a graphic novel text set and a specific novel, One Dead Spy. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, we evaluated student learning of content related to the topic of the American Revolution. Results indicate that engaging students in instruction around the novel built the background knowledge on the topic, as well as increasing their understanding of the topic as measured by a free-recall assessment. In addition, the unit posttest indicated significant learning around conceptual ideas.
Article
Although the popularity and use of graphic novels in literacy instruction has increased in the last decade, few sustained analyses have examined adolescents’ reading processes with informational texts in social studies classrooms. Recent research that has foregrounded visual, emotional, and embodied textual responses situates this qualitative study, in which three eighth-grade students learned about the graphic novel format, responded in writing to interpretive prompts, and thought aloud during their reading of Gettysburg: A Graphic Novel by C.M. Butzer. Analyses of students’ responses to the multimodal text revealed how constructing inferences between visual and linguistic sign systems mediated their emotive empathy—a central, if limited, component of historical empathy.
Article
Few empirical studies have been conducted to investigate the educational uses of graphic novels. Because of this, misconceptions and stereotypes exist. This article presents findings from a study examining the effects of graphic novels on high school students’ (N = 217) reading comprehension. A graphic adaptation of a traditionally taught text (Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado”) was explored as (a) a replacement text and (b) a supplemental text. The study design utilized a factorial analysis of variance with three independent variables: text type, grade level, and gender. A reading comprehension test was developed to serve as the dependent variable. Findings indicated significant effects for all factors. At the conclusion of the study, post interviews were conducted to elicit students’ and teachers’ perceptions of interacting with the graphic text.
Article
This study analyzes how second, third, and fourth graders in a racially integrated suburban school engaged in multimodal meaning making in the context of a book club discussing Ben Hatke's graphic novel Zita the Spacegirl. Qualitative analysis of field notes and assessments indicated three overall findings: First, students responded to multimodal graphic novel texts with comments and observations that were themselves multimodal. Second, students were capable of engaging in literary analysis and discussion related to the graphic novel they read. And third, students connected multimodally to other texts, graphic novels, and life experiences.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to illustrate how graphic novel adaptations can engage adolescents in conversations about gender and society, particularly when adaptations are weighed against messaging found in a student’s everyday life such as religiously motivated gender normativity. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative analyzes of the interview, think-aloud and survey data collected from 15 adolescents who self-identified as Modern Orthodox Jewish women. Texts used for think-aloud were three graphic novel adaptations that critically adapted potentially misogynistic readings and interpretations of religious Jewish texts such as the Bible. Findings Epistemic network analysis and constructivist grounded theory show that visual elements found in each adaptation can spark deeply personal reflections on topics that are often explicitly or implicitly suppressed by social norms such as gender normativity in Jewish texts and practices. Originality/value This paper is timely and contributes to understanding the apparent cultural clash between religious conservativism and movements for social change, using the graphic novel to mediate between them.
Article
The percentage of English Language Learners (ELLs) has grown in public schools across the United States in recent decades. Curriculum materials libraries associated with teacher education programs must modify their collections to better prepare teachers for work in these increasingly diverse preschool to twelfth grade (P-12) schools. This article describes how librarians at a research institution in one of the country’s largest school districts approached a collection development project in support of young ELLs and the educators who work with them. Prior to purchasing any new materials, the librarians assessed the current collection, surveyed the literature and current practices regarding ELL collections, and researched characteristics of the local school district. Age-appropriate non-English language materials can help to support the continued development of home languages and culture, while nontraditional youth formats, including graphic novels and hi-lo books, provide ELLs with the opportunity to read developmentally appropriate materials with less text intimidation.
Article
Booklists created by library and education professionals can be valuable tools for librarians as they develop collections. Based upon the perceived discomfort felt by many school librarians in selecting graphic novels, this research analyzes the extent to which a population of elementary and middle school libraries’ collections in the Southeastern United States reflects the lists of recommended graphic novels annually produced by the Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC).
Article
Full-text available
Two high school teachers of Deaf students and two teacher educators present this article about the use of graphic novels as an important genre for teaching literacy and academic skills in the high school classroom. During a summer session for failing Deaf students at a state-sponsored school, two English teachers taught and documented their students' experiences in reading and responding to selected graphic novels. They collaborated with two teacher educators in reviewing the literature on the usefulness of graphic novels in motivating and engaging struggling readers. The article provides a description of the project, a rationale for the use of graphic novels, and examples from students' work from the summer session. Resources are included for teachers interested using graphic novels with any group of students.
Book
Rev.& expanded from Case study research in education,1988.Incl.bibliographical references,index
Article
Teachi ng with graphic novels is one alternative to traditional literacy peda-gogy, which has ignored the dynamic relationships of visual images to the written word (New London Group, 1996). There has been increasing interest in graphic novels to promote literacy (e.g., Gorman, 2003; Schwarz, 2002); however, there is scant mention of how several of these multimodal texts can be used for both fostering students' critical literacies and addressing the needs of the many English-language learners (ELLs) present in today's classroom. Intellectually substantive graphic novels such as Maus (Spiegelman, 1986, 1991) and Persepolis (see Table 1 for other graphic novels mentioned in this text) that foreground racism and immigrant otherness resonate with ELL stu-dents. These texts' multimodalities along with their engaging content ref lect-ing the diverse identities present in many classrooms work in tandem to help deepen the students' reading engagement and develop their critical literacies. For ELL students, their increased engagement can facilitate their entry and apprenticeship into important social networks that amplify opportunities for academic success in mainstream classes. My aim is threefold: In making a case for incorporating and expanding a pedagogy of multiliteracies (New London Group, 1996) in classrooms, many of which now have ELL students, I advocate the use of graphic novels to aid language pedagogy and learning as one way of implementing a multiliteracies approach that deepens reading engagement. I then present one such graphic novel, Maus, as a possible teaching resource that can facilitate critical litera-cies by using a "critical literacy tool-kit" (Morgan & Ramanathan, 2005) in the secondary school classroom. Reporting on a collaborative pilot study of teaching Maus in an English as a Second Language (ESL) high school class, I conclude by examining how graphic novels can be used to develop and draw on students' multiliteracies practices.
Article
This qualitative case study illustrates and compares the metacognitive strategies that a grade-3 female student used while reading narrative and informational texts. Data were collected from interviews, observations, and videotaping of the participant's narrative and informational text oral reading sessions and examined using thematic analysis. Findings showed that she used markedly different metacognitive strategies for each genre, resulting in comprehension difficulties while reading the informational text. This article suggests that for students to meet the challenges of informational texts, they must be taught specific metacognitive strategies while working with explicit text patterns. /// Cette étude de cas qualitative illustre et compare les stratégies métacognitives utilisées par une élève de 3e année en lisant des textes narratifs et informatifs. Les données, provenant d'entrevues, d'observations et de vidéos des séances de lecture à haute voix de ces textes par la participante, ont fait l'objet d'une analyse thématique. Les résultats indiquent que l'écolière avait recours à des stratégies métacognitives nettement différentes pour chaque genre de textes, ce qui entraînait des difficultés de compréhension pour les textes informatifs. Il semble donc que, pour que les élèves soient en mesure de saisir les textes informatifs, il faut leur enseigner des stratégies métacognitives particulières tout en tenant compte de la structure explicite du texte.
Article
Studies suggest that young children are quite limited in their knowledge about cognitive phenomena—or in their metacognition—and do relatively little monitoring of their own memory, comprehension, and other cognitive enterprises. Metacognitive knowledge is one's stored knowledge or beliefs about oneself and others as cognitive agents, about tasks, about actions or strategies, and about how all these interact to affect the outcomes of any sort of intellectual enterprise. Metacognitive experiences are conscious cognitive or affective experiences that occur during the enterprise and concern any aspect of it—often, how well it is going. Research is needed to describe and explain spontaneous developmental acquisitions in this area and find effective ways of teaching metacognitive knowledge and cognitive monitoring skills. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines the impact of the Learning Strategies Curriculum (LSC), an adolescent reading intervention program, on 6th- and 9th-grade students' reading comprehension and strategy use. Using a randomized treatment–control group design, the study compared student outcomes for these constructs for 365 students who received daily instruction in 6 LSC strategies and 290 students who did not receive intervention instruction. After 1 school year, 6th-grade students who received intervention instruction significantly outperformed students in the control group on a standardized measure of reading comprehension and reported using problem-solving strategies in reading to a greater extent than students in the control group. There were no significant differences between 9th grade intervention and control groups in reading comprehension or strategy use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the metacognitive reading strategies of five children, four to six years of age, who were reading fluently prior to formal instruction in grade one. Fluency was judged on whether the children could conduct meaningful reading (Smith, 1988) with relative smoothness (Duffy and Roehler, 1989). Methods of this case study included semi?structured interviews, role playing, observations and informal miscue analyses of oral reading. The children's personal characteristics and home environments provided a context for their reading strategies, and particular attention was given to the caregiver?child interactions which may have facilitated the development of metacognitive reading strategies. Findings suggest that each of the children utilized a variety of metacognitive reading strategies and showed individual preferences for certain strategies, as indicated by the number of times these strategies were used. The children also responded differently to particular research methods, a finding which supports the employment of a variety of methods when studying young children. Findings from this study also draw a relationship between caregiver?child interactions and the development of particular metacognitive reading strategies.
Salt Water Taffy: The Seaside Adventures of Jack and Benny: The Legend of Old Salty
  • M Loux
LOUX, M. (2008a) Salt Water Taffy: The Seaside Adventures of Jack and Benny: The Legend of Old Salty. Portland, OR: Oni.
The reader's altered state of consciousness The Readers' Advisor's Companion
  • B Sturm
STURM, B. (2001) 'The reader's altered state of consciousness', in K. D. Shearer and R. Burgin (Eds.), The Readers' Advisor's Companion. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, pp. 97–117.
Claire and the Bakery Thief. Toronto: Kids Can Press Spiral Bound The Invention of Hugo Cabret
  • O Donnell
  • L Renier
O'DONNELL, L. (2010) Food Fight: A Graphic Guide Adventure (M. Deas, Illustrator). Victoria, BC: Orca Books. POON, J. (2008) Claire and the Bakery Thief. Toronto: Kids Can Press. RENIER, A. (2005) Spiral Bound. Marietta, GA: Top Shelf. RUNTON, A. (2004) Owly. Marietta, GA: Top Shelf. SAVA, C. (2008) Pet Robots. SanDiego, CA: Worthwhile Books. SELZNICK, B. (2007) The Invention of Hugo Cabret. New York: Scholastic. SLADE, C. (2007) Korgi. Marietta, GA: Top Shelf.
Adventures in Graphica: Using Comics and Graphic Novels to Teach Comprehension
  • T Thompson
THOMPSON, T. (2008) Adventures in Graphica: Using Comics and Graphic Novels to Teach Comprehension 2–6.
Media Meltdown: A Graphic Guide Adventure (M. Deas, Illustrator)
  • O Donnell
O'DONNELL, L. (2009a) Media Meltdown: A Graphic Guide Adventure (M. Deas, Illustrator). Victoria, BC: Orca Books.
Comics and Sequential Art Metacognition and cognitive monitoring
  • W Eisner
EISNER, W. (1985) Comics and Sequential Art. Tamarac, FL: Poorhouse Press. FLAVELL, J. H. (1979) Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. American Psychologist, 34.10, pp. 906–911.
Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read Fostering independent learn-ing. The Reading Teacher
  • F Smith
  • Erlbaum
  • D S Strickland
  • L M Morrow
  • W Girling-Butcher
  • G Phillips
SMITH, F. (2004) Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. STRICKLAND, D. S., MORROW, L. M., GIRLING-BUTCHER, W., PHILLIPS, G. and CLAY, M. (1991) Fostering independent learn-ing. The Reading Teacher, 44.9, pp. 694–697.
Graphic novels in the modern English Language Arts classroom: acknowledging the complexity of literacy
  • J Park
PARK, J. (2010) 'Graphic novels in the modern English Language Arts classroom: acknowledging the complexity of literacy', in M. C. Courtland and T. Gambell (Eds.), Literature, Media & Multilitera-cies in Adolescent Language Arts. Vancouver, BC: Pacific Educational Press, pp. 173–188.
Jellaby: Monster in the City Binky the Space Cat. Toronto, ON: Kids Can Press Alison Dare: Little Miss Adventures (J. Bone, illus-trator) Alison Dare: The Heart of the Maiden (J. Bone, illus-trator). Toronto, ON: Tundra Books
  • M Smith
  • J Torres
  • Tundra Books
  • J Torres
SMITH, M. (2008) The Tale of Despereaux. Somerville, MS: Candlewick Press. SOO, K. (2009) Jellaby: Monster in the City. New York: Hyperion. SPIRES, A. (2009) Binky the Space Cat. Toronto, ON: Kids Can Press. TORRES, J. (2002a) Alison Dare: Little Miss Adventures (J. Bone, illus-trator). Toronto, ON: Tundra Books. TORRES, J. (2002b) Alison Dare: The Heart of the Maiden (J. Bone, illus-trator). Toronto, ON: Tundra Books. CONTACT THE AUTHOR Beverley Brenna, Curriculum Studies, College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, 3350– 28 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N OX1. e-mail: bev.brenna@usask.ca
Metacognitive skills and read-ing Handbook of Reading Research
  • L Brown
References BAKER, L. and BROWN, A. (1984) 'Metacognitive skills and read-ing', in P. D. Pearson (Ed.) Handbook of Reading Research. New York:
Considering primary-aged English Language Learners’ peripherality and legitimacy in small group discussions about graphic novels Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE
  • A Bomphray
Fostering independent learning
  • Strickland