ArticlePDF Available

Blueberry as functional food and dietary supplement: The natural way to ensure holistic health

  • Reprogene, USA

Abstract and Figures

Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), a fruit crop belonging to family Ericaceae is regarded a repository of functional phytochemi- cals. Its components, phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and cinnamic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanidins) have been credited to confer manifold healthy properties. The berries have been evidenced to impart relief from obesity, diabetes, retinal injury, heart, liver, stomach and kidney inflammation, tumours, microbial infection, cognitive decline and bone loss. Consumer interest in these berries is reflected in the slew of fortified-foods. The nutraceutical potentials of these nutrient pow- erhouses warrant deeper investigation for their optimal exploitation. This literature review elucidates the probable modes of biological actions, current status and future scopes of blueberry for prcessed food and dietary supplement development. Relevant information has been mined from PUBMED, SCOPUS and Google scholar database and assembled into an insightful account.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 7 (2014) 133–143
IOS Press
Blueberry as functional food and dietary
supplement: The natural way to ensure
holistic health
Seema Patel
Department of Biotechnology, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
Abstract. Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), a fruit crop belonging to family Ericaceae is regarded a repository of functional phytochemi-
cals. Its components, phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and cinnamic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanidins)
have been credited to confer manifold healthy properties. The berries have been evidenced to impart relief from obesity, diabetes,
retinal injury, heart, liver, stomach and kidney inflammation, tumours, microbial infection, cognitive decline and bone loss.
Consumer interest in these berries is reflected in the slew of fortified-foods. The nutraceutical potentials of these nutrient pow-
erhouses warrant deeper investigation for their optimal exploitation. This literature review elucidates the probable modes of
biological actions, current status and future scopes of blueberry for prcessed food and dietary supplement development. Relevant
information has been mined from PUBMED, SCOPUS and Google scholar database and assembled into an insightful account.
Keywords: Blueberry, anthocyanin, antioxidant, anticancer, neuro-protection, functional food
1. Introduction
Berries have been hailed as excellent reserves of health-restoring phyto-chemicals. The popular berries are viz.
strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cranberries, red currants, black currants, chokeberries, wolfber-
ries, huckleberries and lingonberries. Dietary enrichment with the berries has emerged as an essential sector of
nutritional improvement. Unarguably, blueberry scores the highest in terms of antioxidants and is regarded as a
quintessential functional food ingredient. Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) belongs to the family Ericaceae (heath fam-
ily, to which belong cranberry, azalea and rhododendron). This plant is native to the USA and Southern Canada,
growing wild in hilly and woodland regions. The three prominent varieties grown are highbush (V. corymbosum,
V. ashei), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and evergreen (V. darrowii). These plants thrive in acidic soil and require ample
sunlight. The shrubs are medium-sized and bear clusters of blue to purple fruits with ashen coatings (Fig. 1). The
berries are delicious with sweet, tart, tangy taste. The ripe berries are harvested in summer, ideally from May to
October. The USA is the leading producer, Maine, Michigan, Oregon, Washington, New Jersey, Florida, Georgia
and North Carolina being the major contributing states. However, the cultivation has now proliferated to Europe,
Asia, Africa and Australia. The berries are relished straight off the shrubs or processed into an array of delectable
recipes. The fruits are generally processed into jam, syrup, pie, soup, tart, cobbler, smoothie, pancake, muffin, cup-
cake, salsa, salad, lemonade, waffles, ready-to eat breakfast cereals, yoghurts and beverages. The berries are known
to be nutrient storehouse with plentiful fibres, tannins, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, ellagic acid,
Corresponding author: Seema Patel, Department of Biotechnology, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, 144402 Punjab, India. Tel.:
+949 981 1629; E-mail:
ISSN 1973-798X/14/$27.50 © 2014 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved
134 S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption
Fig. 1. Validated ameliorative properties of blueberry.
Fig. 2. Structures of major bioactive compounds in blueberry.
omega-3 fatty acids, carotenoids, minerals etc. (Fig. 2). A variety of anthocyanins occur in blueberry, the chief
types being monoarabinosides, monoglucosides and monogalactosides of cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, delphinidin
and malvidin. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) human nutrition center recommends its inclusion
in diet. The approximate nutrient profile of blueberries is presented in Table 1. An appreciable gamut of health
benefits viz. antioxidant, anti-inflammation, neuro-protection, anti-metastatic, cardio-protective, antimicrobial, reno-
protective, opthalmoprotective, anti-diabetic, hepato-protective, gastro-protective, anti-osteoporotic, anti-aging have
been reported. In the USA, it has become an indispensable ingredient of functional food sector. This review presents
an updated account of the nutritional advantages of blueberry with special emphasis on functionality.
2. Roles in healthcare
2.1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammation
The total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry was investigated. Both 2, 2-azino-bis (ABTS)
and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays revealed its strong total antioxidant capacity. Abundance of
S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption 135
Table 1
Phytochemical profile of blueberry (courtesy: USDA national nutrient database)
Nutrients per 100 g
Proximate Energy 57 Kcal
Protein 0.74 g
Fat 0.33 g
Carbohydrate 14.49 g
Dietary fiber 2.40 g
Ash 0.24 g
Minerals Calcium 6.00 mg
Copper 0.28 mg
Iron 0.06 mg
Magnesium 6.00 mg
Manganese 0.34 mg
Phosphorus 12.00 mg
Potassium 77.00 mg
Selenium 0.10 g
Sodium 1.00 mg
Zinc 0.16 mg
Vitamins Ascorbic acid 9.70 mg
Thiamin 0.04 mg
Riboflavin 0.04 mg
Niacin 0.42 mg
Pantothenic caid 0.12 mg
Pyridixine 0.05 mg
Folic acid 6.00 g
Retinol 54.00 IU
Tocopherol 0.57 mg ATE
*IU=Intenational Units, *ATE=Alpha tocopherol equivalent.
proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins were found responsible for enhancing redox status of body [1]. Enzymatic
hydrolysis of V. corymbosum was carried out using a range of commercial food-grade carbohydrase AMG and protease
Alcalase to obtain water soluble compounds. Further, their protective effect was investigated against H2O2-induced
damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79-4 cell line. The hydrolysates showed high total phenolic content
as well as radical scavenging activities. The cells were also shielded against lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and
apoptotic body formation in a dose-dependent manner [2]. Anti-inflammatory effect of blueberry anthocyanins was
evaluated on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced bowel disease model of mice. After administering daily
dosage of 40 mg/kg for 6 days, the mice were euthanized. The extract conferred strong protection against colonic
damage, and diarrhoea risk could be averted. Reduction in the levels of nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, interleukin
(IL-12), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), and interferon gamma (IFN-) was reported [3]. It was examined whether
consumption of 250 g of blueberries daily for 6 weeks and 375g given 1 h prior to 2.5 h of running is capable of
combating oxidative stress, inflammation and immune changes. Increase in F2-isoprostanes and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-
deoxyuridine was significantly lower and plasma IL-10 and natural killer (NK) cell counts were significantly greater in
the blood of blueberry diet-fed group. Oxidative stress was substantially reduced and anti-inflammatory cytokine level
improved following the berry consumption [4]. The mean serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was
significantly higher after the intake of 75 g blueberry. It was inferred that the berry diet might attenuate postprandial
stress imposed by high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast [5]. It was reported that anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins-
rich fractions from fermented blueberry-blackberry wine can reduce lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory
response in mouse macrophages via the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B)-mediated pathway [6].
136 S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption
2.2. Diabetes and obesity management
Diabetes begets many incapacitating ailments. Standard drugs though effective in mitigating the disease, result in
undesirable health conditions. Metformin is a potent antidiabetic drug but causes multiple side effects viz. diarrhoea,
nausea, gas, chest pain and allergy. So, complication-free drugs are constantly sought after in diabetes management.
It was demonstrated that anthocyanin isolated from V. angustifolium berries has the potency to alleviate symptoms of
hyperglycaemia in diabetic C57b1/6J mice. Force-feeding with a phenolic-rich extract and an anthocyanin-enriched
fraction (500 mg/kg) formulated with an emulsifier lowered the elevated blood glucose levels by 33 and 51%,
respectively. The potency compared well with metformin and the efficacy was more pronounced when administered
with the delivery system [7]. A supplement of blueberry powder was assessed for its protective effect against adipose
tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice. Attenuation in upregulation of inflammatory
genes and protection from insulin resistance was conspicuous [8]. A double-blind, randomized study was conducted
to assess the impact of the berry diet on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity. Two varieties of
highbush blueberries ‘Tifblue’ (V. ashei) and ‘Rubel’ (V. corymbosum) were freeze-dried and crushed. Consumption
of the berry smoothie twice daily for 6 weeks led to improvement of insulin sensitivity in obese, non-diabetic as well as
insulin-resistant participants. Diabetes-ameliorating role of blueberries came forth [9]. It was observed that inclusion
of 3% blueberry pomace was effective in restoring the fructose-induced metabolic anomalies, including reduction
in plasma cholesterol and abdominal fat. These findings lay the foundation for possible battle against obesity [10].
The anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts was investigated on 3T3-L1 cells and
high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The extracts exerted inhibitory effect on adipogenesis through the down-regulation
of C/EBP, C/EBP, and PPARand the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Oral
administration of the peel extract significantly reduced high-fat-diet-induced body weight gain without affecting
food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels
were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased, leading to lowering of body weight
[11]. The potential of a wild blueberry-enriched diet to improve blood lipid profile and to modulate the expression
of genes related to lipid homeostasis was investigated in obese Zucker rats. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol
concentrations were significantly lower in the rats after 8% blueberry consumption for 8 weeks. The expression
of fatty acid synthase was significantly decreased in both the liver and abdominal adipose tissue. It improved lipid
profiles and modulated the expression of key enzymes and transcription factors of lipid metabolism in severely
dyslipidaemic rats [12].
2.3. Opthalmo-protective
Potential of blueberries in blocking detrimental effects of light abuse on eyes have been studied. The effect of
Chinese blueberries consumption on retinal damage upon light exposure was determined in pigmented rabbits.
Feeding the animals with whole blueberries at a dosage of 1.2–4.9 g/kg daily for 4 weeks prior to light exposure
effectively reduced the extent of harm to the retinas as assessed by electroretinogram [13]. Further, the protective
effect of the berry anthocyanins on retinal pigment epithelium was evaluated against aging and visible or UV light-
induced injuries. Delayed aging and apoptosis as well as the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF) to normalcy were observed [14]. Blueberry-enriched diet was investigated as a potential protectant against
light-induced retinopathy. When given as gavage for 2 to 7 weeks before subjecting to 2 hours of intense light regimen,
retinal protection was observed. Placebo-fed rats suffered from damage in the superior hemiretina, which the berry
supplemented group escaped [15].
2.4. Cardio-protective and hypotensive
Growing body of evidences suggest that the intake of flavonoid-rich foods exerts cardiovascular benefits. So,
amelioration of cardiac disorders by blueberry-fortified diet was assessed. The cardio-protective property of a 3
month berry-enriched diet was assessed in rats. Owing to richness in antioxidant, it protected against reactive oxygen
species (ROS) - induced ischemic injuries. Development of post-myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure
was notably blunted [16]. The nutritional effect of V. angustifolium consumption was assessed on the markers of
S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption 137
oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in 18 male volunteers with risk factors for cardiovascular
disease. Intake of the drink for 6 weeks spaced by a 6 week flushing significantly reduced the levels of endogenously
oxidized DNA bases and H2O2-induced DNA damage [17]. The effect of a 10 week blueberry supplementation on
blood pressure and vascular reactivity was investigated in rats fed a high-fat diet. The supplementation with 2% (w/w)
blueberry showed significant reductions in systolic blood pressure. The aorta relaxation was significantly greater in
response to acetylcholine which confirmed the role of blueberry in improving contractile machinery of endothelial
layer [18].
2.5. Hepatoprotective
The possible protective effects of blueberry blended with probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium
infantis was estimated on D-galactosamine and LPS-induced acute liver injury model of rats. After intake, Alanine
aminotransferase levels were reported to decrease significantly. Also, bilirubin, liver TNF-and myeloperoxidase
content decreased significantly whereas liver glutathione values increased significantly [19]. It was observed that
dietary blueberry improves CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis by reducing hepatocyte injury and lipid peroxidation
in rat model. The level of liver inflammation marker, hyaluronic acid and alanine aminotransferase were lowered
considerably, whereas antioxidant status was promoted [20]. Polyphenol-rich extracts of Chinese blueberries inhibited
the triglyceride deposition in the hepatocellular HepG2 cells [13]. Further, the effects of blueberry were evaluated
in rats with induced-hepatic fibrosis. After 12 weeks of the administration, the rats were sacrificed. The group
administered with blueberry had reduced pathological conditions, manifested in lower collagen build-up and structural
anomalies. Stress deduction by amplifying SOD and GSH content and slashing MDA level was reckoned to be the
therapeutic mode [21].
2.6. As prebiotics
Probiotics augmentation by blueberries is a comparatively nascent field in nutrition research. In pursuit to determine
prebiotic potential of blueberry, both in vitro and in vivo investigations were carried out. When added to mixed
faecal bacteria cultures derived from healthy human volunteers, noticeable growth in Lactobacillus rhamnosus and
Bifidobacterium breve population was observed. The extract when given in gavage to rats for 6 days, probiotics
density increased Molan et al. [22]. Also, a 6 week consumption of V. angustifolium drink led to the enhancement
in Bifidobacterium spp. count. High polyphenol and fiber content were credited for inducing the proliferation of
probiotics [23]. For promotion of gut health, prebiotic role of blueberries should certainly be studied more intensely
[24]. The berry drink resulted in significant increase of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis population, as analyzed
in the faeces of volunteers. The predominance of B. longum subsp. longum and B. adolescentis was evident [25].
2.7. Antimicrobial
Blueberry has been shown effective against an array of food pathogens, owing to its abundance in phenolic com-
ponents. The inhibitory effect of blueberry was evaluated on Giardia duodenalis, the etiological agent of giardiasis.
The berry extract caused inhibition of trophozoites of the protozoa when grown in vitro [26]. Salmonella serotype
Enteritidis is notorious for causing fever, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps. Blueberry phenolics supplemented in
tryptic soy broth showed growth inhibition towards this pathogen [27]. The antimicrobial effects of V. angustifolium
extracts were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium by
agar diffusion assay. The flavanol proanthocyanidin demonstrated the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration with
strongest inhibitory effect towards L. monocytogenes [28].
2.8. Anticancer
Substantial evidences supporting the claims of dysplasia prevention, anti-angiogenesis and anti-metastasis by
blueberries have accumulated in recent times. It was reported that blueberries owing to their high content of ellagic
acid, foil endogenous oxidative DNA damage leading to diminished cancer risks [29]. The anti-inflammatory role of
138 S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption
blueberry husks in synergy with probiotics in dextran sulphate sodium-induced colorectal tumour models of rat was
evaluated. Reduction in the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions was observed, attributable to the higher
level of butyric acid in distal colon [30]. Excess oestrogen level is a risk factor for breast cancer. It was determined
whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17estradiol (E2)-induced mammary tumours by altering oestrogen
metabolism. At 6 weeks, the E2-treatment caused 48-fold increase in cytochrome P4501A1 in rat models which
was attenuated to 21-fold by the supplement. Mammary tumorigenesis instances were played down by suppressing
the levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes [31]. The antitumor activity of whole blueberry powder was demonstrated
against MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer in mice. On ingestion of 5% and 10% blueberry diet, tumour size
showed noticeable regression. The caspase 3-activated apoptosis of cancerous cells was greater in the 10% fortified
diet. Genes responsible for inflammation, cancer and metastasis were significantly down-regulated [32]. Their role
in retarding MDA-MD-231 cell proliferation was further evaluated. The phenolic acids showed potential to target the
daughter or progenitor cells in the mammary gland, capable of transformation into malignant cells [33]. Blueberry
diet was effective in reducing mammary tissue proliferation in ACI rat mammary tumor model. At 5% dose, tumor
appearance was delayed for about 24 days, presumably by downregulation of CYP1A1 expression [34]. Cancer stem
cells demonstrate resistance to chemo and radiation therapy,which enables their enrichment. Blueberry phytochemical
pterostilbene was evaluated against irradiation-enriched cancer stem cells. The bioactive dose-dependently reduced
the enrichment of human hepatocellular carcinoma upon irradiation. Further, it prevented tumour sphere formation,
reduced CD133 gene expression, and suppressed invasion and migration abilities as well as increasing apoptosis of
the cells. Aggression of liver cancers might be checked by harnessing pterostilbene [35]. The effect of blueberry
extracts was evaluated on B16-F10 metastatic melanoma murine cells. The anthocyanin rich-fraction obtained from
cultivar Torro possessed the highest antioxidant activity and inhibited the cancer cell proliferation at concentrations
higher than 500 g/ml. Also, the fraction stimulated apoptosis and increased total lactate dehydrogenase activity in
the cancer cells [36].
2.9. Reno-protective
It was reported that a 3% blueberry diet fed for 8 weeks is capable of protecting the kidneys from oxidative damage
in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. In the berry-administered group, systolic blood pressure was 19%
lower at week 4 and 30% lower at week 6 compared to control. Also, reduced markers of renal oxidative stress,
such as proteinuria and kidney nitrites were observed [37]. The renoprotective effect of a blueberry-enriched diet
was further assessed in rat models of hypertension. The animals fed with the berry diet for 6 or 12 weeks exhibited
lower blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate and decreased renovascular resistance. Significant fall
in total ROS, peroxynitrite and superoxide production rates were observed in kidney tissues. Antioxidant status
showed improvement, evident from the renal glutathione and catalase activities. However, only the long-term feeding
contributed to the therapeutic value [38].
2.10. Neuroprotective and senescence retardant
Oxidative stress, microglial activation and pro-inflammatory factors lead to aging. Neuro-degeneration predisposes
to debilitating Alzheimer’s disease. A convincing set of findings have emerged to substantiate the neuroprotective
potential of blueberries. The ability of blueberries in preventing aggregation of amyloid-beta (A) into fibrillar
amyloid plaques has been evaluated. Microglial proinflammatory activation caused neuronal and synaptic damage,
leading to cognitive impairment. The berry extract significantly enhanced the microglial clearance of A, inhibited
the aggregation of A1-42 and suppressed microglial activation, all via suppression of the p44/42 MAPK module.
Blueberries, by virtue of their anthocyanin content are presumed to improve neuronal signalling, boost memory func-
tion and delay the onset of geriatric dementia [39]. The biological effect of daily consumption of V. angustifolium
juice was investigated in older adults with early stage of memory decline. After 12 weeks of the potion administration,
improved ability of paired-associate learning and word list recall was noticed. Also, reduced depressive symptoms
were reported. Blueberry supplementation holds promise in promoting neuro-cognitive health [40]. The presence of
potent NADPH oxidase inhibitors in Alaskan blueberries was confirmed from the underlying experiment. Incubation
of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with nonpolar blueberry fractions obstructed the clustering of lipid rafts
S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption 139
into macrodomains, disrupting NADPH oxidase assembly therein and abolishing ROS production. Inflammation and
oxidative stress were suppressed, resulting in lowered degeneration of central nervous system [41]. The berry extracts
when fed for 6–8 weeks, elevated long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, vital for memory formation. The nor-
malization of long-term potentiation may be due to the blueberry diet preventing a decline in synaptic strength. Phos-
phorylation of a key tyrosine residue on the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor was enhanced by the diet,
which restored cognitive impairment [42]. The importance of a nutraceutical ‘NT-020’ formulated of blueberry, green
tea and carnosine in promoting the proliferation of stem cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. When given as gavage
at a dose of 135 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks, a decreased number of OX6 MHC II-positive cells, increased neurogenesis
and increased number of proliferating cells were found in rats [43]. The effects of blueberry polyphenols was examined
on the lifespan and aging of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The complex mixture of blueberry polyphenols was
shown to stretch the longevity and impede the aging-related declines. The resistance to acute heat stress was attributed
to the proanthocyanidin compounds [44]. Supplementing aged hosts with 2% blueberry in the diet increased central
nervous system graft growth and neuronal survival against inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and oxidative stress on intraoc-
ular hippocampal grafts. Moderation in immunoreactivity led to decrease in microglial activation and astrogliosis [45].
Blueberry extract was reported to be neuroprotective against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in all viz. embryonic, middle-
age or old-age rats. Protection of the primary hippocampal neurons by the berry extract was presumed to be mediated
through alteration in stress signalling and shielding from the hazards of ROS. Reversal of the hippocampal Ca2+
dysregulation leads to improvement in spatial memory [46]. Serratia vaccinii-fermented blueberry juice was recruited
to prevent and treat neurodegenerative disorders. When neuronal cell culture was incubated with the juice, significant
increment in the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz. CAT and SOD was observed. Also, the juice could shield the
H2O2-induced oxidative stress and resultant cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of p38- and JNK-
dependent survival pathways and blockage of MEK1/2- and ERK1/2-mediated cell death was deduced to be the molec-
ular approach [47]. The effect of a blueberry-rich diet was investigated in young rats using a spatial working memory
paradigm, the delayed non-match task, using an eight-arm radial maze. A 7-week supplementation with 2% (w/w)
blueberry, improvement in the spatial memory performance was observed. The cognitive augmentation was due to the
activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), increased total cAMP-response element-binding protein
(CREB) and elevated levels of pro- and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus [48].
2.11. Osteoprotective
Bone mass build-up by blueberry-based diet consumption was investigated. Ovariectomy leads to oestrogen defi-
ciency and consequent bone loss. High bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation is
derived to be the cause. The possible role of dietary blueberry in bone density retention was studied. When adminis-
tered to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal days 20 to 34, ovariectomy-induced bone
loss could be prevented in adult life. This protective effect was interpreted to be due to suppression of osteoblastic
cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after the ovary removal [49]. Further, the prevention
of ovariectomy-induced bone cell senescence was reconfirmed in adult rats even after only 14 days consumption of
blueberry prior to puberty [50]. The effect of blueberry consumption was investigated in weanling rats. When AIN-
93G diet supplemented with 10% whole blueberry was administered to 21 day old rats for two weeks, remarkable
increase in bone formation was reported. Significantly increased bone mass after feeding 5% BB extracts was also
observed in a TEN (total enteral nutrition) rat model in which daily caloric and food intake was precisely controlled.
Expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand) a protein essential for osteoclast formation was
dose-dependently decreased in the femur of BB animals. In addition, expression of PPAR(peroxisome proliferator-
activated receptor ) which regulates bone marrow adipogenesis was suppressed in BB diet rats compared to non-BB
diet controls [51].
3. Tackling post-harvest loss and bioavailability enhancement
Blueberries are delicate and are prone to fungal decay, shrivelling, and mechanical damage. So, maintenance of
post-harvest fruit quality during transportation and storage is very challenging. The effect of transport temperature
140 S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption
on the quality of V. corymbosum was evaluated. Neither cultivar remained marketable after 6 days or 16 days
at room temperature or 10C. The ‘Duke’ cultivar had slightly lower weight loss than ‘Bluetta,’ but difference
between the cultivars was not significant after 12 days of storage. Organic acid content declined in both culti-
vars during storage [52]. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea spoils blueberries during transportation, leading
to huge economic losses. It was demonstrated that SO2fumigation could be an effective method for reducing the
risk of fungal damage. The efficacy was tremendous as seen in ‘Brigitta’ and ‘Liberty’ cultivars, which contained
97.2% to 97.5% mold in untreated form, which could be minimized to 7.9% to 6.1% in the treated forms [53]. The
potentials of plant essential oils and plant oil-derived biofungicides were investigated to check fungi on the berries.
When treated under refrigeration for a week, Sporatec volatiles (formulated from rosemary, clove, and thyme oils)
significantly reduced fungi, though other oils failed to elicit appreciable antifungal activity. These plant-derived
fungicides have limited application possibilities for they negatively affected the sensory attributes of the berries
Processing techniques play important role in maximum retention of bioactive components. Continuous vacuum-belt
drying was evaluated as a means to produce high-quality powders from blueberry slurries, with minimal deterioration
to anthocyanins. Vacuum-belt drying at 80C with 0.3 kg maltodextrin/kg dry solids produced non-hygroscopic
powders with anthocyanin content similar to freeze-dried powders [55]. The absorption of phenolic and anthocyanin
content after consumption of one portion (300 g) of minimally processed blueberry pur´
ee was investigated. Phenolic
content was higher in blanched compared to non-blanched pur´
ee. Blanching enhanced anthocyanin absorption from
the gut [56]. Osmotic dehydration has proven to be an ideal method of postharvest shelf-life prolongation. Dehydration
at high tempetature (60 and 70C) led to substantial loss of phenolic compounds and unfavorable changes in the texture
of the final product. Pretreatment of the berries with pectinases and lipases, led to increase in dry matter content with
a low loss of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanin components (petunidin-3-galactoside and petunidin-3-glucoside)
were retained [57].
4. Future directions
The broad spectrum therapeutic possibilities delineate blueberries as nutrient-dense food source. To ensure maxi-
mum bioaccessibility of blueberry, the metabolites generated and their fate in the gut should be investigated. Studies
have shown that anthocyanins are metabolized by the intestinal microflora to respective phenyl-alkyl acids, which can
be further metabolized to benzoic acid. Hippuric acid content in urine indicates that metabolism and excretion of blue-
berry anthocyanin is based on diet duration [58]. Experiment on a TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper
gastrointestinal tract showed that polyphenol-rich extract of blueberry generates anthocyanins, which get partially
destroyed during transport through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery release [59]. Metabolism and
absorption of other functional components should be probed. New cultivars with improved photochemical profiles
should be bred. In this regard, cultivated and wild blueberries were compared for their antioxidant effects. Wild
genotypes showed more antioxidants than cultivated counterparts. COMET assay confirmed the stronger action on
DNA protection in wild samples [60]. So, wild genotypes must be preserved. Pest management and post-harvest
storage are challenging issues that need to be addressed. Blueberries should be introduced to wider market and grown
globally. Blueberry-based food innovation should be explored more intensely. Assortment of nutrient-rich botanicals
could be combined with blueberries to develop functional foods. The juices of ac¸a´
ı, black cherry, grape, cranberry,
pomegranate juice are supposed to boost the goodness of blueberry drinks, in terms of sensory appeal and antioxi-
dant content. A beverage was successfully developed by blending blueberries with apples, cranberries, gingers and
supplementing amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The beverage retained sensory appeal while possessing phenolic
content, FRAP value and % inhibition of LDL oxidation in amount enough to be a cardio-protective [61]. Efficient
protocols for anthocyanin extraction should be emphasized. The berry skins are rich in anthocyanins, cinnamic
acid derivatives and flavonol-glycosides. So, recovery of these polyphenolics from the processing wastes must be
emphasized. Other ailment management possibilities should be uncovered. Blueberry holds immense promise for
prevention of hypertension, promotion of healthy aging and reduction of cancer incidences. Berries are known to
control pathogenic microorganisms. More studies on the use of blueberry as a natural antimicrobial in food products
are warranted.
S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption 141
5. Conclusions
The review emphasizes the blueberry-based novel nutraceutical development. The plethora of health benefits sug-
gest that research should be directed in understanding the bioactive components of blueberry and precise mechanisms
mediating the disease remediation. Its ingestion must be encouraged for valorisation of immunity against nagging
health threats. Neo-consumers should be awakened about its multiplicity of goodness. Inclusion of this berry in food
platter will certainly be an assured step towards health restoration. Time is ripe for popularization of the berry beyond
North America.
Disclosure of interest
There is no conflict of interest in submission of this manuscript.
[1] Huang W-Y, Zhang H-C, Liu W-X, Li C-Y. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic compositions of blueberry, blackberry and strawberry
in Nanjing. J Zhejiang University-Sci B. 2012;13:94-102.
[2] Senevirathne M, Kim S-H, Jeon Y-J. Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)
against hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line. Nutr Res Pract. 2010;4:183-90.
[3] Wu L-H, Xu Z-L, Dong D, He S-A, Yu H. Protective effect of anthoyanins extract from blueberry on TNBS-induced IBD model of mice.
Evid Based Complement Altern Med PMID. 2011; doi:10.1093/ecam/neq040
[4] McAnulty LS, Nieman DC, Dumke CL, Shooter LA, Henson DA, Utter AC, Milne G, McAnulty SR. Effect of blueberry ingestion
on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of running. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36:
[5] Blacker BC, Snyder SM, Eggett DL, Parker TL. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases
postprandial serum markers of oxidation. J Nutr. 2013;109:1670-7.
[6] Johnson MH, De Mejia EG, Fan J, Lila MA, Yousef GG. Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from blueberry-blackberry fermented
beverages inhibit markers of inflammation in macrophages and carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes in vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:
[7] Grace MH, Ribnicky DM, Kuhn P, Poulev A, Logendra S, Yousef GG, Raskin I, Lila MA. Hypoglycemic activity of a novel anthocyanin-rich
formulation from lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton. Phytomed. 2009;16:406-15.
[8] DeFuria J, Bennett G, Strissel KJ, Perfield JW, Milbury PE, Greenberg AS, Obin MS. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin
resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and inflammatory sequelae. J Nutr. 2009;139:1510-6.
[9] Stull AJ, Cash KC, Johnson WD, Champagne CM, Cefalu WT.Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant
men and women. J Nutr. 2010;140:1764-8.
[10] Khanal RC, Howard LR, Wilkes SE, Rogers TJ, Prior RL. Effect of dietary blueberry pomace on selected metabolic factors associated with
high fructose feeding in growing Sprague-Dawley rats. J Med Food. 2012;15:802-10.
[11] Song Y, Park HJ, Kang SN, Jang SH, Lee SJ, Ko YG, Kim GS, Cho JH. Blueberry peel extracts inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and
reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity. PLoS One. 2013;8:e69925.
[12] Vendrame S, Daugherty A, Kristo AS, Klimis-Zacas D. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet improves dyslipidaemia
and modulates the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in obese Zucker rats. Br J Nutr. 2013;6:1-7.
[13] Liu Y, Song X, Han Y, Zhou F, Zhang D, Ji B, Hu J, Lv Y, Cai S, Wei Y, Gao F, Jia X. Identification of anthocyanin components of
wild Chinese blueberries and amelioration of light-induced retinal damage in pigmented rabbit using whole berries. J Agric Food Chem.
[14] Liu Y, Wang D, Zhang D, Lv Y, Wei Y, Wu W, Zhou F, Tang M, Mao T, Li M, Ji B. Inhibitory effect of blueberry polyphenolic compounds
on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2011b;59:12254-63.
[15] Tremblay F, Waterhouse J, Nason J, Kalt W.Prophylactic neuroprotection by blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of light-induced
retinopathy. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:647-55.
[16] Ahmet I, Spangler E, Shukitt-Hale B, Juhaszova M, Sollott SJ, Joseph JA, Ingram DK, Talan M. Blueberry-enriched diet protects rat heart
from ischemic damage. PLoS One. 2009;4:e5954.
[17] Riso P, Klimis-Zacas D, DelBo’ C, Martini D, Campolo J, Vendrame S, Moler P, Loft S, De Maria R, Porrini M.Effect of a wild blue-
berry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with
cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:949-61.
142 S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption
[18] Rodriguez-Mateos A, Ishisaka A, Mawatari K, Vidal-Diez A, Spencer JP, Terao J. Blueberry intervention improves vascular reactivity and
lowers blood pressure in high-fat-, high-cholesterol-fed rats. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1746-54.
[19] Osman N, Adawi D, Ahrne S, Jeppsson B, Molin G. Endotoxin- and D-galactosamine-induced liver injury improved by the administration
of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and blueberry. Dig Liver Dis. 2007;9:849-56.
[20] Wang Y-P, Cheng M-L, Zhang B-F, Mu M, Wu J. Effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and transcription factor Nrf2 in rats. World J
Gastroenterol. 2010;16:2657-63.
[21] Lu S, Cheng ML, Li H, Wu J, Wang YP. Effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and ultrastructural of hepatocytes in rats. Zhonghua Yi
Xue Za Zhi. 2012;92:927-31.
[22] Molan AL, Lila MA, Mawson J, De S. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the prebiotic activity of water-soluble blueberry extracts. World J
Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;25:1243-49.
[23] Vendrame S, Guglielmetti S, Riso P, Arioli S, Klimis-Zacas D, Porrrini M. Six-week consumption of a wild blueberry powder drink
increases bifidobacteria in the human gut. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12815-20.
[24] Hap S, Gutierrez NA. Functional properties of some New Zealand fruit extracts towards selected probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. Benef
Microbes. 2012;11:1-10.
[25] Guglielmetti S, Fracassetti D, Taverniti V, Del Bo’ C, Vendrame S, Klimis-Zacas D, Arioli S, Riso P, Porrini M. Differential modulation of
human intestinal Bifidobacterium populations after consumption of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink. J Agric Food Chem.
[26] Anthony J-P, Fyfe I, Stewart D, Mcdougall GJ. Differential effectiveness of berry polyphenols as anti-giardial agents. Parasitol.
[27] Park YJ, Biswas R, Phillips RD, Chen J. Antibacterial activities of blueberry and muscadine phenolic extracts. J Food Sci. 2011;76:
[28] Lacombe A, Wu VC, White J, Tadepalli S, Andre EE. The antimicrobial properties of the lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angusti-
folium) fractional components against food-borne pathogens and the conservation of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Food Microbiol.
[29] Aiyer HS, Vadhanam MV, Stoyanova R, Caprio GD, Clapper ML, Gupta RC. Dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent oxidative DNA
damage and modulate expression of DNA repair genes. Int. J Mol Sci. 2008;9:327-41.
[30] H˚
akansson A, Br¨
anning C, Molin G, Adawi D, Hagsl¨
att M-L, Jeppsson B, Nyman M, Ahrn´
e S. Blueberry husks and probiotics
attenuate colorectal inflammation and oncogenesis, and liver injuries in rats exposed to cycling DSS-treatment. PLoS One. 2012;7:
[31] Aiyer HS, Gupta RC. Berries and ellagic acid prevent estrogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis by modulating enzymes of estrogen
metabolism. Cancer Prev Res. 2010;3:727-37.
[32] Adams LS, Kanaya N, Phung S, Liu Z, Chen S. Whole blueberry powder modulates the growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 triple
negative breast tumors in nude mice. J Nutr. 2011;141:1805-12.
[33] Montales MT, Rahal OM, Kang J, Roers TJ, Prior RL, Wu X, Simmen RC. Repression of mammosphere formation of human breast cancer
cells by soy isoflavone genistein and blueberry polyphenolic acids suggests diet-mediated targeting of cancer stem-like/progenitor cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:652-60.
[34] Ravoori S, Vadhanam MV, Aqil F, Gupta RC. Inhibition of estrogen-mediated mammary tumorigenesis by blueberry and black raspberry.
J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:5547-55.
[35] Lee CM, Su YH, Huynh TT, LeeWH, Chiou JF, Lin YK, Hsiao M, Wu CH, Lin YF, Wu AT, Yeh CT. Blueberry isolate, pterostilbene,
functions as a potential anticancer stem cell agent in suppressing irradiation-mediated enrichment of hepatoma stem cells. Evid Based
Complement Alternat Med. 2013; doi:10.1155/2013/258425
[36] Bunea A, Rugina D, Sconta Z, Pop RM, Pintea A, Socaciu C, Tabaran F, Grootaert C, Struijs K, Van camp J. Anthocyanin determination
in blueberry extracts from various cultivars and their antiproliferative and apoptotic properties in B16-F10 metastatic murine melanoma
cells. Phytochem. 2013;95:435-44.
[37] Shaughnessy KS, Boswall IA, Scanlan AP, Gottschall-Pass KT, Sweeney MI. Diets containing blueberry extract lower blood pressure in
spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Nutr Res. 2009;29:130-8.
[38] Elks CM, Reed SD, Mariappan N, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA, Ingram DK, Francis JA. Blueberry-enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in
a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24028.
[39] Zhu Y, Bickford PC, Sanberg P, Giunta B, Tan J. Blueberry opposes -amyloid peptid-induced microglial activation via inhibition of p44/42
mitogen-activation protein kinase. Rejuv Res. 2008;11:891-901.
[40] Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA. Blueberry supplementation improves
memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:3996-4000.
[41] Gustafson SJ, Dunlap KL, McGill CM, Kuhn TB. A nonpolar blueberry fraction blunts NADPH oxidase activation in neuronal cells exposed
to tumor necrosis factor-. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012; doi:10.1155/2012/768101
[42] Coultrap SJ, Bickford, PC, Browning MD. Blueberry-enriched diet ameliorates age-related declines in NMDA receptor-dependent LTP.
Age (Dordr). 2008;30:263-72.
S. Patel / Health benefits of blueberry consumption 143
[43] Acosta S, Jernberg J, Sanberg CD, Sanberg PR, Small BJ, Gemma C, Bickford PC. NT-020, a natural therapeutic approach to optimize
spatial memory performance and increase neural progenitor cell proliferation and decrease inflammation in the aged rats. Rejuvenation
Res. 2010;13:581-8.
[44] Wilson MA, Shukitt-Hale B, Kalt W, Ingram, DK, Joseph JA, Wolkow CA. Blueberry polyphenols increase lifespan and thermotolerance
in Caenorhabditis elegans. Aging Cell. 2006;5:59-68.
[45] Willis LM, Freeman L, Bickford PC, Quintero EM, Umphlet CD, Moore AB, Goetzl L, Granholm A-C. Blueberry supplementation
attenuates microglial activation in hippocampal intraocular grafts to aged hosts. Glia. 2010;58:679-90.
[46] Brewer GJ, Torricelli JR, Lindsey AL, Kunz EZ, Neuman A, Fisher DR, Joseph JA. Age-related toxicity of amyloid-beta associated with
increased pERK and pCREB in primary hippocampal neurons: Reversal by blueberry extract. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21:991-8.
[47] Vuong T, Matar C, Ramassamy C, Haddad, PS. Biotransformed blueberry juice protects neurons from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative
stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway alterations. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:656-3.
[48] Rendeiro C, Vauzour D, Kean RJ, Butler LT, Rattray M, Spencer JP, Williams CM. Blueberry supplementation induces spatial mem-
ory improvements and region-specific regulation of hippocampal BDNF mRNA expression in young rats. Psychopharmacol (Berl).
[49] Zhang J, Lazarenko OP, Blackburn ML, Shankar K, Badger TM, Ronis MJJ, Chen JR. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent
senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24486.
[50] Zhang J, Lazarenko OP, Blackburn ML, Badger TM, Ronis MJJ, Chen JR. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix
and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells. Age (Dordr). 2013a;35:807-20.
[51] Zhang J, Lazarenko OP, Kang J, Blackburn ML, Ronis MJ, Badger TM, Chen JR. Feeding blueberry diets to young rats dose-dependently
inhibits bone resorption through suppression of RANKL in stromal cells. PLoS One. 2013b;8:e70438.
[52] Eum HL, Hong SC, Chun C, Shin IS, Lee BY, Kim, HK, Hong SJ. Influence of temperature during transport on shelf-life quality of highbush
blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cvs. Bluetta, Duke). Hortic Environ Biotechnol. 2013;54:128-33.
[53] Rivera SA, Zoffoli JP, Latorre BA. Determination of optimal sulfur dioxide time and concentration product for postharvest control of gray
mold of blueberry fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol. 2013;83:40-6.
[54] Mehra LK, MacLean DD, Shewfelt RL, Smith KC, Scherm H. Effect of postharvest biofumigation on fungal decay, sensory quality, and
antioxidant levels of blueberry fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol. 2013;85:109-115.
[55] Kim M, Kerr WL. Vacuum-belt drying of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) slurries: Influence of drying conditions on physical and
quality properties of blueberry powder. Food Bioproc Technol. 2013;6:3227-37.
[56] Del Bo’ C, Riso P, Brambilla A, Gardana C, Rizzolo A, Simonetti P, Bertolo G, Klimis-Zacas D, Porrini M.Blanching improves anthocyanin
absorption from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) pur´
ee in healthy human volunteers: A pilot study. J Agric Food Chem.
[57] Kucner A, Klewicki R, Sojka M. The influence of selected osmotic dehydration and pretreatment parameters on dry matter and polyphenol
content in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits. Food Bioproc Technol. 2013;6:2031-47.
[58] Del Bo C, Ciappellano S, Klimis-Zacas D, Martini D, Gardana C, Riso P, Porrini M. Anthocyanin absorption, metabolism, and distribution
from a wild blueberry-enriched diet (Vaccinium angustifolium) is affected by diet duration in the Sprague-Dawley rat. J Agric Food Chem.
[59] Ribnicky DM, Roopchand DE, Oren A, Grace M, Poulev A, Lila MA, Havenaar R, Raskin I. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and
protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1). Food Chem.
[60] Braga PC, Antonacci R, Wang YY, Lattuada N, Dal Sasso M, Marabini L, Fibiani M, Lo Scalzo R. Comparative antioxidant activity of
cultivated and wild Vaccinium species investigated by EPR, human neutrophil burst and COMET assay. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci.
[61] Gunathilake KDPP, Rupasinghe HPV, Pitts NL. Formulation and characterization of a bioactive-enriched fruit beverage designed for
cardio-protection. Food Res Int. 2013;52:535-54
... Apart from defending the hepatocytes against oxidative damage and regulating the activity of T-cells, blueberry can also amplify hepatic immunity in mice (Ma et al., 2018). The different types of anthocyanins found in blue berries are monoglucosides, monoarabinosides, and monogalactosides of cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, delphinidin, and malvidin (Patel, 2014). Table 4. Vitamin C content in berries is about 9.7 mg/100 g fruit (Patel, 2014). ...
... The different types of anthocyanins found in blue berries are monoglucosides, monoarabinosides, and monogalactosides of cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, delphinidin, and malvidin (Patel, 2014). Table 4. Vitamin C content in berries is about 9.7 mg/100 g fruit (Patel, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Our immune system depends on leucocytes or white blood cells which possess the power to produce antibodies to fight various disease‐causing pathogens. People have now realized the crucial role played by the immune system in keeping them healthy. Therefore, recent scenario has witnessed an upsurge in the demand of immunity boosting foods. The use of naturally available fruits as immunomodulators is so ubiquitous and just needs concrete scientific proofs for claiming its efficacy. Many studies have shown that fruits are abundant in bioactive compounds like vitamins (vitamin A, C, E, etc.), minerals, and phytochemicals (like β‐ carotene, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolics, etc.). These components have the potential to enhance our immunity by supporting the proliferation of lymphocytes, scavenging free radical species, reducing oxidative stress, improving anti‐inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory mechanism, and supporting aggregation of platelets. Thus, supplementation of diet with an appropriate amount of fruits daily could support body's natural defense by strengthening our immune response. In this preface, we attempt to summarize the significant role played by various phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of fruits in boosting our immune system.
... 170 Phenolic constituents are reported as having numerous general health benefits as they enhance several biological activities of foods, such as regulation of hormones, and have beneficial attributes for brain, liver, and heart activity. [171][172][173] Studies have reported that polyphenolic compounds not only regulate the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and beneficial proteins, but have the potential to regulate neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. 174 In a recent study, the potential of millet in relation to neural protection was explored using a rat model (HFD-induced oxidative stress). ...
Millet is consumed as a staple food, particularly in developing countries, is part of the traditional diet in a number of relatively affluent countries, and is gaining popularity throughout the world. It is a valuable dietary energy source. In addition to high caloric value, several health-promoting attributes have been reported for millet seeds. This review describes many nutritional characteristics of millet seeds and their derivatives that are important to human health: antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory, antibacterial or antimicrobial, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and anti-carcinogenic potential, and their role as modulators of gut health. There are several varieties, but the main focus of this review is on pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus [synonym Pennisetum glaucum]), one of the most widely eaten millet crops grown in India, though other millet types are also covered. In this article, the health-promoting properties of the natural components (ie, proteins, peptides, polyphenols, polysaccharides, oil, isoflavones, etc.) present in millet seeds are discussed. Although many of these health benefits have been demonstrated using animal models in vitro studies, human intervention-feeding trials are required to confirm several of the potential health benefits of millet seeds. Based on the nutritional and health-promoting attributes known for pearl millet (discussed in this review), finger millet and foxtail millet are suggested as good candidates for use in future nutritional interventions for improved human health.
... The production of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) has increased in recent years worldwide due to their beneficial characteristics for human health, explained by their high content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties of high value for the functional food industry [1,2]. Chile is an important producer and exporter of blueberries in the southern hemisphere, increasing in recent years the area planted in different regions. ...
Full-text available
For the first time we report the validation of reference genes in plants from a population of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) clones cultured in vitro on a colchicine-supplemented medium. Nodal segment explants of the cultivar Duke were regenerated by organogenesis under different periods of colchicine 1 mg/L exposure (1, 2, 3, 5, 30 days). The clones selected for the study showed variability for phenotypic traits after 2 years of adaptation to field conditions, compared to plants of the donor genotype that were regenerated on a medium without colchicine. Vaccinium myrtillus (GAPDH) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (ATP1, NADH, RPOB and COX2) were used as reference genomes for primer design. The results show that colchicine treatments can cause genomic changes in blueberry plants. At the molecular level, exposure of plants to colchicine in early periods could promote an increase in gene expression of specific genes such as ATP1, COX2, GAPDH, MATK, NADH and RPOB. However, prolonged exposure (30 days) could decrease gene expression of the genes studied. For qPCR assays, the primers designed for ATP1, COX2, GAPDH and MATK genes showed high efficiency. In addition, the GAPDH, ATP1, NADH and COX2 genes showed high stability and could be recommended as potential reference genes for gene expression assays in Vaccinium.
... Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important horticultural cash crop native to North America. It is known for its fruits rich in anthocyanin, polyphenols, acids like phenolic acids, pyruvic acid, chlorogenic acid, and other contents associated with health benefits (Krikorian et al. 2010;Patel 2014;Ma et al. 2018). Its popularity is increasing, and the production has doubled from 439,000 metric tons in 2010 to nearly 1.0 million in 2019 (USDA FAS 2021). ...
Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important horticultural crop with many nutraceutical values. With increasing market demand, high-quality virus-free planting materials are critical for growers. As such, micropropagation techniques that produce a greater number of shoots and subsequently plantlets can meet the needs of growers and provide materials for gene editing and genetic transformation. Therefore, a study was conducted to compare the effect of three factors: explant type (shoot tip and two-node explants obtained from in vitro grown plants), culture medium (Chee and Pool (C2D) and Lloyd and McCown Woody Plant Medium (WPM)), and 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, or 8.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on shoot production from two highbush blueberry cultivars, “Farthing” and “Legacy.” The results showed that WPM was better than the C2D medium for both cultivars. For the “Farthing” cultivar, WPM supplemented with 6.0 mg L−1 or 8.0 mg L−1 of BAP produced higher number of shoots when shoot tips and two-node shoot explants were used, respectively. For the “Legacy” cultivar, WPM supplemented with 4.0 mg L−1 of BAP was ideal media for either shoot tip or two-node explant. Although shoot production from the C2D medium was lower than from WPM, the ability of the C2D medium to proliferate shoots from explants could indicate a possibility for its optimization. Shoots obtained from all treatments produced roots on rooting media. Results from this research establish a starting point for the selection of optimum conditions for greater shoot production when different explant types, culture media, and BAP concentrations are used.
... Phenolics, antioxidant, oxidative stress, flavonoid, bioactive chemicals, organic acid, berry, inflammation, fruit, shelf life, and gene expression were all common core keywords for these berries. These could indicate the core research areas for all the three berries were in functional foods related to their medicinal properties [23,[29][30][31][32][33] as well as in fruit quality and gene expression [34,35]. Fig. 6. ...
Blueberries, strawberries and raspberries are soft fruits marketed worldwide, with unique sensory, nutritional and biological properties. This bibliometric comparative analysis aims to analyse the published scientific research in order to provide a valuable and important reference for berry growers, the fruit industry, health personnel and scientists in berry research communities. The Scopus database was utilised for bibliometric analysis of scientific articles on blueberry, raspberry and strawberry fruits published in English in the last decade (2012 to 2021). The publishing trends in blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry research were increased, with strawberry research showing the most significant increase. The top country and institutions researching the three berries were in the United States, followed by China. The top journal was Hortscience for blueberries and Scientia Horticulturae for raspberry and strawberry. The top authors were Drummond FA, Stoner GD and Peres NA for blueberry, raspberry and strawberry, respectively. The most frequent keywords concerning these berries were analyzed and clustered in thematic groups. Core keywords related to functional foods, medicinal properties, as well as fruit quality and gene expression themes were identified. Apart from medicinal and fruit quality themes, the biological control theme was also identified to be relevant in future research.
... Its mechanism may be to regulate intracellular signal pathway and gene expression, stimulate insulin secretion and activate insulin receptors (Sidorova et al., 2017). Hence, as a dietary supplement, blueberry has broad prospects in the development of functional foods (Patel, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Background Blueberry is rich in bioactive substances and has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, and other activities. Blueberry has been shown to treat diseases by mediating the transcription of nuclear receptors. However, evidence for nuclear receptor-mediated health benefits of blueberry has not been systematically reviewed. Purpose This review aims to summarize the nuclear receptor-mediated health benefits of blueberry. Methods This study reviews all relevant literature published in NCBI PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar by January 2022. The relevant literature was extracted from the databases with the following keyword combinations: "biological activities" OR "nuclear receptors" OR "phytochemicals" AND "blueberry" OR "Vaccinium corymbosum" as well as free-text words. Results In vivo and in vitro experimental results and clinical evidence have demonstrated that blueberry has health-promoting effects. Supplementing blueberry is beneficial to the treatment of cancer, the alleviation of metabolic syndrome, and liver protection. Blueberry can regulate the transcription of PPARs, ERs, AR, GR, MR, LXRs, and FXR and mediate the expressions of Akt, CYP 1Al, p53, and Bcl-2. Conclusion Blueberry can be targeted to treat various diseases by mediating the transcription of nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, further human research is needed.
... In fact, among fruits, small berries represent an abundant source of phenolic compounds in the human diet [18]. In detail, the fruits belonging to the Vaccinium genus, above all V. myrtillus berries, have been suggested as functional foods and used for supplement and drug preparation [19,20]. Moreover, in vitro studies have shown anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of polyphenolrich berry extracts against different prostate cancer cell lines [21] and the chemopreventive properties of an anthocyaninrich V. myrtillus extract were suggested in a pilot study with patients affected by colon cancer [22]. ...
Untargeted liquid chromatographic-high-resolution mass spectrometric (LC-HRMS) metabolomics for potential exposure marker (PEM) discovery in nutrikinetic studies generates complex outputs. The correct selection of statistically significant PEMs is a crucial analytical step for understanding nutrition-health interactions. Hence, in this paper, different chemometric selection workflows for PEM discovery, using multivariate or univariate parametric or non-parametric data analyses, were comparatively tested and evaluated. The PEM selection protocols were applied to a small-sample-size untargeted LC-HRMS study of a longitudinal set of serum samples from 20 volunteers after a single intake of (poly)phenolic-rich Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium corymbosum supplements. The non-parametric Games-Howell test identified a restricted group of significant features, thus minimizing the risk of false-positive retention. Among the forty-seven PEMs exhibiting a statistically significant postprandial kinetics, twelve were successfully annotated as purine pathway metabolites, benzoic and benzodiol metabolites, indole alkaloids, and organic and fatty acids, and five (i.e. octahydro-methyl-β-carboline-dicarboxylic acid, tetrahydro-methyl-β-carboline-dicarboxylic acid, citric acid, caprylic acid, and azelaic acid) were associated to Vaccinium berry consumption for the first time. The analysis of the area under the curve of the longitudinal dataset highlighted thirteen statistically significant PEMs discriminating the two interventions, including four intra-intervention relevant metabolites (i.e. abscisic acid glucuronide, catechol sulphate, methyl-catechol sulphate, and α-hydroxy-hippuric acid). Principal component analysis and sample classification through linear discriminant analysis performed on PEM maximum intensity confirmed the discriminating role of these PEMs.Graphical abstract
... Blueberry fruit from Ericaceae family contains enormous functional phytoconstituents including polyphenolic and flavonoid components. Pharmacological studies revealed that blueberry possesses anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective effects [119]. Evidence suggests that blueberry exhibited strong protection against inflammation in pre-clinical and clinical evaluations [120][121][122]. ...
Full-text available
Inflammaging, the steady development of the inflammatory state over age is an attributable characteristic of aging that potentiates the initiation of pathogenesis in many age-related disorders (ARDs) including neurodegenerative diseases, arthritis, cancer, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Inflammaging is characterized by subclinical chronic, low grade, steady inflammatory states and is considered a crucial underlying cause behind the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with ARDs. Although a coherent set of studies detailed the underlying pathomechanisms of inflammaging, the potential benefits from non-toxic nutrients from natural and synthetic sources in modulating or delaying inflammaging processes was not discussed. In this review, the available literature and recent updates of natural and synthetic nutrients that help in controlling inflammaging process was explored. Also, we discussed the clinical trial reports and patent claims on potential nutrients demonstrating therapeutic benefits in controlling inflammaging and inflammation-associated ARDs.
Full-text available
Propolis is a complex honey bee product known for its antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity, widely used as a food biopreservative and food additive. The object of the current research was to investigate the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) edible coatings applied alone and in combination with a propolis extract on the quality parameters and storage life of fresh blueberries during refrigerated storage for 20 days. For this purpose, three experimental groups were prepared: blueberries without coating (control group), blueberries with 1% CMC coatings and blueberries with 1% CMC coatings + 1% propolis extract (CMC+P). During the storage, the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the experimental groups were evaluated. The use of CMC and CMC+P coatings reduced the weight loss by 1.13% and 1.67% in comparison with the control group on the 20-th day of storage. A significant decrease in decay percentage was found, which was in the great extent in the CMC+P coated fruit compared to the CMC coatings and the control fruit. The CMC and CMC+P edible coatings did not affect the TSS levels, the decreasing TA and increasing pH values. The application of CMC and CMC+P coatings did not cause a protective effect on the lowering values of total phenolic and anthocyanin contents in both treatments, but exhibited a positive influence on the antioxidant activity in the coated blueberries. During the entire storage period, propolis containing edible coatings (CMC+P) reduced the bacterial, yeasts and fungal counts, visibly expressed by a reduction in decay incidence in comparison with the uncoated and CMC-treated fruit. Therefore, the application of propolis in the composition of edible coatings can be considered as an effective approach for improving the postharvest quality and prolonging the storage life of fresh blueberries.
Background: Industrial blueberry juice processing results in a significant amount of by-product, the so called pomace; and could represents a nutritional valuable source of fibre and bioactive compounds to enhance either technological or nutritional characteristics of foods. The aim of this study was to obtain novel ingredients based on blueberry by-product applying different drying methods: convective (CD), freeze (FD) and vacuum-drying (VD). The powders were physicochemical, functional, and nutritionally characterized. Finally, its application to formulate muffins in replacing 10-20-30% of wheat flour was studied to evaluate the effect on textural, colour and sensorial characteristics. Results: CD reduced the hydration and functional properties when compared to FD and VD. The powders were characterized by a high content of dietary fibre (273 ± 5 g kg-1 ) and, a good retention and bioaccessibility of antioxidant compounds (39-85% range). The powder addition to formulate muffin decreased lightness and chromaticity, without differences due to drying process. The texture parameters were reduced with 10% of ingredient addition; meanwhile 20-30% showed similar values to the muffin control. Sensorial evaluation presented good overall acceptability (>6 ± 2 in a 9-point hedonic scale) and, some specific attributes showed a significant drop in overall acceptability recommending its optimization according to the Penalty Analysis. Conclusion: These results suggest that functional ingredients rich in fibre and bioactive compounds may be obtained from an industrial by-product giving added value and avoiding or reducing their lost; and could also be a promising vehicle to incorporate dietary fibre and bioactive compounds in bakery goods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text available
Quality changes of highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cvs. Bluetta, Duke) were evaluated as influenced by transport temperature. Neither cultivar remained marketable after 6 days or 16 days at room temperature or 10°C. The ‘Duke’ cultivar had slightly lower weight loss than ‘Bluetta,’ but difference between the cultivars was not significant after 12 days of storage. Decrease of fruit firmness was delayed by storage at 10°C for both cultivars, with ‘Duke’ blueberries being firmer than ‘Bluetta’. Soluble solids content was 9.9 ± 0.3 °Brix for both cultivars, which was lower than previous reports, probably as a result of weather conditions before harvest. Organic acid content declined in both cultivars during storage. Hue value of the ‘Bluetta’ cultivar was higher (more purple-blue) than the ‘Duke’ cultivar, but Hunter L and hue angle did not change during storage. Fruit characteristics at harvest and postharvest maintenance of low temperature are clearly important factors affecting the post-harvest fruit quality during transportation and storage.
Full-text available
The paper presents an assessment of the influence of selected highbush blueberry pretreatment methods and parameters on the process of osmotic dehydration conducted in 65 °Brix sucrose solution for 5 to 240 min at 30–70 °C. The pretreatment methods used included: fruit immersion in boiling water (15 s) and in 0.5 % NaOH solution (15 s at 95 °C), exposure to ultrasound at atmospheric pressure (vibration frequency of 35 ± 5 kHz, 500 W, for 15 min.) and at low pressure (0.92 kg cm−1), and enzymatic processing; pectinase (enzyme activity of 46,000 PGU/mL; 0.6 mL/90 g of fruits; 30 min at approx. 22 °C) and lipase (enzyme activity of 750 PGU/mL; 0.7 mL/90 g of fruits; 30 min at approx. 22 °C) were used. Dehydration was also conducted in the presence of pectinolytic enzymes. The dehydrated material was analyzed in terms of the content of dry matter, total polyphenols, and particular polyphenols using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed that dehydration was much more intensive at 60 and 70 °C, but such temperatures led to substantial losses of phenolic compounds (by 15–30 % after 2-h dehydration) and unfavorable changes in the texture of the final product. A promising method of pretreatment is fruit immersion in solutions containing pectinolytic and lipolytic enzymes, which increase dry matter content by 26 % (after 1 h of dehydration at 30 °C) with a low loss of phenolic compounds (4 %). Among the identified anthocyanins, the greatest retention during dehydration at various temperatures was displayed by petunidin-3-galactoside (over 80 % after 1 h of dehydration) and petunidin-3-glucoside (over 78 %).
Full-text available
Previous studies have demonstrated that weanling rats fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry (BB) powder for two weeks beginning on postnatal day 21 (PND21) significantly increased bone formation at PND35. However, the minimal level of dietary BB needed to produce these effects is, as yet, unknown. The current study examined the effects of three different levels of BB diet supplementation (1, 3, and 5%) for 35 days beginning on PND25 on bone quality, and osteoclastic bone resorption in female rats. Peripheral quantitative CT scan (pQCT) of tibia, demonstrated that bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were dose-dependently increased in BB-fed rats compared to controls (P<0.05). Significantly increased bone mass after feeding 5% BB extracts was also observed in a TEN (total enteral nutrition) rat model in which daily caloric and food intake was precisely controlled. Expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) a protein essential for osteoclast formation was dose-dependently decreased in the femur of BB animals. In addition, expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) which regulates bone marrow adipogenesis was suppressed in BB diet rats compared to non-BB diet controls. Finally, a set of in vitro cell cultures revealed that the inhibitory effect of BB diet rat serum on RANKL expression was more profound in mesenchymal stromal cells compared to its effect on mature osteoblasts, pre-adipocytes and osteocytes. These results suggest that inhibition of bone resorption may contribute to increased bone mass during early development after BB consumption.
Full-text available
This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE) in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBPβ, as well as the C/EBPα and PPARγ genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain and inhibited fat accumulation in an HFD-induced animal model of obesity.
Postharvest decay, caused by various fungal pathogens, is an important concern in commercial blueberry production, but current options for managing postharvest diseases are limited for this crop. Four plant essential oils (cinnamon oil, linalool, p-cymene, and peppermint leaf oil) and the plant oil-derived biofungicides Sporan (rosemary and wintergreen oils) and Sporatec (rosemary, clove, and thyme oils) were evaluated as postharvest biofumigants to manage fungal decay under refrigerated holding conditions. Hand-harvested Tifblue rabbiteye blueberry fruit were inoculated at the stem end with conidial suspensions of Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, or sterile deionized water (check inoculation) and subjected to biofumigation treatments under refrigeration (7 degrees C) for 1 wk Sporatec volatiles reduced disease incidence significantly (P < 0.05) in most cases, whereas other treatments had no consistent effect on postharvest decay. Sensory analysis of uninoculated, biofumigated berries was performed utilizing a trained sensory panel, and biofumigation was found to have significant negative impacts on several sensory attributes such as sourness, astringency, juiciness, bitterness, and blueberry-like flavor. Biofumigated fruit were also analyzed for antioxidant capacity and individual anthocyanins, and no consistent effects on these antioxidant-related variables were found in treated berries. Because of limited efficacy in reducing postharvest decay, negative impacts on sensory qualities, and failure to increase antioxidant levels, the potential for postharvest biofumigation of blueberries under refrigerated holding conditions appears limited. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Continuous vacuum-belt drying was studied as a means to produce high-quality powders from blueberry slurries, with limited degradation of anthocyanins. Drying was performed at three different temperatures (80, 95, 110 °C) and the resulting dried material (a w ∼ 0.2) ground into powders. Drying times ranged from 70 min at 80 °C to 50 min at 110 °C. Maltodextrin (MD) was used as a drying agent at three levels (0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 kg/kg dry blueberry solid). Powders were purple, with no signs of browning, and similar in appearance to those produced by freeze-drying. Increasing MD level and drying temperature decreased the hygroscopicity of the powders. Moisture isotherms showed type 3 behavior and were well-fit with the Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer equation. Higher levels of MD improved flowability of the powders, with >93 % of the powders with MD flowing from the test fixture after 30 s, compared to only 62.1 % emerging for powders without MD. Powders dried at 80 °C were slightly darker (L* = 25.73–28.4) than those produced 110 °C (L* = 27.10–28.53), presumably due to less degradation of anthocyanins. Total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA) for MD dried at 80 °C (13.1 mg C3G/g) were not different than for freeze-dried blueberries. Higher drying temperatures caused some loss of TMA. Higher levels of MD result in lower TMA by increasing the amount of dry matter in the powders. Vacuum-belt drying at 80 °C with 0.3 kg MD/kg dry solids produced non-sticky powders with anthocyanin content similar to freeze-dried powders.
Apple, blueberry and cranberry juice together with water-extracts of ginger and selected amino acids, vitamins and minerals were used for formulation of a cardio-protective functional beverage. Ultrasonic-assisted water extraction was used for the preparation of a bioactive-rich ginger extract. Reverse osmosis was used to achieve the partial concentration of the bioactives present in fruit juices and to enhance the antioxidant capacity. A sensory analysis was conducted to identify the acceptable combination of fruit juices and amount of ginger extract to be incorporated in the formulation. Physico-chemical properties and in vitro antioxidant properties were assessed in the beverages. Total phenolic content, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and inhibition of Cu+ 2-induced oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) of the ginger extract were 460 mg gallic acid equivalence (GAE)/L, 226 mg Trolox equivalence (TE)/L and 43%, respectively. It was found that up to 2% (v/v) ginger extract can be incorporated in the formulation without compromising the sensory attributes. The fruit juice blend selected was then used for the formulation with amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Sensory evaluation revealed that the fortification of selected functional ingredients at 10% recommended daily intake (RDI) does not affect the sensory attributes of the beverage. Phenolic content, FRAP value and % inhibition of LDL oxidation of the final functional beverage formulation were 1024 mg GAE/L, 3114 mg TE/L, and 45%, respectively.
The present study investigated the potential of a wild blueberry (WB)-enriched diet to improve blood lipid profile and modulate the expression of genes related to lipid homeostasis in obese Zucker rats (OZR), a model of the metabolic syndrome with severe dyslipidaemia. For this purpose, twenty OZR and twenty lean Zucker rats (LZR; controls) were placed either on a control (C) or an 8 % WB diet for 8 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations were determined. The relative expression of six genes involved in lipid metabolism was also determined in both the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma TAG and TC concentrations were significantly lower in the OZR following WB consumption (4228 (sem 471) and 2287 (sem 125) mg/l, respectively) than in those on the C diet (5475 (sem 315) and 2631 (sem 129) mg/l, P< 0·05), while there was no change in HDL-cholesterol concentration. No significant effects were observed for plasma lipids in the LZR. Following WB consumption, the expression of the transcription factors PPARα and PPARγ in the OZR was increased in the AAT, while that of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) was decreased in the liver and AAT. The expression of fatty acid synthase was significantly decreased in both the liver and AAT and that of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 was increased in the AAT following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption appears to improve lipid profiles and modulate the expression of key enzymes and transcription factors of lipid metabolism in severely dyslipidaemic rats.