Article

Problemas psicológicos asociados al trasplante de órganos

International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.79). 01/2005; 5(1697–2600).
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT

El trasplante de órganos es una alternativa terapéutica para aquellos pacientes que tienen problemas graves en el funcionamiento de un órgano vital: corazón, hígado, pulmón, etc. Dada la relevancia de este tema, en el presente estudio teórico analizamos los principales problemas psicológicos asociados al trasplante de órganos. Concretamente, hemos tenido en cuenta los siguientes apartados: 1) Repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los pacientes: delirium, trastornos sexuales, trastornos del estado de ánimo, trastornos de ansiedad, fantasías sobre el donante, insatisfacción con la imagen corporal y otros trastornos; 2) variables psicosociales que influyen en las repercusiones psicológicas asociadas al trasplante de órganos: apoyo familiar, trastornos psicológicos en los familiares, hospitalización, expectativas pre y post-trasplante, estrategias de afrontamiento, duración de la enfermedad, etiología del trasplante, procedencia del órgano implantado y otras variables; 3) fases psicológicas en los trasplantados renales, hepáticos y cardíacos en función de diferentes periodos temporales de comparación; 4) calidad de vida en los trasplantados y variables que la predicen: adherencia terapéutica, hospitalización, apoyo familiar, expectativas hacia el trasplante y etiología del trasplante; y 5) repercusiones psicológicas del trasplante de órganos en los familiares, teniendo en cuenta la influencia que ejerce el apoyo social sobre la salud mental de estos familiares.

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Available from: Antonio Galán Rodríguez, Jan 08, 2015
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    • "Organ transplant is a therapeutic alternative for patients who suffer some dysfunction in one of their vital organs, which allows them to live for years with good quality of life (Magaz, 2006). Despite this, diverse psychological complications have sometimes also been observed: anxiety, depression, sexual dysfunctions, dissatisfaction with body image, feelings of guilt about the death of the donor, fantasies about the donor, and a feeling of excessive gratitude toward the donor's family (Kaba, Thompson, Burnard, Edwards, and Theodosopoulou, 2005; Pérez, Martín, and Galán, 2005). In addition, some studies show that patients go through different psychological stages (Pérez-San-Gregorio, Martín-Rodríguez, and Galán-Rodríguez, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this ex post facto investigation is to determine whether there are differences in a series of psychosocial variables (anxiety, depression, Type A behavior pattern, and social support), which can be assessed immediately after transplantation, between the transplanted patients who die and those who are still alive one year after the transplant. From a group of 166 transplanted patients, we selected two subgroups (22 living transplanted patients and 22 deceased transplanted patients) that were homogeneous in the main sociodemographic and clinical variables. We used a psychosocial survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Type A Characteristics Checklist, and the Scale for the Assessment of Social Support. The results showed that the patients who subsequently died, had higher levels of depression, and particularly anxiety, immediately after the transplant. In contrast, the subgroups did not differ in Type A behavior pattern or level of social support. We conclude that symptoms of anxiety and depression at that moment of the medical process, may allow its to distinguish patients who will die from those who will survive.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology
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    • "For example, in an investigation carried out with liver transplant patients, it was found that 60% of the patients considered that their life had not become normalized after transplantation, mainly due to the presence of diverse physical and psychological problems: secondary effects of medication, fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, osteoporosis, and depression (Holzner et al., 2001). Along these lines, in a review by Pérez, Martín, and Galán (2005), the authors concluded that transplant patients could suffer from various psychological complications, such as: immediate post-operation delirium caused by immunosupressor medication, sexual disorders caused either by physical (the disease itself or the medication) or psychological factors (fear of harming the transplanted organ), mood disorders that decrease postoperation adherence to treatment and that can cause organ rejection, anxiety disorders, especially when patients are discharged, fantasies about the donor that can lead to feelings of guilt because they think the donor died so they could live, and dissatisfaction with body image, because they perceive the organ as a foreign object that transfers the donor's traits to them. Other studies have attempted to identify the most stressful situations for patients, which can have negative consequences on their evolution: for example, uncertainty about their future health, secondary effects of medication, limitations associated with their physical status, and medical prescriptions (Achille et al., 2004; Dew, Myaskovsky, Switzer, DiMartini, & Kormos, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation is to analyze the psychological differences of patients and their relatives according to the formers' post-transplantation anxiety. We used two groups of participants: transplant patients (n = 166) and close relatives (n = 166). Four questionnaires were applied: a Psychological Survey (to both groups), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Quality of Life Questionnaire (to the transplant patients), and the Leeds Scales for the Self-Assessment of Anxiety and Depression (to the relatives). Participants were assessed twice: post-Intensive Care Unit (ICU; when patients were moved from the ICU to the Transplantation Unit) and post-hospital (one year after transplant). Results showed that high anxiety in patients just after organ transplant was related to an increase of anxiety and depression symptoms both in patients and relatives one year after transplant; it was also related to a decrease in the quality of life of these patients.
    Preview · Article · May 2008 · The Spanish Journal of Psychology
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    • "For example, in an investigation carried out with liver transplant patients, it was found that 60% of the patients considered that their life had not become normalized after transplantation, mainly due to the presence of diverse physical and psychological problems: secondary effects of medication, fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, osteoporosis, and depression (Holzner et al., 2001). Along these lines, in a review by Pérez, Martín, and Galán (2005), the authors concluded that transplant patients could suffer from various psychological complications, such as: immediate post-operation delirium caused by immunosupressor medication, sexual disorders caused either by physical (the disease itself or the medication) or psychological factors (fear of harming the transplanted organ), mood disorders that decrease postoperation adherence to treatment and that can cause organ rejection, anxiety disorders, especially when patients are discharged, fantasies about the donor that can lead to feelings of guilt because they think the donor died so they could live, and dissatisfaction with body image, because they perceive the organ as a foreign object that transfers the donor's traits to them. Other studies have attempted to identify the most stressful situations for patients, which can have negative consequences on their evolution: for example, uncertainty about their future health, secondary effects of medication, limitations associated with their physical status, and medical prescriptions (Achille et al., 2004; Dew, Myaskovsky, Switzer, DiMartini, & Kormos, 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation is to analyze the psychological differences of patients and their relatives according to the formers’ post-transplantation anxiety. We used two groups of participants: transplant patients (n = 166) and close relatives (n = 166). Four questionnaires were applied: a Psychological Survey (to both groups), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Quality of Life Questionnaire (to the transplant patients), and the Leeds Scales for the Self Assessment of Anxiety and Depression (to the relatives). Participants were assessed twice: post-Intensive Care Unit (ICU. when patients were moved from the ICU to the Transplantation Unit) and post-hospital (one year after transplant). Results showed that high anxiety in patients just after organ transplant was related to an increase of anxiety and depression symptoms both in patients and relatives one year after transplant. it was also related to a decrease in the quality of life of these patients. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar las diferencias psicológicas en pacientes y familiares en función de la ansiedad post-trasplante. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 166 trasplantados y los 166 familiares más allegados de estos pacientes. Empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial (en ambos grupos), la Escala de Ansiedad y Depresión en Hospital y el Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida (en el grupo de trasplantados) y las Escalas de Ansiedad y Depresión de Leeds (en el grupo de familiares). La evaluación psicológica se realizó en dos fases: post-UCI (cuando a los pacientes se les daba el alta de la UCI pero continuaban ingresados en el hospital, concretamente, en la Unidad de Trasplantes) y post-hospitalaria (cuando transcurría un año del alta hospitalaria de los pacientes tras el implante). Los resultados mostraron que un nivel alto de ansiedad en los pacientes tras el trasplante, aumentaba al año la sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva de los pacientes y de sus familiares y, además, empeoraba la calidad de vida de los trasplantados.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2008
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