Article

Interrelationships between and among social, teaching, and cognitive presence

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Abstract

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between and among teaching, social, and cognitive presence. To this end, Spearman's rank correlation and partial correlation analyses were employed. The results referred to (a) positive large bivariate correlational relationships between presence types, and (b) the dependence of these pairwise relationships on the third presence to a certain extent. For instance, it was found that cognitive presence may have a strong effect on the relationship between teaching presence and social presence because the relationship between teaching presence and social presence may disappear when cognitive presence is controlled for. On the other hand, results also suggested that the relationship between cognitive presence and social presence, and the relationship between teaching presence and cognitive presence may largely be independent of the effect of the other third presence.

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... Ke (2010) adopted the concepts of three presences, yet with different operationalized definitions, and concluded that TP played a significant role in promoting the development of SP and CP. Another study also reported that the three presences were interrelated with each other using the methods of Spearman's rank correlation and partial correlation (Kozan and Richardson, 2014), but a different result was that CP seemed to carry the potential of influencing the relationship between TP and SP, while a more recent study (Gutiérrez-Santiuste et al., 2015) has shown that SP and TP both affected CP, but SP proved to have a higher effect using multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, some other research made a deeper analysis of the associations among the three presences, for example, the relationship between the subdimension of SP (affective, interactive, and cohesive) and CP (triggering event, exploration, integration, and exploration) has been investigated using social network analysis (Rolim et al., 2019), in which results indicated that the affective subdimension of SP had a stronger correlation with the integration and resolution subdimensions of CP, while the interactive subdimension was strongly related with triggering events and exploration stage. ...
... Szeto (2015) also found out that TP played a more determining role in achieving the planned learning outcomes than SP and CP in a blended synchronous engineer learning and teaching mode, but another study suggested a higher effect of SP on CP (Gutiérrez-Santiuste et al., 2015). Therefore, CP is strongly correlated with teaching and SPs (Ke, 2010;Joksimović et al., 2015;Tirado Morueta et al., 2016;Ma et al., 2017), and the partial mediating role of SP between TP and CP was significantly validated by many studies (Garrison et al., 2010;Joo et al., 2011;Kozan and Richardson, 2014). Thus, hypotheses 2 to 4 were developed as follows. ...
... The questionnaire consisted of nine items: affective expression (three items, e.g., I was able to form distinct impressions of some classmates), open communication (three items, e.g., I felt comfortable participating in the course discussions), and group cohesion (three items, e.g., I felt comfortable disagreeing with my classmates while still maintaining a sense of trust). Confirmed reliability and validity have been validated in different research works (Garrison et al., 2010;Kozan and Richardson, 2014;Manwaring et al., 2017) and especially with Chinese students as the samples (Ma et al., 2017). The reliability and validity are 0.936 and 0.920, respectively. ...
Article
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With the continuous lockdown and staying home strategies of COVID-19, both instructors and learners have met with the presence challenges in language learning. To address the complex and dynamic relationships of different presences in blended learning during COVID-19, based on the Community of Inquiry framework, 215 Chinese English learners were obtained as samples for an empirical test. SPSS 23 and PROCESS for SPSS were utilized to examine the hypotheses. Results indicate that teaching presence (TP) has a significant direct positive impact on social presence (SP), sense of community (SoC), and cognitive presence (CP). SP has a significant positive impact on CP and partially mediates the relationship between TP and CP. SoC is also found to impact CP and partially mediates the relationship between TP and CP. The findings also validate the chain mediating role of SP and SoC between TP and CP. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
... Garrison et al. 's (2000) model presumes that in the absence of a physical meeting, members of a CoI resort to various forms of negotiation, using the digital technology, to try to reproduce the professional development process that usually takes place in person. Learning therefore stems from this search for meaning in interactions between students (Kozan and Richardson, 2014), who find themselves playing an important role (Engel et al., 2013) in the CoI and share responsibility with the instructor for creating a perception of presence. ...
... That being said, before arriving at this big picture that will be the subject of a future article, we address in this work a single category of presence. The CoI model suggests that social presence connects teaching presence and cognitive presence, being dependent on teaching presence and critical for cognitive presence (Garrison et al., 2010;Kozan and Richardson, 2014). Thus, to follow up on the publications in which we delved into the practices of teaching presence and cognitive presence (Petit et al., 2023), we share here the results for social presence. ...
Article
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When digital technologies are used to supervise teacher trainees, internship supervisors adjust their practices to enhance their presence within their cohort in order to reduce the isolation felt by those who choose to do their internship locally, when home is in a remote location from their campus or university. In this article, we will share findings about the concept of social presence through a description of practices according to three indicators from the online community of inquiry theoretical model: emotional expression, open communication and group cohesion. From a qualitative methodology, our results attest to the humanistic nature of the remote supervision. During their online interactions with trainees, the internship supervisors interviewed share their feedback about videos and graded work tactfully, bearing in mind the distance that separates them. Despite how difficult it is to show empathy in mediated communication, they try by many means, including video and immediacy, to comfort trainees who may feel alone. They offer them frequent practical support and check in with them at the beginning and throughout the internship. Their support is bolstered by the authenticity of the situations observed in video footage, above and beyond the institutional systems.
... Ke's study (2010) also concludes that effective teaching presence with supportive features will reinforce the emerging of cognitive and social presence in an online learning environment. While examining the interrelationships between and among the three presences, Kozan and Richardson(2014) find that teaching presence that increases cognitive presence will also increase social presence and cognitive presence may significantly affect the relationship between teaching presence and social presence. Many scholars have also tried to find the role of teaching presence in various dimensions of online learning. ...
... However, teaching presence doesn't seem to contribute much to learning outcomes with only 1.4% added variance to cognitive and social presences, which is in odds with the strong correlation between teaching presence and learning outcomes(r = 0.680). But it's quite likely that while teaching presence has significant impact on cognitive presence (Akyol & Garrison, 2008;Kozan & Richardson, 2014), its association with learning outcomes is mediated by cognitive presence. What's more, Table 6 shows that the residual variance for three models is far less than the explained variance, which demonstrates that the predictors (teaching, social, cognitive presence) are significant in explaining the learning outcomes. ...
Article
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Increasing interaction in large online classes is a challenge that many teachers are facing in the post-pandemic era. This study, rooted in Garrison et al.’s CoI (Community of Inquiry) framework, employs both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore what a teacher can do in large online literature classes to promote interaction by way of enhancing teaching presence. The correlation and regression analysis of the questionnaire survey indicates that the teacher’s strategies lead to high levels of teaching, social and cognitive presence, and in turn facilitate students’ online interaction, resulting in their strong sense of satisfaction. Besides, it suggests teaching presence has stronger relationship with cognitive presence than social presence. In addition, social and cognitive presences are strong predictors for learning outcomes which account for 68% of the explained variance in this study. Students’ online interaction in the form of postings show that they are more cognitively engaged rather than socially involved, which implies that students are more focused on the construction of knowledge rather than try to be connected in the community. The limited peer interaction in spite of students’ acknowledgement that peer interaction plays a unique role in pushing them towards better understanding of the texts poses the teacher another challenge for enhancing social presence.
... A significant body of mainstream education and language research has, for the most part, focused on validating particular aspects of the COI framework (e.g., Alavi & Taghizadeh 2013; Ke, 2010;Lambert & Fisher, 2013). This line of research has been critiqued for contradicting the assumptions of the COI framework which emphasize that learning occurs due to the interplay among the three presences (Kozan & Richardson, 2014a). Emerging research interest has thus addressed the need to evaluate the model as a whole through examining the causal relationships among the three presences (Akyol & Garrison, 2008;Arbaugh et al., 2008;Kozan & Richardson, 2014b;Archibald;Garrison et al., 2010;Lee, 2014;Shea & Bidjerano, 2009). ...
... TP and SP directly predicted CP, and SP was perceived to predict CP indirectly. The causal relationships confirmed in this research study highlight the critical roles teaching and social presences play in designing and cultivating inquiry engendered learning environments that stimulate higher order thinking and critical discourse (Kozan & Richardson, 2014a;Garrison et al., 2010;Garrison, 2017). In such environments, learners can construct knowledge through scaffolding, reflection, collaboration, and dialogue. ...
Book
Full-text available
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Rolim et al. (2019) examined the relationship between social and cognitive presences and found that social presence is more associated with the exploration and integration phases of cognitive presence. Using the structure equational model, Kozan and Richardson (2014) found that cognitive presence has a strong influence on the relation between teaching and social presence; however, cognitive presence and teaching presence relationship, and cognitive presence and social presence relationship are not significantly influenced by the third presence. In addition, Shea and Bidjerano (2009) and Garrison et al. (2010b) found that both teaching presence and social presence have a significant direct effect on cognitive presence. ...
... Community of Inquiry Framework (CoI Framework, 2020) The interaction of teaching and cognitive presence results in selecting the content Hosler & Arrend, 2012). Research has found cognitive presence to have strong relationship between teaching and social presence, and teaching presence to significantly predict cognitive presence (Kozan & Richardson, 2014). Research has also found social presence to mediate between teaching and cognitive presence (Shea & Bidjerano, 2009b). ...
Article
Full-text available
... As seen in Figure 1, the model emphasizes the importance of teaching (design, organization, and facilitation), cognitive factors (triggering event, discovery, resolution, and integration), and social presence (open communication, emotional expression, and group cohesion). In addition, this model argues that learning is provided by the relationship between these three areas (Kozan & Richardson, 2014). The structure of presence, which is one of the important concepts of the model, can be said to be formed by the mutual interaction of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors between the inner (private) and external (shared) worlds of the online learning processes (Garrison and Arbaugh, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines whether an online cyber identity course, which was based on the community of inquiry model, significantly affected the self-efficacy beliefs of school counselor candidates (SCC) in terms of technology integration. Forty-four SCC, selected using the criterion sampling method, participated in a mixed-method design study by taking a one-week online cyber identity course. The online version of the Computer Technology Integration Survey (CTIS) was used as a pre and post-test measure to collect quantitative data. Two subscales are used in the survey to measure the self-efficacy of participants. Qualitative data was collected through the use of a structured interview form which included open-ended questions regarding the social, cognitive, and teaching presence of the community of inquiry model. T-tests were conducted to detect any significant differences between the pre and post-test scores of the CTIS subscales. The results of these tests revealed that the online cyber identity course created significant differences in both SCC’s self-efficacy perception of the computer technology capabilities and strategies, and the external influences of computer technology uses. Moreover, qualitative analysis results showed that students reflected more on cognitive and teaching presence than on social presence.
... The construct of social presence within a Community of Learning framework argues for the required presence of rich social interactions among learners in online learning environments. Opportunities for social interaction can activate the interpersonal and transactive processes that are essential for learning and meaning-making processes, such as discussing and determining the meaning of phenomena and concepts, debating concepts, and encountering other points of view to refine one's own understanding (Kozan & Richardson, 2014). Toward this focus on social presence, it has been regularly observed that the expectation of the degree and timing of which participants will interact will often influence variations in the type of behaviors that are exhibited in learning environments (Chen, Park, & Hand, 2016;Coffin, Hewings, & North, 2012;Koehler et al., 2020). ...
Article
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In this study, different degrees of synchronous and asynchronous online social interactions are investigated in the context of an online educational roleplaying simulation game that is played across multiple classrooms simultaneously to teach argumentation skills and social studies. Results from 45 K-12 middle school social studies teachers and 867 students over 3 study conditions were compared based on the degree of real-time discussion that was embedded in each condition's version of game (i.e., two scheduled live conferences, one scheduled live conference, and asynchronous-only interactions or zero live conferences). All conditions exhibited significant small to moderate-level pre-post effect sizes, including the condition featuring asynchronous-only discussions. Additionally, the "mid-range" 1 live conference condition exhibited the greatest pre-post effect size in comparison to the other two conditions. This study demonstrates evidence for the benefits of implementing asynchronous-only discussions in digital interventions in comparison to live discussions when synchronous interaction may not be feasible. For designers, implementing both asynchronous and synchronous interactions based on available resources and feasibility can be used to maximize social presence among participants in educational roleplaying games and other virtual learning environments.
... This is in line with another study which indicated that a teacher's assistance and presence encourage online learning, especially when they provide timely words of motivation, affirmation, or validation of student contributions (Fikri Zulfikar et al., 2019). Another study indicated that the cognitiveand socialfactors as well as the presence of teachers facilitating online learning may result in an increase in students' social presence (Kozan& Richardson, 2014).This, in turn, motivates them to participate actively in various online activities through asking questions, joining forum discussions with peers and teachers, doing quizzes, and completing assignments (Blocher, 2005). The presence of facilitators is also helpful, especially when they have to provide technical support to learners, such as doing and submitting assignments and forum discussions, which are in line with the professional development framework guiding this study (Baran & Correia 2014). ...
Book
Full-text available
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... In addition, students with a higher perception of cognitive presence had higher academic achievements [66,67]. Moreover, the three presences positively affected each other [68]. For example, teaching and social presences promoted class engagement and enhanced the cognitive presence of online learners [69]. ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 lockdowns forced universities to deliver classes wholly online, resulting in various impacts on higher teacher education institutions (TEIs) that were differently prepared for such a change. However, few studies have explored the impact of the pandemic on the shift of early childhood teacher education programs to online delivery, especially from a cross-national comparative perspective. To address this gap, this study compared how early childhood teacher educators (ECTEs) in one Australian and one Chinese TEI viewed and coped with the challenges caused by online teaching during the lockdowns. A total of 14 ECTEs participated in this triangulated qualitative study: six from the Australian TEI and eight from the Chinese TEI. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the research data. The results indicated that the Australian ECTEs were better prepared for online education than their Chinese counterparts regarding proficiency and advance in using online teaching platforms, trying different kinds of teaching styles, and their online teaching skills, literacy, and competence. However, the coded data showed that the participant Australian and Chinese ECTEs shared similar views on the negative impact of the change, such as producing ineffective interaction, broken social-emotional connections, heavier workloads, and drained staff. The findings suggest that TEIs from Australia and China need to develop contextually appropriate strategies and innovative solutions to cope with the lockdown challenges.
... Similarly, the factor structure of the Community of Inquiry Survey shows weaknesses in some research. In some cases, items seem to load negatively, or the underlying presences are not reflected in the factor loadings (Kozan & Richardson, 2014). Difficulties seem to arise here as to whether and to what extent it is possible to identify a community via survey items -are students merely a cohort, which would explain the negative item loadings in the social presence factor, or actually a community? ...
Article
Social presence is a key element in collaborative/cooperative learning. In online learning environments, it is challenging to measure the current state of social presence. This work aims to identify measures of social presence. We manually coded 3546 students' postings (n = 49 students). We selected measures from social network analysis and indices derived from log data as potential indicators. We conducted an exploratory path analysis to define which indicators appropriately describe social presence. The size of the individual egocentric student's network (path coefficient = −0.56**) and constraint (path coefficient = −0.51**), as well as the number of forums in which students were active (path coefficient = 0.49**) and the number of solved learning activities (path coefficient = −0.59**) were indicators of the level of social presence. We were able to identify four indicators for social presence in online-based courses readily available within routine data from learning management systems. We will focus now on how social presence in an ongoing course develops.
... Similarly, cognitive presence has an influential power on teaching beliefs and acts. (Kozan, Richardson, 2014). The positive relationship between expert/cognitive presence and preservice teacher self-efficacy indicates that the increase in the beliefs in teachers' ability to teach content matter effectively will increase the tendency in effective teaching and interaction in online environments. ...
Conference Paper
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Online education provides ample opportunities to empower learning progress through digitalized instructional activities. Teachers engage learners in online classes through different techniques to maximize remote learning. The competent online language teachers need to be equipped with certain qualifications in their pre-service teacher education when online teaching skills critically develop. Besides many others, teacher self-efficacy could associate with online teaching tendencies as professional teaching beliefs shape behaviors and competencies. This article investigated the relationship between pre-service EFL teachers’ virtual teaching dispositions and their self-efficacy beliefs. To explore this, 116 pre-service teachers from a foundation university in İstanbul, Turkey attended the study. The pre-service English language teachers completed two questionnaires which were analyzed through Spearman-rho correlation. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between virtual teaching dispositions and teacher self-efficacy beliefs. However, the study needs further evidence through regular observations and interviews to shed light on teacher educators to strengthen this connection and improve the preservice language teacher education period in the sense of higher teacher quality.
... Rourke et al. (2001) delineated several indicators of the three categories as shown in Table 2.1. Being a robust predictor of cognitive presence (Garrison et al., 2010;Kozan & Richardson, 2014) and teaching presence (Arbaugh, 2007;Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007), social presence is integral to the CoI framework; thus, it is crucial that it is built, broadened, and maintained in fully online or blended learning communities (Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007). ...
... This is in line with another study which indicated that a teacher's assistance and presence encourage online learning, especially when they provide timely words of motivation, affirmation, or validation of student contributions (Fikri Zulfikar et al., 2019). Another study indicated that the cognitiveand socialfactors as well as the presence of teachers facilitating online learning may result in an increase in students' social presence (Kozan& Richardson, 2014).This, in turn, motivates them to participate actively in various online activities through asking questions, joining forum discussions with peers and teachers, doing quizzes, and completing assignments (Blocher, 2005). The presence of facilitators is also helpful, especially when they have to provide technical support to learners, such as doing and submitting assignments and forum discussions, which are in line with the professional development framework guiding this study (Baran & Correia 2014). ...
Article
In Rwanda, social, economic, and educational activities have recently been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After its outbreak, schools closed, and one of the alternatives opted for was online learning. This study assessed the satisfaction of school subject leaders (SSLs) and school leaders (SLs) with online learning and identified opportunities and challenges for the improvement of online learning. The study was guided by a professional development framework and design for online teaching. Data were gathered through an online survey and a Zoom meeting with 158 SSLs and 120 SLs purposively chosen from the University of Rwanda's continuous professional development (CPD). Findings indicated that the most commonly used materials are laptops and mobile phones, while the most entertaining activities include doing online quizzes and interactive discussions. Furthermore, the study revealed a high level of satisfaction with online facilitation, even though teachers still need support from facilitators. In addition, males are more motivated to continue with online learning than females. It was also revealed that both SSLs and SLs still have challenges in uploading assignments, contributing to forum discussions, and understanding the subject content. This study recommended the increase of videos, online quizzes, and face-to-face sessions to improve online learning.
... Küçük gruplar oluşturarak öncelikle grup farkındalığının oluşturulduğu işbirliğine dayalı öğrenme, öğrenciyi birlikte hareket etmeye ve birlikte öğrenmeye yönlendiren eğitim stratejisi olarak da ifade edilir (Janssen & Bodemer 2013;Johnson & Johnson, 1999, Johnson vd., 2007. İşbirliğine dayalı öğrenme süreçlerinde katılımcıların dâhil oldukları takım çalışması gibi etkinlikler sosyal varoluş duygusunun gelişmesini sağlamaktadır (Kozan & Richardson, 2014). Ayrıca yükseköğrenimde dâhil olmak üzere farklı eğitim düzeylerinde kullanılabilen işbirliğine dayalı öğrenme tasarımları, ortak öğrenme hedeflerine kolektif olarak ulaşmanın önemli bir yoludur (Loes & Pascarella. ...
Article
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Bu araştırmada İşbirliğine Dayalı Oyunla Öğrenme Stratejileri İçin Motivasyon Ölçeği’nin Türkçeye uyarlanması, geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışmasının yapılması amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada Manzano-León vd. (2021) tarafından geliştirilen ve Türkçeye “İşbirliğine Dayalı Oyunla Öğrenme Stratejiler İçin Motivasyon Ölçeği” olarak çevirilen ölçek kullanılmıştır. Ölçek “Görev Motivasyonu” , “Öğrenme” , “Takım Çalışması” ve “Akış” olmak üzere 4 alt boyuttan oluşmaktadır. Orijinal formu 16 madde 5’li likert tipinde hazırlanmış ölçek; İspanya’da uygulanmıştır. Ölçeğin diğer dil ve kültürlerde uyarlanması için gerekli çalışma ve kullanma izinleri alınmıştır. Ölçeğin orijinal anlamı ile Türkçe ifadelerinin aynı olmasını sağlamak için çeviri tekrar çeviri yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Türkiye’de gerçekleştirilen araştırmaya, 788 ortaokul ve lise (yaş ortalaması 14.04±2.26), 312 üniversite öğrencisi (yaş ortalaması 21.97±3.56 ) olmak üzere toplam 1100 gönüllü katılmıştır. Veriler iki grup (1.ortaokul-lise öğrencileri, 2.üniversite öğrencileri) için ayrı ayrı değerlendirilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda 15 madde ve 4 alt boyuttan oluşan bir ölçme aracı elde edilmiştir. DFA sonucunda elde edilen uyum indeks değerlerine göre ölçeğin her iki grupta iyi derecede uyum sağlayan bir yapı ortaya koyduğu da gözlenmiştir. Ölçeğin Cronbach Alpha iç tutarlılık katsayıları incelendiğinde ise tüm değerlerin 0.70’in üzerinde olduğu belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar ölçeğin Türkçe formunun her iki grupta geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğunu göstermektedir.
... Cognitive presence refers to both the active cognitive process, in which solutions to learning problems are come up with, and the application of such cognitive product (Kozan & Richardson, 2014). Social presence refers to emotional relatedness within social interaction (Garrison et al., 2000). ...
Article
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The online learning environment has become an inevitable means for language learners during the pandemic. According to Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis, emotions act as a vital element in language acquisition (1981). Due to characteristics of online techniques, emotions can be experienced quite differently from the traditional face-to-face teaching mode. Although many studies have researched on the relations between emotions and online learning, between emotions and language learning, there are few touching on the emotions concerned with language learning in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. This study, by surveying the products of related researchers, attempts to figure out strategies for language learners to regulate emotions in the computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Strategies are organised based on social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. This study gives a comprehensive picture of language learners’ emotional regulation.
... They assert that though the three-core-element remains the same since the model was developed two decades ago, the nature of SP has evolved based on the 21st century teaching and learning processes and thus, strongly recommend that TP and CP should lean towards the concept of learning as a socialization process. Some researchers believe that SP has a significant effect on CP (see Kozan & Richardson, 2014) and can be a catalyst to encourage CP through social interaction (Kilis & Yıldırım, 2018). In the COVID-19 pandemic, we believe this could be the likely scenario since SP augments the "social communication channels that teachers must open to maintain and possibly enhance the lost spontaneous student-student and student-teacher interaction" (Rapanta et al., 2020, p.937). ...
Article
To further understand how online teaching and learning can be improved during the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenological study was conducted on 15 educators’ experiences of online teaching in Malaysian Universities. The Community of Inquiry framework is used as a guide, as well as a data interpretation tool, to understand the educators’ experiences in terms of planning and implementing teaching and learning in using online tools, technologies, and platforms. Findings indicate that in the current situation, with all the intricacies, deficiencies and challenges, the educators’ teaching presence is clearly discernible. Nevertheless, there appears to be efforts by the educators to ensure that teaching presence, cognitive presence and social presence are integrated, albeit in an unstructured manner. Based on the data, a flexible, fluid and dynamic model of Community of Inquiry, which is suitable to crisis situations, is suggested and a supporting guideline is provided to understand the framework.
... Cognitive presence could exert a significant influence on the relationship between social and teaching presences. The relationships between teaching and cognitive presences and between cognitive and social presences were not subject to other relationships (Kozan & Richardson, 2014b). Nevertheless, the effects of three presences on teaching in blended learning might depend on specific contexts and situations (Szeto, 2015). ...
Article
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Since the outbreak of COVID-19, online learning has gained popularity among educators and learners, where Community of Inquiry (CoI) has caught researchers’ attention. To bibliometrically analyze the framework of CoI over twenty-five years, we adopted both qualitative and quantitative research methods to examine the framework of CoI in online learning contexts. We concluded that teaching presence, social presence, cognitive presence, metacognition, and self-efficacy played important roles in the framework of CoI. This study also explored the top ten authors, sources, organizations, and countries using VOSviewer and established citation networks through the clustering techniques in CitNetExplorer. Future research could focus on how to motivate the educational institutes and educators to change their traditional educational methods and whether to include both metacognition and self-efficacy in the CoI framework.
... In addition, the model is accepted by a large number of researchers such as Shea and Bidjerano (2009), Kozan & Richardson (2014),and Hamza-Lup & Stanesco (2010) who consider it a leading teaching model to be used in blended learning environments (Aykol et al, 2009;Halverson et al, 2012). It is the researcher´s keen interest in the teaching in blended learning environments, ...
Thesis
Blended learning has emerged in the context of new learning environments and pedagogies offering its potential for maximising the effectiveness of contemporary teaching and learning. If full advantage is taken of technology, there are opportunities to trigger new relationships among the teacher, the learner and the educational context. However, to achieve this, the use of technology must be re-thought in terms of how teachers handle their teaching time and pedagogy (Laurillard, 2002). The focus and interest of this study are on the role of teachers and how they work to develop concrete skills and strategies for teaching effectively. It looks at how they attempt to bridge the distance between teachers and learners and to establish their presence in blended learning environments in both face-to-face and online contexts. Teaching in blended learning environments requires specific pedagogical approaches; and how educators prepare to teach in these environments will potentially impact the quality of the learning experience they provide (Kim et al, 2015). Given the importance of teaching presence and based on the assumption that teachers are key if learners are to achieve appropriate learning outcomes, this study sets out to examine the role of the teacher and the perceptions of their learners through an analysis of teaching presence (Garrison et al, 2000) in both environments, face-to-face and online, and understand how teachers and learners make sense of that blend. The data was collected at a university in Northwest Mexico over three years between 2016 and 2019 from four undergraduate-level blended learning courses in the field of English Language Teaching, Software Engineering, and International Commerce. Findings suggest that teaching presence can enhance the learners´ educational experience as it emphasises the organisation of instructional design in their courses. Evidence showed that learners feel a disconnection between the face-to-face and the online components if their teachers lack ownership of their blended course. Thus, there seems to be a need to further integrate both environments so that they become a real blend. In addition, the study reported lower levels of perceived teaching presence in the online component. Teacher immediacy is experienced by learners only in the classroom which does little to encourage their engagement as online learners.
... These results support the views of Anderson and colleagues (2001) and Olpak and colleagues (2016) that teaching presence designs, facilitates, and directs cognitive and social processes create meaningful personal learning outputs. The study's findings reinforce that teaching presence is core to establishing and sustaining an online learning experience Kozan & Richardson, 2014;Saadatmand et al ., 2017;Shea & Bidjerano, 2009;Yu & Richardson, 2015) . ...
Article
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We aimed to determine the factor structure and reliability of the Community of Inquiry Survey in a South African Open and Distance e-Learning Environment. Participants were 572 honours students. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine the factorial structures. Structural equation modelling yielded a three-factor structure, including teaching, social, and cognitive presence perceptions. The reliability of scores for the total scale was 0 .96. The three-factor structure of the Community of Inquiry Survey had a high internal consistency ranking from 0 .90 to 0 .95. The Community of Inquiry Survey appears valid for student advisement and support in the South African distance e-learning environment. Keywords: cognitive and social presence, community of inquiry, student engagement, teaching
... One conceptual framework that is helpful for understanding how learners can interact with each other in online spaces such as vESGs is that of social presence within the community of learners framework (Garrison, 2016;Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005). Social presence is a theoretical concept that argues for the required presence of rich social interactions with other people in online learning environments to activate the interpersonal and transactive processes that are essential for learning and meaning-making processes, such as discussing and determining the meaning of phenomena and concepts, debating concepts, and encountering other points of view to refine one's own understanding (Hanuka & Garrison, 2004;Kozan & Richardson, 2014). Within the concept of social presence, the level of exhibited social interaction by a student can vary based on the depth of the interaction between participants and how much attention is being given by the learner (Darabi et al., 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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In this study, different types and levels of real-time and asynchronous-only social interactions are investigated in the context of a virtual educational simulation game (vESG) for social studies and are compared based on the level of live, real-time interactions that students are expected to perform. 46 K-12 middle school social studies teachers and 896 students over 3 study conditions were compared based on the level of real-time interaction embedded in the game (e.g., 2 scheduled live conferences, 1 scheduled live conference, and asynchronous-only interactions). Results indicated that the "mid-range" 1 live conference condition exhibited the greatest effect size. This study demonstrates valuable design implications for vESGs and virtual learning environments toward the maximization of social presence among participants.
... Social presence refers to the ability of participants to express themselves through online learning platforms in social and emotional ways with teachers, peers, content, and resources [46]. Cognitive presence is regarded as the "focus and success of the learning experience" [47], as it reflects online learners' construction and verification of meaning through critical communication and higher-order thinking [48]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many college students in developing countries to engage in online learning for the first time, and the sudden transit has raised concerns regarding students’ competencies for, perception of, and attitude towards online learning. To address those concerns, this study measured three essential constructs of online learning (self-regulated learning, per-ceived presences, and learning motivation) based on a national survey in China (N = 12,826) and employed structural equation modeling to investigate their intertwined relationship. The study results reveal that (1) college students’ academic achievement cannot effectively predict their self-regulated learning in an online learning context; (2) self-regulation can be further differenti-ated into general and task-specific strategies with a varying impact on three types of presences; (3) online learning motivation is best predicted by cognitive presence, followed by social presence and teaching presence; and (4) the path of task-specific self-regulated learning → cognitive presence → online learning motivation generates the largest positive compound effect. Implications for online teaching and learning practice are also discussed through the stakeholder perspectives of students, teachers, and platform developers.
... For creating effective learning experience, the CoI model identifies three basic elements: cognitive presence, related to the development of students' problem solving and critical thinking skills [20,43]; social presence, the interaction and participation of students in a discussion [16]; and teaching presence, about the student and instructor roles during the course [20]. Previous research studies analyzed the CoI presences individually [22,45], interrelationship between them [35] and coding schemes for each [20,33] to provide insights about students' cognitive engagement and social knowledge construction processes using self-reported data. ...
... Using the structure equational model, Kozan and Richardson (2014) found that cognitive presence has a strong influence on the relation between teaching and social presence; however, cognitive presence and teaching presence relationship, and cognitive presence and social presence relationship are not significantly influenced by the third presence. In addition, Shea and Bidjerano (2009) and Garrison et al. (2010b) found that both teaching presence and social presence have a significant direct effect on cognitive presence. ...
Article
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Online instructional design and how to engage students cognitively in online asynchronous courses have been an ongoing question. This case study presents an intentional design of an asynchronous online graduate course to foster cognitive presence. The research questions investigate students’ cognitive presence (CP) captured by two measures: Community of Inquiry (CoI) survey (for self-report) and Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software (for actual behaviors) in this online course. Additionally, it also addresses how cognitive presence is related to other presences and how the online course design elements were perceived by students. Results showed that students perceived high levels of cognitive presence and they showed high cognitive presence in their discussion board acts. There was a relationship between three presences; and findings showed that teacher and social presence were strong predictors of perceived cognitive presence. Although students in the study rated themselves high on the CoI instrument and scored high on the LIWC for cognitive presence, self-presentation bias still emerged. Strategies that helped students to stay cognitively present in this asynchronous online course included: instructor responsiveness in discussion posts and creating dialogue, creating course assignments as online hands-on project, interviewing guest speakers on specific course topics, weekly recap and orientation videos, feedback, case-based discussions, and other elements.
... Many studies take CoI as a framework and try to understand the learning process in LMSs to provide presentations, discussions, reflections and communications (Akyol & Garrison, 2011;Kozan & Richardson, 2014;Morueta et al., 2016;Tirado et al., 2015;Wicks et al., 2015). It is critical to determine the three presences in LMSs because the relationships among students and teachers give hints about the quality of the instructional process. ...
Article
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This study aims to use LMS log data to suggest a way to understand CoI constructs. Students’ interactions in Moodle components were weighted for indicators of cognitive, teaching and social presences. Traces reflecting students’ online interactions were obtained from the Moodle LMS and analyzed through learning analytics techniques. The data is examined with the Euclidean Distance Model, and Correspondence Analysis methods to evaluate the levels of interactions and presences. The results indicated that, cognitive presence is at the center of the CoI constructs, and student-content interaction, is found is more prominent than other interactions in terms of its relation to cognitive presence. Social presence scores were mostly related with student-student and student-teacher interaction scores. In addition, teaching presence scores were found in parallel with student-system interaction scores.
... Community of Inquiry Framework (CoI Framework, 2020) The interaction of teaching and cognitive presence results in selecting the content Hosler & Arrend, 2012). Research has found cognitive presence to have strong relationship between teaching and social presence, and teaching presence to significantly predict cognitive presence (Kozan & Richardson, 2014). Research has also found social presence to mediate between teaching and cognitive presence (Shea & Bidjerano, 2009b). ...
Article
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The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework describes three essential presences (i.e., teaching presence, cognitive presence, and social presence) and how these presences interact in providing an educational experience in online and blended learning environments. This meta-analysis examined 19 empirical studies on the CoI Presences (teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence) and their correlations with learning outcomes, including actual learning, perceived learning, and satisfaction. It was found that teaching presence and actual learning were moderately positively correlated, (r = .353). There was a weak correlation between cognitive presence and actual learning, (r = .250) and social presence and actual learning, (r = .199). For the correlation between the presences and perceived learning, cognitive presence and perceived learning was found to be strongly correlated, (r = .663), followed by the moderate correlation between social presence and perceived learning (r = .432), and teaching presence and perceived learning, (r = .392). With respect to satisfaction, the correlation between cognitive presence and satisfaction (r = .586), and between teaching presence and satisfaction was strong (r = .510), but the correlation between social presence and satisfaction was moderate (r = .447). The findings have implications for designers and instructors who design and teach online and blended courses to include these presences.
... However, CoI is characterized by a particularly multi-faceted scope that embraces teaching, sociality, and cognitive processes, covering the different dynamics that may be tied to instructional streaming. According to this approach, three types of presence are triggered in an effective collaborative learning process, with a specific emphasis on online environments (Kozan & Richardson, 2014;Ling, 2007): ...
Article
Live streaming platforms like Twitch.tv count millions of viewers and performers, pointing to novel practices and interactions. Instructional applications of this phenomenon are rising with thematic channels and shows aimed at teaching and debating a variety of subjects ranging from art to programming. However, few research publications have specifically explored trends in pedagogical strategies and learning behaviours of viewing audiences. This study responded to this need by analysing computer science shows on Twitch.tv. A total of 40 hours of live streaming were analysed within a Community of Inquiry framework using the concepts of social affordances, computational thinking, and teaching style. Data collected from both expert and novice streamers included streamers' actions, on‐screen activity, and online discussions. Results pointed to specific tactics employed by both performers and viewers for exploring computer science issues and dynamics together, with instances of peer‐tutoring, construed learning, and significant transparency, even when top‐down instruction was staged. Practitioners notes What is already known about this topic Live streaming is a popular media practice all around the world, with Twitch.tv as the leading hosting platform. A rising number of live streaming shows are focusing on education and learning topics, from STEM to art. What this paper adds A first exploration of instructional streaming focused on computer science education. An analysis of best practices in instructional streaming in terms of community building, teaching style, and computational thinking processes. A better understanding of how communities of inquiry can be hosted on Twitch.tv. Implications for practice and/or policy Practitioners can harness this study's results for informing better educational streaming. Educators may refer to this article's highlights for selecting and evaluating educational streaming shows. Policy makers will be able to use this article's insights for monitoring and re‐applying effective computer science activities in other educational environments. What is already known about this topic Live streaming is a popular media practice all around the world, with Twitch.tv as the leading hosting platform. A rising number of live streaming shows are focusing on education and learning topics, from STEM to art. What this paper adds A first exploration of instructional streaming focused on computer science education. An analysis of best practices in instructional streaming in terms of community building, teaching style, and computational thinking processes. A better understanding of how communities of inquiry can be hosted on Twitch.tv. Implications for practice and/or policy Practitioners can harness this study's results for informing better educational streaming. Educators may refer to this article's highlights for selecting and evaluating educational streaming shows. Policy makers will be able to use this article's insights for monitoring and re‐applying effective computer science activities in other educational environments.
... Whether or not there are additional elements, categories, and indicators when online learning occurs in a crisis remains an open question. In addition, it would be significant to examine the dynamic relationships among core elements of the CoI in an ERT environment and compare the results reported by other researchers (Kozan et al., 2014;Pham et al., 2021). These future studies have the potentials to help tertiary education institutions develop resilience and enhance their adaptive capacity to deal with a future crisis like the COVID-19 Pandemic. ...
Article
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University of Canterbury, as an institution, had developed strong educational resilience during and after the 2010-11 earthquakes. Due to the Coronavirus pandemic, New Zealand shut down all university educational facilities in March 2020, with education migrated online. Within this unique context, this research aims to (1) investigate civil engineering students' perceptions about the benefits and challenges of online learning during the lockdown period, (2) identify significant factors that contribute to effective online teaching and learning, and (3) provide the implications of this research for future emergency remote teaching (ERT). A survey was designed and administered to measure students' perceptions of online learning during the lockdown. A total of 192 completed responses were collected from both undergraduate and Master civil engineering students. In addition to typical online learning challenges, students also experienced unique challenges, such as social and emotional isolation, anxiety, depression, and uncertainty. This paper suggests that teaching presence be brought to the forefront of ERT. Future research directions were recommended to better understand ERT by linking it to the Community of Inquiry framework and enhance tertiary education institutions' resilience to handle a future crisis. ARTICLE HISTORY
... The results further revealed that there was either a direct or indirect relationship between TP and CP, and that SP was a mediator between TP and CP. Kozan and Richardson (2014) also conducted confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the structure of the CoI survey. The data collected from ...
Article
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Since the mandatory switch to online education due to the Covid-19 outbreak in 2020, technology has gained more importance for online teaching and learning environments. The Community of Inquiry (CoI) is one of the validated frameworks that is widely used to examine online learning. In this paper, we offer an extension to the CoI framework and the survey, arguing that meaningful and appropriate use of technologies has become a requirement in today’s pandemic and post-pandemic educational contexts. With this goal, we propose adding three technology-related sub-dimensions under each main presence of the CoI framework: 1) technology for teaching, 2) technology for interaction, and 3) technology for learning. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, 5 new items for technology for teaching sub-dimension, 4 new items for technology for interaction sub-dimension, and 5 new items for technology for learning sub-dimension were added to the original CoI survey. Further research and practice implications are also discussed in the paper.
... Studies also showed that cognitive presence such as integration of learning activities helps students to resolve the problem and solution (mean 4%) while course content and discussions help students to understand fundamental concepts of the class online (mean 3.9%). This is according to the study by Kozan & Richardson (2014) who found that cognitive presence has a strong effect on the relationship between teaching presence and social presence because the relationship between teaching presence and social presence may disappear when cognitive presence is controlled for. ...
Article
Online learning has become a significant trend in education due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Online educators, course designers and institutions need to understand the importance of social presence in the dynamics of a community of inquiry and its association with teaching and cognitive presence. This study examined whether social presence mediated the relationship between teaching and cognitive presence. The participants were a random sample of 572 postgraduate honours students (mean age of 35.4 years; SD = 8.39 years). Participants were registered in the College of Economic and Management Sciences and the College of Science, Engineering and Technology at the University of South Africa, an Open Distance e-Learning (ODeL) institution. The students completed a standardised measure of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) instrument. The results indicated that social presence mediated the relationship between teaching and cognitive presence. The findings highlight the importance of social presence as a fundamental aspect of collaborative online learning as institutions turn to fully online teaching platforms. By implication, academic institutions and teachers must provide a more collaborative and interactive online learning environment and promote productive online communities.
Article
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Pemahaman konsep siswa merupakan hasil belajar yang sangat penting untuk dikuasai. Pemahaman konsep yang rendah akan menyebabkan siswa kesulitan dalam mengembangkan kemampuan memecahkan masalah. Metode inkuiri merupakan suatu cara untuk meningkatkan pemahaman konsep siswa. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui upaya peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa kelas XI dengan metode inkuiri pada sistem pembelajaran jarak jauh. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif deskriptif yang membahas lima fokus kajian yaitu pemahaman konsep siswa dalam proses pembelajaran, pengaruh metode inkuiri dalam pembelajaran, peran metode inkuiri dalam meningkatkan pemahaman konsep siswa pada pembelajaran jarak jauh, analisis data pemahaman konsep siswa kelas XI yang rendah, dan analisis data peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa kelas XI dengan penerapan metode inkuiri. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode inkuiri terbukti berhasil dalam meningkatkan pemahaman konsep siswa kelas XI dalam pembelajaran jarak jauh. Keberhasilan tersebut didukung oleh fasilitas teknologi informasi dan komunikasi yang memadai pada guru ataupun siswa. Penerapan metode inkuiri dalam meningkatkan pemahaman konsep siswa harus diterapkan sesuai dengan tujuan pendidikan Kristen. Penelitian selanjutnya disarankan dapat melakukan analisis efektivitas dan keberhasilan penerapan metode inkuiri dengan melakukan inovasi strategi, media, atau evaluasi pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar pemahaman konsep siswa pada sistem pembelajaran jarak jauh.
Article
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Many higher education institutions (HEIs) relied on established instructional models, such as Community of Inquiry (CoI), to inform teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. This reflective case study at a highly international European university finds five areas wherein internationalization has shaped teaching and learning during the pandemic, and which are undertheorized in existing models: mobility and basic needs, instructional modalities, vulnerability, language, and university alliances. Accounting for these areas enables better analysis of pandemic experiences, and when combined with CoI and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles, can foster more inclusive and effective learning experiences for students and faculty.
Technical Report
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La Coordinación de Universidad Abierta, Innovación Educativa y Educación a Distancia (CUAIEED) de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México presenta el informe de resultados: “Las interacciones didácticas en la UNAM durante la pandemia. Opiniones, percepciones y perspectivas del profesorado y el estudiantado” el cual es el primer informe específico que se deriva del estudio La educación remota y digital en la UNAM durante la pandemia. Panorama Ge�neral1 (CUAIEED, 2021). Los resultados que aquí se muestran corresponden a la dimensión del cuestionario que exploró las interacciones didácticas en los siguientes aspectos: ▪ Dificultades a las que el profesorado y estudiantado se enfrentaron con mayor frecuencia derivadas de las interacciones durante la contingencia. ▪ Estrategias que el profesorado y estudiantado implementaron para realizar sus clases y continuar sus estudios durante la contingencia. ▪ Formas de interactuar que el profesorado y estudiantado llevaron a cabo durante la contingencia. ▪ Recursos digitales que emplearon el profesorado y estudiantado durante y previo a la contingencia. ▪ Herramientas digitales que emplearon el profesorado y estudiantado para su comunicación durante la contingencia
Chapter
While online courses/programs have become a critical component in the strategy of higher education institutions, the majority of the current academic discussions and evidence are from the institutional side rather than from the students' points of view. An understanding of how students behave when studying an online course can provide a great insight into the effectiveness of online delivery which is the task we embark upon in this study. The chapter per the author carried out the task by, first, summarizing the studies on the implementation strategy of online courses, the “no-significant difference” literature, and the research on the unique characteristics of online learners. Second, the author attempt to understand online learner behavior by analyzing students participation in 15 online courses during the years 2012-2015. The sample includes 106 students and their detailed log-on minutes and grades. The author applied descriptive analysis, a one-way ANOVA, and a simple regression model. The result suggests substantially discounted student attention while learning online.
Chapter
This chapter explores graduate students' experiences with synchronous online learning at a private liberal arts university in the U.S. With the increasing popularity of online learning in higher education in the last decade, in-depth studies focusing on teaching and learning in a synchronous environment are needed. The author seeks to develop an understanding of synchronous learning from the perspective of students using the community of inquiry model to frame students' experiences. The students surveyed for this chapter were practicing K-12 teachers enrolled in a graduate program in educational technology. Because of students' practical knowledge of teaching, learning, and best practices for instruction, their experiences in online courses provide valuable information about the impact of synchronous online learning. This chapter sheds light on the learning needs of graduate students in a synchronous environment. This chapter also provides recommendations for how synchronous tools can be leveraged for maximum positive influence on student learning within a community of inquiry.
Article
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This study evaluates emergency remote teaching for postgraduate programs. A descriptive-analytic ‎method was used, including quantitative and qualitative tools. A questionnaire (N = 144) was ‎administered based on the context, input, process, and product (CIPP) model for evaluation, and semi-‎structured interviews (N = 6 participants) were conducted to provide a comprehensive depiction ‎incorporating participants’ views from three Saudi universities. The results revealed participants had a ‎positive bias regarding their experience; the results were similar to those of a number of studies but ‎revealed increased consistency of distance learning characteristics, specifically, data, exceptions, and ‎objectives of higher stages. This study also revealed several transitive and positive effects along with ‎challenges that seem to confront not only emergency distance teaching but the whole experience of ‎distance learning.
Article
Purpose While blended learning has been proved to be successful in learning outcomes, the landscape of blended learning has changed under coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Hence, the present study aims to explore first-year university students' perceptions of wholly blended learning during the pandemic, through the three constructs in the community of inquiry (CoI) instrument, namely teaching, social and cognitive presences (CPs). Design/methodology/approach Survey data ( N = 449) were collected from the 2020 Fall Cohort in Hong Kong for quantitative analysis. Reliability and validity of the CoI model is examined, followed by correlation and independent-samples t -tests. Findings First-year students perceived overall low teaching, social and CPs with social presence (SP) scoring the highest. Findings also indicated that teaching presence (TP) significantly determined CP and SP; SP was a mediating variable in CoI. Students' gender and prior learning experience (online/blended) were not associated with perceptions of presences. Practical implications Students today are more familiar with technology-based communication, and staying up to date in educational technology is crucial for teachers. Trainings in online teaching should be provided to teachers. Also, interactive technology should focus on improving peer interaction. Originality/value The proposed study is novel in that it used the CoI model among first-year students in Hong Kong during the pandemic. Findings are valuable to higher education in understanding students' perception of bended learning and in addressing issues.
Article
Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology in the educational context, particularly chatbotics, has made significant changes in learning English. This mixed-methods study is intended to explore university students’ attitudes toward the potential role of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted mobile applications. Meanwhile, the role of social presence and human-likeness on learner motivation was examined through a chatbot lens. A total of 256 English as a foreign language (EFL) learners interacted with a chatbot known as Computer Simulation in Educational Communication (CSIEC). Participants’ audio-recorded practices, transcriptions, three scales of social presence, learner motivation, and human-likeness, along with a semi-structured focus group interview, were used to collect data, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. Moreover, thematic analysis was adopted to explore the participants’ attitudes and perceptions toward using CSIES. The quantitative results indicated that learner motivation was significantly predicted by social presence and human-likeness. The thematic analysis of qualitative data reflected that the attributed descriptions to the CSIEC teacher enhanced learners’ motivation, eagerness, and confidence to learn English. The findings of this study may be used to guide future research in using chatbots outside the classroom to serve as learning companions, and educators can utilize them to tailor assessment and feedback procedures.
Chapter
This chapter examines how online research mentors were able to support an international cohort of teacher-researchers who participated in classroom-based professional development in Electronic Village Online, facilitated by TESOL International Association. Research mentors and mentees interacted through written communication both synchronously and asynchronously. In the chapter, we analyse research mentors’ written feedback on the mentees’ development of their research plans, adopting three forms of presence: social, cognitive, and researching, as cited in Garrison’s (2009) community of inquiry (CoI). We argue that it is especially important for mentors to establish co-presence in online environment to support teacher-researchers’ engagement in reflective and critical interaction. Drawing on our findings, we suggest implications for enhancing online multilateral presence, as well as strategies for presence-supportive research mentoring.
Article
The community of inquiry contends that meaningful learning occurs in the interaction among the teaching, social, and cognitive presences. Although studies have validated the close relationships among the three presences, the roles of teaching presence indicators in students’ social and cognitive presences need to be further explored. Therefore, 592 Chinese college students were investigated through an online questionnaire. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was employed to analyze the collected data. Results demonstrate that the three indicators of teaching presence accounted for 56.9% of social presence and 53.4% of cognitive presence. Specifically, design and organization, and discourse facilitation had significantly positive correlations with social presence, while there was no significant correlation between direct instruction and social presence. Additionally, design and organization, discourse facilitation, and direct instruction had significantly positive correlations with cognitive presence. Results indicate that different indicators of teaching presence play different roles in students’ social and cognitive presences.
Article
BACKGROUND: While studies have investigated relationships among learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence, there appear to be no studies on the inclusion of industry talks and the theory of inventive problem-solving (TRIZ) in strengthening engineering students’ learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence within a blended learning setting. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of industry talks and TRIZ on learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence in a blended learning environment. METHODS: Data samples were obtained from 98 engineering students in a blended learning course and analysed using Spearman’s correlation test, regression, ANOVA, and t-test. RESULTS: Findings suggested that TRIZ and industry talks strongly, positively, and significantly correlated with learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence. A well-rounded learning experience compounded of TRIZ and industry talks significantly affected learning motivation, social presence, and cognitive presence, thereby enhancing students’ programme outcome (PO) achievement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings can be attributed to the students’ independent learning capabilities with TRIZ and industry talks. Analogically, embracing TRIZ and industry talks helps turn blended learning into a “sweet instead of bitter pill to swallow” for engineering students in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Chapter
This study examined the influences of growth mindset and math learning motivation on students’ online learning engagement. A sample of 1649 middle school students participated in the study. The findings suggested that cognitive presence and task-involved motivation played a driving role in students’ online learning engagement and that task-involved motivation indirectly affected their online learning engagement through teaching presence and cognitive presence. Self-concept of mathematics ability and ego-involved motivation also impacted engagement and three presences with different estimates. At the same time, growth mindset significantly affected teaching presence, cognitive presence, and online learning engagement. These findings imply that in the process of mathematics teaching, teachers should consciously facilitate students’ math learning motivation, especially task-involved motivation, to improve students’ learning engagement. In addition, teachers should encourage students to be positive about their ability, foster students’ teaching presence through abundant teaching interventions, and encourage students to think deeply about mathematical problems to develop students’ cognitive presence, ultimately improving students’ learning engagement. Future research should consider the impact of the relationship between motivation and students’ growth mindset.KeywordsGrowth mindsetMath learning motivationCommunity of inquiryEngagement
Research
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This research deals with Teaching Presence (TP), which is one of the three presences, but the most impactful one, in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model. The research has two unique features: 1. Most research on Teaching Presence deals with the students' perspective of this phenomenon, although it is the teacher who is responsible for creating Teaching Presence thus it is important that their perspective, challenges, and thought process be understood. 2. Almost all research has been Quantitative which can prove hypothesis, correlations, causal relationships. However, it does not go into the minds of the people to understand what and how people think. My research is Qualitative which provides rich, thick description of the perceptions and allows detailed analysis of the challenges from the human angle. 3. This research provides explanations of the common interchangeability error committed by many; using Teacher Presence and Teaching Presence as synonymous. It also provides tools for new teachers to design courses based on TP which is not something that one can insert laterally BUT it is a mindset that starts even before a course is planned.
Article
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The adoption of online learning approach in education is becoming more popular around the world to overcome the time and spatial barriers of traditional face-to-face learning. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the normality of learning and avoiding face-to-face activities is one tactic to minimise the spread of COVID-19. This study investigated the perception of online learning from students’ and teachers’ perspectives compared to traditional face-to-face learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten focus group interviews were conducted, nine of which involved fifty-five students, while the remaining one involved eight full-time teachers. All informants were recruited from two Hong Kong tertiary educational institutions: the Hong Kong Community College, and the School of Professional Education and Executive Development of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The Community of Inquiry model and Pedagogy-driven, Learner-Centred, Objective-Oriented and Technology-Enable model were adopted as a framework to analyse students’ and teachers’ perceptions of social presence, teaching presence, and cognitive presence. Qualitative content analysis indicated that teacher-student and student–student interactions were the biggest challenge in online learning, and this affected the acquisition and application of knowledge in terms of cognitive presence. Other factors such as personality, learning environment, and technical skills affected the perception of both online and face-to-face learning.
Thesis
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This dissertation is unique in two ways: 1. Almost all the research on Teaching Presence was done from the learners perspective, my research looks' at it from the Teachers' perspective; the challenges they see and how they try to overcome them. .Their understanding of this concept and how it helps them to design courses and improve learning outcomes. 2. Most research in this field was quantitative which cannot deal with perceptions and thought processes. My research is qualitative, thus it gives a rich, thick, in-depth description of the teachers' thinking, their perceptions, their feelings and how they struggle to beat the odds.
Article
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Establishing the identity of an individual is the foremost criteria for law agencies, medicolegal experts and experts in forensic science to correlate evidences and find motive behind the crime. Forensic science has made an astonishing progress in the field of forensic science from blood grouping to D.N.A fingerprinting& Anthropometry to Dactylography. Nevertheless, the most commonly used tool for identification beyond the forensic laboratories still remains the same i.e. built, complexion, stature, colour of eye, mole, scar mark etc. Hence, the aim of this current study is to establish a relationship between the dimension of foot and stature estimation. The present study was conducted among 200 medical students, out of which 100 were male students and 100 were female students. All the students were between the age group of 20-30 years. The data was analyzed using S.P.S.S (I.B.M version 20, Armonk, NY, U.S.A). The regression analysis showed that there is significant correlation between the foot parameters and stature. Keywords: Foot dimension, stature estimation, medical students, establish, correlate, identity.
Article
This study examined the hypothesized relationships between perceived teaching presence and social presence accounting for social-contextual factors in online learning environments and online students' basic psychological needs satisfaction. Participants enrolled in online courses at universities in the United States responded to an online survey and the survey data (N = 462) were analyzed using three hierarchical multiple regressions. Findings indicated that perceived teaching presence was a significant positive predictor of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, with greater contribution than social presence to the perceived satisfaction of the need for competence. Social presence was also a significant positive predictor of the three basic psychological needs, with greater contributions than teaching presence to the perceived satisfaction of the needs for autonomy and relatedness. These results point to the significance of both teaching presence and social presence as two key online presences that can positively influence students' basic psychological needs satisfaction, which is known to be crucial to higher-quality self-determined motivation and engagement. Our findings have implications for CoI theory development and practical implications for online teaching and learning.
Article
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The second edition of E-Learning in the 21st Century provides a coherent, comprehensive, and empirically-based framework for understanding e-learning in higher education. Garrison draws on his decades of experience and extensive research in the field to explore the technological, pedagogical, and organizational implications of e-learning. Most importantly, he provides practical models that educators can use to realize the full potential of e-learning. This book is unique in that it focuses less on the long list of ever-evolving technologies and more on the search for an understanding of these technologies from an educational perspective.
Article
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This chapter discusses the epistemological assumptions and theoretical foundations of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. Specifically, it addresses the central concepts of community, collaboration, constructivism, inquiry, discourse, metacognition, co-regulation, and motivation. The primary goal is to reinforce the CoI's theoretical coherence and enhance its practical utility in providing direction to the study and practice of e-learning in a range of education contexts.
Article
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This chapter presents a theoretical model of online learning, the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, which is grounded in John Dewey's progressive understanding of education. The CoI framework is a process model of online learning which views the online educational experience as arising from the interaction of three presences - social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. Each of these three elements in the CoI framework are described and related to Dewey's work, and research findings and issues concerning them reviewed. The development of a common CoI survey measure that promises to address some of these issues is described and discussed. The chapter concludes with emerging findings from new studies which use the CoI survey, directions for future research, and practical uses of the CoI framework.
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The focus of this chapter is on a framework that has drawn considerable interest in creating collaborative communities of inquiry in online learning environments (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000). The goal is to provide an overview and update of the Community of Inquiry Framework with a particular focus on social, cognitive and teaching presence that constitute the framework. Creating and sustaining a community of inquiry requires an understanding of the progressive or developmental nature of each of the presences and how they interact. This chapter will explore what constitutes each of the presences and implications for practice. Chapter Preview Top Community Of Inquiry A community of inquiry is not a new perspective in higher education. It builds upon existing collaborative-constructivist educational assumptions that have historically been identified with higher education. Moreover, many of the constructs and rationale evolved from the research literature in adult and higher education. At the same time, however, the assumptions of this framework foreshadow a new era of distance education. It reflects much of the work being done in the area of online learning. The concept of a community of inquiry is being used extensively to understand and guide the design and delivery of online learning experiences. A community of inquiry goes beyond accessing information and focuses on the elements of an educational experience that facilitate the creation of communities of learners actively and collaboratively engaged in exploring, creating meaning, and confirming understanding (i.e., inquiry). Constructing knowledge through discourse and shared understanding requires more than disseminating information either through a study package or lecturing. It requires a commitment to and participation in a community of learners that will support critical reflection and collaborative engagement. This deep and meaningful approach to learning is core to a community of inquiry and is becoming a practical necessity in an era where the creation of relevant and timely knowledge is of paramount importance. The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework recognizes the importance of the environment in shaping the educational experience. A CoI is a collaborative environment founded upon open but purposeful communication. The essential elements in this process are social, cognitive and teaching presence. It is in the overlap of the three presences where the essence of a community of inquiry exists and meaningful collaboration occurs. The elements of the CoI framework can be found in Figure 1. Figure 1. Purchase this chapter to continue reading all 4 pages >
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The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of an online educational experience through the lens of the Community of Inquiry framework. Transcript analysis of online discussion postings and the Community of Inquiry survey were applied to understand the progression and integration of each of the Community of Inquiry presences. The results indicated significant change in teaching and social presence categories over time. Moreover, survey results yielded significant relationships among teaching presence, cognitive presence and social presence, and students' perceived learning and satisfaction in the course. The findings have important implications theoretically in terms of confirming the framework and practically by identifying the dynamics of each of the presences and their association with perceived learning and satisfaction.
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This article examines work related to the development and validation of a measurement tool for the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework in online settings. The framework consists of three elements: social presence, teaching presence and cognitive presence, each of which is integral to the instrument. The 34 item instrument, and thus framework, was tested after being administered at four institutions in the Summer of 2007. The article also includes a discussion of implications for the future use of the CoI survey and the CoI framework itself. Introduction Online learning models are increasingly present in higher education. In 2006, 3.5 million, or almost 20%, of US higher education students were taking at least one online course (Allen & Seaman, 2007). While researchers have been relatively successful in identifying the properties of successful online learning environments (Aragon, 2003; Cleveland-Innes, Garrison & Kinsel, 2007), a more in-depth analysis requires a theoretical framework that illuminates the complexities of online learning. One model that has gained a good deal of attention is the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework developed by Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000). The CoI framework is a process model that provides a comprehensive theoretical model that can inform both research on online learning and the practice of online instruction. It assumes that effective online learning requires the development of a community (Rovai, 2002; Thompson & MacDonald, 2005; Shea, 2006) that supports meaningful inquiry and deep learning. Such development is not a trivial challenge in the online environment.
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Metacognition is a required cognitive ability to achieve deep and meaningful learning that must be viewed from both an individual and social perspective. Recently, the transition from the earliest individualistic models to an acknowledgement of metacognition as socially situated and socially constructed has precipitated the study of metacognition in collaborative learning environments. This study presents the results of research to develop and validate a metacognitive construct for use in collaborative learning environments. The metacognitive construct was developed using the Community of Inquiry framework as a theoretical guide and tested by applying qualitative research techniques in previous research. It has been tested in this research by way of developing a metacognition questionnaire. The results indicate that in order to better understand the structure and dynamics of metacognition in emerging collaborative learning environments, we must go beyond individual approaches to learning and consider metacognition in terms of complementary self and co-regulation that integrates individual and shared regulation.
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Since its publication in The Internet and Higher Education, Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105.] community of inquiry (CoI) framework has generated substantial interest among online learning researchers. This literature review examines recent research pertaining to the overall framework as well as to specific studies on social, teaching, and cognitive presence. We then use the findings from this literature to identify potential future directions for research. Some of these research directions include the need for more quantitatively-oriented studies, the need for more cross-disciplinary studies, and the opportunities for identifying factors that moderate and/or extend the relationship between the framework's components and online course outcomes.
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This article describes a practical approach to judging the nature and quality of critical discourse in a computer conference. A model of a critical community of inquiry frames the research. A core concept in defining a community of inquiry is cognitive presence. In turn, the practical inquiry model operationalizes cognitive presence for the purpose of developing a tool to assess critical discourse and reflection. The authors present encouraging empirical findings related to an attempt to create an efficient and reliable instrument to assess the nature and quality of critical discourse and thinking in a text‐based educational context. Finally, the authors suggest that cognitive presence (i.e., critical, practical inquiry) can be created and supported in a computer‐conference environment with appropriate teaching and social presence.
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This paper explores four issues that have emerged from the research on social, cognitive and teaching presence in an online community of inquiry. The early research in the area of online communities of inquiry has raised several issues with regard to the creation and maintenance of social, cognitive and teaching presence that require further research and analysis. The other overarching issue is the methodological validity associated with the community of inquiry framework.The first issue is about shifting social presence from socio-emotional support to a focus on group cohesion (from personal to purposeful relationships). The second issue concerns the progressive development of cognitive presence (inquiry) from exploration to resolution. That is, moving discussion beyond the exploration phase. The third issue has to do with how we conceive of teaching presence (design, facilitation, direct instruction). More specifically, is there an important distinction betweenfacilitation and direct instruction? Finally, the methodological issue concerns qualitative transcript analysis and the validity of the coding protocol.
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The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has become a prominent model of teaching and learning in online and blended learning environments. Considerable research has been conducted which employs the framework with promising results, resulting in wide use to inform the practice of online and blended teaching and learning. For the CoI model to continue to grow and evolve, constructive critiques and debates are extremely beneficial, in so much as they identify potential problems and weaknesses in the model or its application as well as provide direction for further research. In this context, the CoI framework was recently reviewed and critiqued by Rourke and Kanuka in their JDE article entitled "Learning in Communities of Inquiry: A Review of the Literature." This paper is a response to this article and focuses on two main issues. The first issue is the focus of the review and critique on learning outcomes. The second issue concerns the representation, comprehensiveness, and methodology of the review.
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This study assessed the depth of online learning, with a focus on the nature of online interaction in four distance education course designs. The Study Process Questionnaire was used to measure the shift in students' approach to learning from the beginning to the end of the courses. Design had a significant impact on the nature of the interaction and whether students approached learning in a deep and meaningful manner. Structure and leadership were found to be crucial for online learners to take a deep and meaningful approach to learning.
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This paper presents both a conceptual and empirical investigation of teaching and learning in online courses. Employing both the Community of Inquiry framework (CoI) and the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy, two complete online courses were examined for the quality of both collaborative learning processes and learning outcomes. The study examines evidence beyond learner reported satisfaction and learning, instead measuring both learning inputs and outcomes. Analysis of input includes quantitative content analysis of discussions using the CoI framework. Analysis of outcomes looks at both the quality of student learning artifacts such as case studies using the SOLO taxonomy as well as instructor‐assigned grades of specific related assignments. Results suggest that understanding of online instructional effort, processes, and learning outcomes can be improved through this more comprehensive, conceptually driven approach.
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The Community of Inquiry Framework is based on the premise that online learning is a collaborative constructivist activity. However, not all courses are similarly oriented. In general, courses can be divided into constructivist and objectivist. In constructivist courses, learners develop solutions to problems through sustained discourse and inquiry, making the learning a function of interaction with other learners. In objectivist courses, truths are considered absolute and learning is more heavily weighted toward interaction with content. This study examines the impact that these differing orientations have on student perceptions of community of inquiry by examining the factor patterns of courses characterized along two dimensions — objectivist/constructivist and individual/collaborative. The findings reveal that learner age may be one of the most significant determinants of whether and how course orientation is perceived.
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This paper focuses on deep and meaningful learning approaches and outcomes associated with online and blended communities of inquiry. Applying mixed methodology for the research design, the study used transcript analysis, learning outcomes, perceived learning, satisfaction, and interviews to assess learning processes and outcomes. The findings for learning processes and outcomes indicated that students in both online and blended courses were able to reach high levels of cognitive presence and learning outcomes. The results suggest that cognitive presence in a community of inquiry is associated with perceived and actual learning outcomes. It is recommended that future research efforts focus on quantitative measures to establish links between cognitive presence and the quality of learning outcomes.
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This paper presents a tool developed for the purpose of assessing teaching presence in online courses that make use of computer conferencing, and preliminary results from the use of this tool. The method of analysis is based on Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [1] model of critical thinking and practical inquiry in a computer conferencing context. The concept of teaching presence is constitutively defined as having three categories – design and organization, facilitating discourse, and direct instruction. Indicators that we search for in the computer conference transcripts identify each category. Pilot testing of the instrument reveals interesting differences in the extent and type of teaching presence found in different graduate level online courses.
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This study compares the experiences of students in face-to-face (in class) discussions with threaded discussions and also evaluates the threaded discussions for evidence of higher-order thinking. Students were enrolled in graduate-level classes that used both modes (face-to-face and online) for course-related discussions; their end-of-course evaluations of both experiences were grouped for analysis and themes constructed based on their comments. Themes included the "expansion of time," "experience of time," "quality of the discussion," "needs of the student," and "faculty expertise." While there are advantages to holding discussions in either setting, students most frequently noted that using threaded discussions increased the amount of time they spent on class objectives and that they appreciated the extra time for reflection on course issues. The face-to-face format also had value as a result of its immediacy and energy, and some students found one mode a better "fit" with their preferred learning mode. The analysis of higher-order thinking was based on a content analysis of the threaded discussions only. Each posting was coded as one of the four cognitive-processing categories described by Garrison and colleagues [1]: 18% were triggering questions, 51% were exploration, 22% were integration, and 7% resolution. A fifth category – social – was appropriate for 3% of the responses and only 12% of the postings included a writing error. This framework provides some support for the assertion that higher-order thinking can and does occur in online discussions; strategies for increasing the number of responses in the integration and resolution categories are discussed.
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The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that asynchronous online learning can create a rich cognitive presence capable of supporting effective, higher-order learning. It begins by exploring the properties of asynchronous online learning and their link with the dimensions of higher-order learning. The dimensions of higher-order learning emerge from the concepts of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition. Moreover, it is argued that the dimensions of higher-order learning, reflection and collaboration, are, in fact, congruent with the asynchronous and connectivity properties of online learning. Finally, the issues and principles of effective asynchronous online learning are explored.
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This article reports on the multi-institutional development and validation of an instrument that attempts to operationalize Garrison, Anderson and Archer's Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (2000). The results of the study suggest that the instrument is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the dimensions of social presence and cognitive presence, thereby providing additional support for the validity of the CoI as a framework for constructing effective online learning environments. While factor analysis supported the idea of teaching presence as a construct, it also suggested that the construct consisted of two factors—one related to course design and organization and the other related to instructor behavior during the course. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications of further refinement of the CoI measures for researchers, designers, administrators, and instructors.
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The focus of this study was to understand how a blended learning approach can support the inquiry process (cognitive presence) in a faculty development context. The findings from this study indicate that there are several key differences and similarities in cognitive presence between face-to-face and online discussions. These differences and similarities are specifically related to the four phases of cognitive presence of the practical inquiry model. A comparison of the face-to-face and online discussion forums indicates that: a slightly higher percentage of triggering events occurred in the face-to-face discussions; exploration was the dominant phase in both environments; a noticeably greater percentage of comments were coded for integration in the online discussions; and the resolution/application phase was almost non-existent in both forms of discussion. The results from this study imply that an increased emphasis should be placed on teaching presence within a blended learning environment to ensure that participants achieve resolution in the inquiry cycle.
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The purpose of this study is to provide conceptual order and a tool for the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and computer conferencing in supporting an educational experience. Central to the study introduced here is a model of community inquiry that constitutes three elements essential to an educational transaction—cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence. Indicators (key words/phrases) for each of the three elements emerged from the analysis of computer-conferencing transcripts. The indicators described represent a template or tool for researchers to analyze written transcripts, as well as a guide to educators for the optimal use of computer conferencing as a medium to facilitate an educational transaction. This research would suggest that computer conferencing has considerable potential to create a community of inquiry for educational purposes.
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In this paper, several recent theoretical conceptions of technology-mediated education are examined and a study of 2159 online learners is presented. The study validates an instrument designed to measure teaching, social, and cognitive presence indicative of a community of learners within the community of inquiry (CoI) framework [Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2, 1–19; Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23]. Results indicate that the survey items cohere into interpretable factors that represent the intended constructs. Further it was determined through structural equation modeling that 70% of the variance in the online students’ levels of cognitive presence, a multivariate measure of learning, can be modeled based on their reports of their instructors’ skills in fostering teaching presence and their own abilities to establish a sense of social presence. Additional analysis identifies more details of the relationship between learner understandings of teaching and social presence and its impact on their cognitive presence. Implications for online teaching, policy, and faculty development are discussed.
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This article provides a personal perspective about the development of the seminal papers associated with the Community of Inquiry Framework. The framework and its construction are described. The main part of the paper explores the evolution of the framework and its associated methodology. Finally, research associated with the validation of the framework and new research directions are reviewed.
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The causal relationships among the three presences in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework are explored and tested in this paper. The CoI framework has been used extensively in the research and practice of online and blended learning contexts. With the development of a survey instrument based on the CoI framework, it is possible to test the hypothesized causal relationships that teaching and social presence have a significant perceived influence on cognitive presence and that teaching presence is perceived to influence social presence. The results of this study confirm the factor structure of the CoI survey and the hypothesized causal relationships among the presences predicted by the CoI framework. These results point to the key role of teaching presence in establishing and sustaining a community of inquiry. Further research is called for to explore the dynamic relationships among the presences across disciplines and institutions as well as understand the existence and role of the specific sub-elements (categories) of each presence.
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As the growth of online programs continues to rapidly accelerate, concern over retention is increasing. Models for understanding student persistence in the face-to-face environment are well established, however, the many of the variables in these constructs are not present in the online environment or they manifest in significantly different ways. With attrition rates significantly higher than in face-to-face programs, the development of models to explain online retention is considered imperative. This study moves in that direction by exploring the relationship between indicators of the Community of Inquiry Framework and student persistence. Analysis of over 28,000 student records and survey data demonstrates a significant amount of variance in re-enrollment can be accounted for by indicators of Social Presence. published or submitted for publication is peer reviewed
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While Garrison and colleagues’ (2000) Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has generated substantial interest among online learning researchers, it has yet to be subjected to extensive quantitative verification or tested for external validity. Using a sample of students from 55 online MBA courses, the findings of this study suggest strong empirical support for the framework and its ability to predict both perceived learning and delivery medium satisfaction in online management education. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications for online management education researchers and those interested in further study of the CoI framework.
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This study compares the experiences of students in face-to-face (in class) discussions with threaded discussions and also evaluates the threaded discussions for evidence of higher-order thinking. Students were enrolled in graduate-level classes that used both modes (face-to-face and online) for course-related discussions; their end-of-course evaluations of both experiences were grouped for analysis and themes constructed based on their comments. Themes included the "expansion of time," "experience of time," "quality of the discussion," "needs of the student," and "faculty expertise." While there are advantages to holding discussions in either setting, students most frequently noted that using threaded discussions increased the amount of time they spent on class objectives and that they appreciated the extra time for reflection on course issues. The face-to-face format also had value as a result of its immediacy and energy, and some students found one mode a better "fit" with their preferred learning mode. The analysis of higher-order thinking was based on a content analysis of the threaded discussions only. Each posting was coded as one of the four cognitive-processing categories described by Garrison and colleagues [1]: 18% were triggering questions, 51% were exploration, 22% were integration, and 7% resolution. A fifth category - social - was appropriate for 3% of the responses and only 12% of the postings included a writing error. This framework provides some support for the assertion that higher-order thinking can and does occur in online discussions; strategies for increasing the number of responses in the integration and resolution categories are discussed.
Chapter
Causality was at the center of the early history of structural equation models (SEMs) which continue to serve as the most popular approach to causal analysis in the social sciences. Through decades of development, critics and defenses of the capability of SEMs to support causal inference have accumulated. A variety of misunderstandings and myths about the nature of SEMs and their role in causal analysis have emerged, and their repetition has led some to believe they are true. Our chapter is organized by presenting eight myths about causality and SEMs in the hope that this will lead to a more accurate understanding. More specifically, the eight myths are the following: (1) SEMs aim to establish causal relations from associations alone, (2) SEMs and regression are essentially equivalent, (3) no causation without manipulation, (4) SEMs are not equipped to handle nonlinear causal relationships, (5) a potential outcome framework is more principled than SEMs, (6) SEMs are not applicable to experiments with randomized treatments, (7) mediation analysis in SEMs is inherently noncausal, and (8) SEMs do not test any major part of the theory against the data. We present the facts that dispel these myths, describe what SEMs can and cannot do, and briefly present our critique of current practice using SEMs. We conclude that the current capabilities of SEMs to formalize and implement causal inference tasks are indispensible; its potential to do more is even greater.
Conference Paper
An economical alternative for the proposed Knik Arm crossing is likely to include a bridge structure and causeway combination. The causeway portion of the crossing has the potential for reflecting part of the twice-daily tide (or a long period wave) energy downstream on the flood tide and upstream on the ebb tide. The backwater effect of a structure during a flood wave on a river channel is an analogous situation. The energy reflection has the potential to change the water current and tidal height pattern away from the structure, which will be of particular concern in the vicinity of the Port of Anchorage. We conducted a preliminary computer model study of potential effect of the proposed crossing on the nearby hydraulic parameters of water surface elevation and velocity. We compared two situations-with and without the causeway. The fixed-bed model shows increased velocity (0.5 m/s) in the causeway opening and decreased velocity (–1.5 m/s) in the downstream lee areas of the causeway arms. The water surface elevation decreased somewhat (–0.5 m) in the downstream lee areas. A "no change" condition appears to exist in the vicinity of the Port of Anchorage.
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This study provides a simultaneous examination of all components of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000; Anderson, Rourke, Garrison & Archer, 2001; and Rourke, Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 1999) and seeks to extend previous work into the nature, development, and relationships between the constructs of “presence” hypothesized in the model. To accomplish this goal we use content and social network analysis to examine the discourse produced among all participants in two semester-length online asynchronous college courses. Coding for the existence and relative intensity of forms of presence we identify patterns and relationships between instructors' and students' teaching presence and social presence and the corresponding quantity and levels of the cognitive presence that emerges. The study reveals complex relationships between these variables that have implications for the development of higher order thinking and meaningful learning in online environments. Study findings also have implications for online teaching practice and ongoing research on the CoI framework.
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Despite the fundamental importance of research design processes to educational research projects, research design needs to be more intentional. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether using an online learning resource and engaging in online discussion fostered learners' knowledge about educational research design and facilitated critical thinking about research. 189 learners enrolled in 10 research methods courses and workshops offered through two higher education institutions participated in this mixed methods study. Quantitative data were collected through online surveys including the CoI framework. Standard multiple regression was used to predict the effects of social and teaching presences on the development of cognitive presence. Hierarchical multiple regression was then used to assess the ability of teaching and social presences to predict cognitive presence development, after controlling for self-directed learning readiness, prior online learning experience, and prior collaborative learning experience. Qualitative data were later collected from online course transcripts and interviews to support the quantitative findings. Critical discourse was further assessed using content analysis. Preliminary findings from these analyses showed that teaching and social presence explained approximately 69% of the variance in cognitive presence. Both teaching and social presences continued to make significant contributions to the prediction of cognitive presence after controlling for self-directed learning readiness, prior online learning experience, and prior collaborative learning experience.
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This book illustrates the ways that teachers, by seeing learning through children's eyes, create new possibilities for their students' intrinsic motivation and meaningful learning. Motivation and learning are linked in a view of knowledge that is called social constructivism, the theory that undergirds the ideas in this book. Social constructivist theorists acknowledge multiple constructions of the world. In social constructivist theory, each human being makes sense of the world in a unique way. For teachers to facilitate students' learning, therefore, it is essential that they seek to understand students' unique constructions and to see learning through their students' eyes. Social constructivism has major implications for the ways we understand learning, the ways we as teachers think about our roles, and the ways we teach. Our main purpose in this book is to propose a vision of the ways that learning experiences are transformed when teachers are learning through children's eyes. Seeing learning through children's eyes brings about important changes in classroom culture, including ways that curriculum is negotiated and enacted, changing the content of the curriculum, and changing relationships among all members of the classroom community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Abstract In this case study, we examined the influence of five groups of communication activities on the quality of students’ contributions to online discussion. The activities were the nominal group technique, debate, invited expert, WebQuest and reflective deliberation. Quality of discussion was operationalised as cognitive presence, a construct developed to investigate the role of critical discourse in higher, distance education contexts. Using the quantitative content analysis technique, the postings of 19 students in an undergraduate university course were assigned to one of the four categories of cognitive presence. Across the five activities, the proportion and number of contributions categorised in the highest phases of cognitive presence was low (20.21%), but was highest during the Webquest and debate activities. There are three advantageous qualities of these two activities, we argue: • They were well structured. • They provided clearly defined roles and responsibilities for the students. • They provoked the students to explicitly confront others’ opinions.
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop and field-test the Classroom Community Scale and to determine its validity and reliability for use with university students taking courses at a distance via the Internet. The 20-item Classroom Community Scale measures sense of community in a learning environment. Data were collected from 375 students enrolled in 28 different courses, offered for graduate credit via the Blackboard e-learning system by a private university. It was concluded that the Classroom Community Scale is a valid and reliable measure of classroom community and that this instrument yields two interpretable factors, connectedness and learning.
Article
This article introduces the special issue on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework which is being published ten years after the model was first introduced. Since that time the CoI framework has been used to guide and inform both research and practice worldwide. We are very honored to have articles by the original three authors of the CoI model in this special issue. The special issue also contains articles by leading CoI researchers as well as some scholars who are just beginning to use the framework.
Article
Drawing on the Community of Inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000), this mixed-method case study examined the nature and interactions of teaching, cognitive, and social presence created by online instructors and adult students in diverse course contexts. The study results indicated online instructional design and teaching elements that are crucial prerequisites for a successful online higher educational experience for adult students. The study also informed e-learning designers on the relations between online teaching, cognitive, and social presence.
Article
Discussion boards provide an interactive venue where new and future language teachers can reflect, evaluate, solve problems or simply exchange ideas (e.g., Bonk, Hansen, Grabner-Hagen, Lazar, & Mirabelli, 1996; DeWert, Babinski, & Jones, 2003; Kumari, 2001; Pawan, Paulus, Yalcin, & Chang, 2003). In addition, encouraging future teachers to learn with technology before teaching with it allows them to become comfortable using various computer applications. This article examines transcripts from a semester-long asynchronous discussion between foreign language methodology classes at two different universities. Social and cognitive presence in the discussions was analyzed using Garrison, Anderson, and Archer’s Framework of a Community of Inquiry (2001). The results indicate that students engaged in a high degree of interactivity as well as all types of social and cognitive presence. These findings indicate that students not only progressed in their cognitive understanding of the pedagogical topics, but also employed social presence, the more dominant of the two, to aid their discussions. The topics seemed to play an important role in the type of cognitive activity evident in the discussions. These results differ from those of studies which found that students did not engage in interactivity (Henri, 1995; Pena-Shaff & Nicholls, 2004) and others which noted low levels of social presence (Garrison, et al. 2001; Meyer, 2003).
Article
Because structural equation modeling (SEM) has become a very popular data-analytic technique, it is important for clinical scientists to have a balanced perception of its strengths and limitations. We review several strengths of SEM, with a particular focus on recent innovations (e.g., latent growth modeling, multilevel SEM models, and approaches for dealing with missing data and with violations of normality assumptions) that underscore how SEM has become a broad data-analytic framework with flexible and unique capabilities. We also consider several limitations of SEM and some misconceptions that it tends to elicit. Major themes emphasized are the problem of omitted variables, the importance of lower-order model components, potential limitations of models judged to be well fitting, the inaccuracy of some commonly used rules of thumb, and the importance of study design. Throughout, we offer recommendations for the conduct of SEM analyses and the reporting of results.
Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States
  • I E Allen
  • J Seaman
Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States. Babson Park, MA: Babson Park Research Group and Quahog Research Group (Retrieved from: http://babson.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_4SjGnHcStH5g9G5)
Eight myths about causality and structural equation models Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research (pp. 301–328) An explo-ration of the relationship between indicators of the community of inquiry framework and retention in online programs
  • K A Bollen
  • J Pearl
  • W Boston
  • S R Diaz
  • A M Gibson
  • P Ice
  • J C Richardson
  • K Swan
Bollen, K. A., & Pearl, J. (2013). Eight myths about causality and structural equation models. In S. L. Morgan (Ed.), Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research (pp. 301–328). Dordrecht: Springer. Boston, W., Diaz, S. R., Gibson, A. M., Ice, P., Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. (2009). An explo-ration of the relationship between indicators of the community of inquiry framework and retention in online programs. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(3), 67–83.
The community of inquiry framework meets the SOLO taxonomy: a process-product model of online learning. Educational Media International A re-examination of the community of inquiry framework: social network and content analysis
  • P Shea
  • M Gozza-Cohen
  • S Uzuner
  • R Mehta
  • A V Valtcheva
  • S Hayes
Shea, P., Gozza-Cohen, M., Uzuner, S., Mehta, R., Valtcheva, A. V., Hayes, S., et al. (2011). The community of inquiry framework meets the SOLO taxonomy: a process-product model of online learning. Educational Media International, 48(2), 101–113 (Retrieved from http://www.suny.edu/sunytrainingcenter/files/TeachingPresence.pdf) Shea, P., Hayes, S., Vickers, J., Gozza-Cohen, M., Uzuner, S., Mehta, R., et al. (2010). A re-examination of the community of inquiry framework: social network and content analysis. The Internet and Higher Education, 13, 10–21.
Does the community of inquiry framework predict outcomes in online MBA courses? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning
  • J B Arbaugh
Arbaugh, J. B. (2008). Does the community of inquiry framework predict outcomes in online MBA courses? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2), 1-21.
  • P R Lowenthal
  • J C Dunlap
Lowenthal, P. R., & Dunlap, J. C. (2013). Problems Measuring Social Presence in a Community of Inquiry. E-Learning and Digital Media, 11(1). (in press).
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