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Evaluation on Nutritional Value of Field Crickets as a Poultry Feedstuff

  • Northwest A&F University

Abstract and Figures

The proximate analysis, amino acid content and true amino acid digestibility and TMEn for poultry of adult Field crickets Gryllus testaceus Walker, were investigated. The insect was also used as partial replacement of protein supplements in the broiler diet on an equal CP percentage and TMEn basis. The results indicated that the adult insect contained: crude protein 58.3%; fat 10.3%, chitin 8.7% and ash 2.96% on dry matter basis, respectively. The total amounts of methionine, cystine and lysine in the Field crickets were 1.93%, 1.01% and 4.79%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were 94.1%, 85% and 96%, respectively. The TMEn of this insect meal was 2,960 kcal/kg determined in cecectomized roosters. When cornsoybean meal diets were formulated on an equal CP percentage and TMEn basis, up to 15% Field cricket could replace control diet without any adverse affects on broiler weight gain, feed intake or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 20 d posthatching.
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With the high rate at which the world population was
growing, the world food supply should grow at the same
rate if not faster. The most affected from these would be the
people in the so-called third world countries. Therefore it
was essential that cheaper sources of protein and other
nutrients be found. This could be obtained from the plant
materials in abundance (Rama Rao et al., 2004) or
utilization of the wastes (Cho et al., 2004). However, insects,
which were said to have a huge quantity in the nature,
should be given priority in this quest. In fact, insects have
played an important role in nutrition, especially in areas
where human and domestic animal populations were
subjected to chronic protein deficiency (DeFoliart et al.,
1975; Conconi et al., 1984; DeFoliart et al., 1989). Though
the chemical composition and nutritional value of some
insects have been extensively investigated in various parts
of the world (Phelps et al., 1975; Finke et al., 1985;
DeFoliart et al., 1989;), more attention was paid to use
insects as feedstuff (DeFoliart et al., 1982; Landry et al.,
1986; Nakagaki et al., 1987). Compared to those insects, the
Field cricket (Gryllus testaceus walker) occurs in dense in
most areas of China and could be easily harvested in a
considerable amount. Furthermore, it could be mass rearing
under controlled condition according to our previous work.
Therefore, we conducted the study on its nutritional profile
and protein quality for poultry to demonstrate the
nutritional value of Field cricket.
Insect samples were adults of Field cricket G. t e s t a c e u s
(50% male and female respectively), collected in Yangling
district of Shannxi province in China. Shortly after
collection, samples were stored at -20°C until required for
analysis. Before analyses samples were washed with tap
water, rinsed with distilled water, oven dried at 50°C for 72
h and ground to a 80 mesh size.
Other feedstuffs were purchased from Huaqing feed
company of Shannxi province in China.
Chemical analysis
The ash, fat content and crude protein for field cricket
and other feedstuffs were analyzed according to the
procedures of AOAC (1990). Amino acids (AA) were
determined with a Beckman Amino Acid Analyzer (121 MB,
from America) after hydrolyzing with 6 N hydrochloric acid
for 22 h at 110°C. Methionine and cystine were analyzed by
using formic acid (9 parts of 88% formic acid plus 1 part
30% hydrogen peroxide) protection prior to acid hydrolysis
(6 N hydrochloric acid for 22 h at 110°C). Chitin was
prepared and determined by the methods of Wang et al.
True amino acid digestibility and TMEn
The precision-fed rooster experiments were conducted
to determine the TMEn and true amino acid digestibility
(TAAD) according to the methods of Douglas (1997). The
Field cricket and fishmeal were respectively crop-intubated
(30 g) to cecectomized roosters for the true digestibility of
amino acid and TMEn. Adult Single Comb White Leghorn
roosters were used for the experiments, and excreta were
collected for 48 h after incubation. Gross energy was
Evaluation on Nutritional Value of Field Crickets as a Poultry Feedstuff
Dun Wang1, 3, *, Shao Wei Zhai1, 2, Chuan Xi Zhang3, Yao Yu Bai3, Shi Heng An3 and Ying Nan Xu2
1College of Forest, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Shannxi Yangling 712100, P. R. China
ABSTRACT : The proximate analysis, amino acid content and true amino acid digestibility and TMEn for poultry of adult Field
crickets Gryllus testaceus Walker, were investigated. The insect was also used as partial replacement of protein supplements in the
broiler diet on an equal CP percentage and TMEn basis. The results indicated that the adult insect contained: crude protein 58.3%; fat
10.3%, chitin 8.7% and ash 2.96% on dry matter basis, respectively. The total amounts of methionine, cystine and lysine in the Field
crickets were 1.93%, 1.01% and 4.79%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were
94.1%, 85% and 96%, respectively. The TMEn of this insect meal was 2,960 kcal/kg determined in cecectomized roosters. When corn-
soybean meal diets were formulated on an equal CP percentage and TMEn basis, up to 15% Field cricket could replace control diet
without any adverse affects on broiler weight gain, feed intake or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 20 d posthatching. (Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.
2005. Vol 18, No. 5 : 667-670)
Key Words : Field Cricket, Composition Analysis, Amino Acid Digestibility, Growth Performance, Poultry
* Corresponding Author: Dun Wang. Tel: +86-571-86971697,
Fax: +86-13175119081, E-mail:
2 College of Animal Science, Zhejiang university, Hangzhou,
310029, P. R. China.
3 Institute of Applied Entomology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
310029, P. R. China.
Received September 20, 2004; Accepted December 22, 2004
determined by using a bomb calorimeter. TAAD were
calculated according to the method of Sibbald (1979), and
TMEn was calculated by the method of Parsons et al.
(1982). Endogenous energy and AA were determined from
roosters that were deprived of feed for 48 h.
Insect meal substitution assay
The second experiment was conducted to determine the
growth performance of broilers fed experimental diets. 200
one-week-old Arbor Acres broilers were used in this broiler
The room temperature ranged from 20°C to 23°C. Feed
and water were supplied ad libitum and light was provided
24 h daily. The broilers were fed a 21.3% CP pretest diet
(control diet) during the first 7 d posthatching. Following
overnight fasting, the broilers were wing-banded, randomly
selected, weighed in groups of five and transferred to wire
cages for dietary treatments. The broilers of two adjacent
cages were considered an experimental replicate and the
four diets were fed to five replicates of 10 broilers from 8 to
20 d posthatching (50 broilers per treatment). The broiler
feeding trials were designed for three levels of replacements
of protein source by insect meal (5%, 10% and 15%) when
substituted for corn and soybean meal (Table 1). Diets
containing insect meal were formulated to be equal in
TMEn and CP percentage to the control diet. The TMEn,
CP and digestible amino acid values used for the insect
meal and fish meal were those values determined in the
precision-fed rooster assays, respectively, described above.
TMEn, CP and digestible amino acid values for corn and
soybean meal and the TMEn for soybean oil were analyzed
prior to initiation of the experiment.
Statistical analysis
All data from the experiments were analyzed using the
ANOVA procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, 1990) for
completely randomized designs. Statistical significances of
differences among treatments were assessed using the
Duncan’s multiple-range test.
Proximate composition analysis of field cricket
The proximate composition of Field cricket was listed
in Table 2. The crude protein percentage of Field cricket
was 58.3% on a dry basis, comparable with those of
conventional protein feed supplements, soybean meal, meat
and bone meal and fishmeal. This cricket was higher than
percentages of proteins reported for many insects, such as
58% protein content found in Mormon cricket Anabrus
simplex Haldeman (DeFoliart et al., 1982) and a protein
contents range of from 49.4% to 58.1% six larvaes of
species belonged to Lepidoptera (Landry et al., 1986), but
was somewhat lower than protein contents of some species,
Table 1. Composition of diets for insect meal substitution assay
Ingredients Control diet 5% insect meal 10% insect meal 15% insect meal
Ground corn 57.29 57.66 58.43 59.59
Soybean meal 22.50 21.10 18.50 15.30
Fish meal 10.00 6.00 3.00 -
Insect meal - 5.00 10.00 15.00
Soybean oil 7.10 6.70 6.20 5.80
Ground limestone 1.00 1.20 1.20 1.40
Dicalcium phosphate 1.00 1.30 1.70 2.00
Salt 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Vitamin mix1 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Trace mineral mix2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
DL-methionine 0.28 0.24 0.20 0.16
L-lysine 0.08 0.05 0.02 -
Calculated composition
CP 21.3 21.3 21.3 21.0
Ca 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Nonphytate P 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Digestible lysine 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16
Digestible met+cys 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.91
TMEn (kcal/kg) 3,210 3,210 3,210 3,210
1 Provided per kg of diet: vitamin A (from vitamin A acetate) 4,400 IU; cholecalciferol (as activated animal sterol) 1,000 IU; vitamin E (from dl-alpha
tocopheryl acetate) 11 IU; vitamin B12 0.01 mg; riboflavin 4.41 mg; niacin 22 mg; pantothenic acid 10 mg; menadione (from menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol) 1.0 mg; folic acid 0.9 mg; thiamin (from thiamine mononitrate) 1.0 mg; pyridoxine (from pyridoxine hydrochloride) 2.0 mg.
2 Provided per kg of diet: Mn (from manganese oxide) 75 mg; Zn (from zinc oxide) 75 mg; Fe (from iron sulfate) 50 mg; Cu (from from copper sulfate) 5
mg; I (from ethylene diamine dihydroiodide) 1 mg; Se (from sodium selenite) 0.2mg.
3 The Ca and P values for fish meal, corn and soybean meal were derived from the NRC (1994). The TMEnof soybean oil, corn and soybean meal were
analyzed to be 8,370 kcal/kg, 3,250 kcal/kg and 2,240 kcal/kg respectively. The CP of corn and soybean meal were determined to be 8.5% and 46.8%
respectively. The other values were previously analyzed and listed in Table 2 to Table 4.
for examples, 62% protein content in House cricket Acheta
domesticus L. (Nakagaki et al., 1987) and 68% protein
content in silkworm pupae (Wei and Liu, 2001). The results
also indicated that the fat and, thus, energy content was
higher in this insect powder than in the conventional protein
supplements in all cases (Table 2). Chitin was used as a
toxin binder and chitin supplementation significantly
diminished the adverse effects of aflatoxin (Khajarern et al.,
2003). The chitin content of this insect was 8.7%, and
whether the insect chitin played a role of toxin binder or
contributed any effects to broiler growth performance still
needed further study.
Amino acid profile
Total amino acid profiles for Field cricket and fishmeal
were shown in Table 3. The amino acids percentages of
Field cricket were higher than those of fishmeal except for
histidine. The percentage of lysine, methionine and cysteine
were 4.79%, 1.93% and 1.01% respectively in Field cricket
while they were 4.51%, 1.59% and 0.49% in fishmeal,
indicated that the essential amino acids of this insect were
adequate for poultry. Contrastively, the earlier studies
showed that the essential amino acid of Mormon cricket and
house cricket were deficient in methionine (DeFoliart et al.,
1982; Finke et al., 1985; Nakagaki et al., 1987). For
example, the percentage of lysine and methionine were
3.48% and 0.93% respectively (Cysteine was not reported,
Nakagaki et al., 1987) in House cricket. In addition, the
essential amino acids of larval of six species of Lepidoptera
were deficient in methionine, cysteine and possibly lysine
(Landry et al., 1986). Thus, Field cricket had an advantage
on amino acid composition compared with other insects
reported, that was, Field cricket contained high quantity of
True digestibility of field cricket
Our first rooster experiment was for true amino acid
digestibility coefficients and TMEn values of the insect and
the results were shown in Table 4. The true amino acid
digestibility coefficients for essential amino acids ranged
from 82% for cysteine to 99% for asparagine. The TMEn of
the Field cricket was found to be 2,960 kcal/kg as measured
in conventional birds. Most of the TAAD coefficients for
Field cricket were higher than those for fishmeal except for
isoleucine, tyrosine, serine and glutamic acid. The average
of TAAD coefficients of Field cricket (92.9%) was higher
than that of fish meal (91.3%). It revealed that the Field
cricket contained not only high quantity of protein but also
considerable amounts of digestible amino acid for poultry.
Growth performance of broilers fed experimental diets
In the second broiler experiment where insect meal
Table 2. Chemical analysis of Field cricket compared with other
feedstuffs (g/100 g, dry matter basis)1
Content %
Proximate analysis Ash Chitin Fat Crude
Field cricket 2.96 8.7 10.3 58.3
Fish meal 12.51 - 4.11 60.2
Meat and bone meal 31.65 - 8.47 48.5
Soybean meal 6.13 - 1.84 46.8
1 All the values were the means of five determinations.
Table 3. Amino acid profile of Field cricket compared with fish
meal (g/100 g, dry matter basis)1
Amino acid
profile Field cricket (CP: 58.3)
AA percentage2
Fish meal (CP: 60.2)
AA percentage
Arg 3.68 3.24
His 1.94 3.7
Ile 3.09 2.33
Leu 5.52 4.20
Lys 4.79 4.51
Met 1.93 1.59
Cys 1.01 0.49
Phe 2.86 2.35
Tyr 3.94 1.72
Thr 2.75 2.25
Val 4.42 2.62
Asp 6.29 4.77
Ser 3.72 2.06
Glu 9.07 6.02
Ala 5.55 3.33
Pro 4.50 2.71
Gly 3.62 3.11
1 All the values were the means of five determinations.
2 AA means amino acid.
Table 4. True amino acid digestibility coefficients and TMEn for
Field cricket and fish meal1
Components Field cricket Fish meal Pooled SEM
Arg 93.6 90.8 2.3
His 96.2 93.3 2.7
Ile 89.1 90.1 1.7
Leu 93.6 93.5 4.4
Lys 96.0 92.0 2.2
Met 94.1 93.1 3.2
Cys 85.0 83.7 2.1
Phe 93.2 91.0 4.1
Tyr 92.7 93.2 3.2
Thr 95.3 91.7 2.4
Val 94.4 91.7 2.4
Asp 96.0 90.2 1.9
Ser 90.6 91.4 2.6
Glu 89.9 91.7 3.7
Ala 96.4 94.5 2.9
Pro 91.0 88.2 1.0
Mean 92.9 91.3
TMEn 2,960 2,820
1 The true amino acid digestibility was the mean of five cecectomized
roosters, expressed on an air-dry basis.
2 TAAD means true amino acid digestibility.
replaced partial protein supplement on an equal of CP
percentage and TMEn basis, broilers growth were not
significantly affected among diets with up to 15% insect
meals (Table 5). These results agree with previous research
on broiler (Finke et al., 1985) that were no significant
differences in weight gain or feed/gain ratios between
broilers fed corn-cricket diets and those fed reference diets.
Nakagaki et al. (1987) reported that gain/feed ratios
improved significantly when diets were supplemented with
methionine and arginine and based on an equal of TMEn
and CP percentage. The difference of gain/feed ratios
between our research and Nakagaki’s (1987) was probably
due to difference of the insect species and the supplemented
amino acids, methionine and arginine. However, it was
ascertained that the protein of Field cricket had no adverse
effect as a feedstuff.
Our results indicated that the Field cricket contained not
only certain quantity of protein but also considerable
amounts of digestible amino acid. The Field cricket had an
advantage on composition of amino acids for poultry,
especially the percentage of lysine, methionine and cysteine,
so it might be a new source of dietary nitrogen for poultry,
at least would be extremely beneficial as a complement to a
domestic animal diet and could be fitted in to meal patterns
in a variety of ways. For this reason, the utilization of the
insect resource as feed was practical and helpful for the
protein deficiency for some area, especially the poverty
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Table 5. Growth performance of broilers fed a diet containing
different amounts of insect meal on an equal TMEn and digestible
amino acid basis1
Diets Weight gain (g) Feed intake Gain:feed
Control diet 351 568 0.618
5% insect meal 357 575 0.621
10% insect meal 352 558 0.631
15% insect meal 351 576 0.609
Pooled SEM 3 9 0.008
1 Means of five groups of ten broilers, average initial weight=96 g.
... Recently, researchers reported that insects have been recommended as alternative protein sources in animal feed with high crude protein (CP) levels and good quality amino acid profiles (Wang et al., 2005;Sanchez-Muros et al., 2014). Previous studies suggested that insect meal such as black soldier fly larvae, house fly maggots, mealworm, grasshoppers, crickets, and silkworm meals can be partly replaced fish meal (FM) or soybean meal (SBM). ...
... Previous studies suggested that insect meal such as black soldier fly larvae, house fly maggots, mealworm, grasshoppers, crickets, and silkworm meals can be partly replaced fish meal (FM) or soybean meal (SBM). Insect meal has comparable CP and fat contents to FM and SBM (Makkar et al., 2014) and does not adverse effects on poultry production (Wang et al., 2005;Permatahati et al., 2019;Moula and Detilleux, 2019). In Vietnam, white-eared Junglefowl have been popular recently, particularly in remote areas, due to good quality meat and low feed cost compared to commercial broilers. ...
... These findings were consistent with prior research in which insects had no measurable impact on feed intake (Onsongo et al., 2018;Moula and Detilleux, 2019). Wang et al. (2005) found that Arbor Acres broiler consumed field cricket meals up to 15% without affecting DMI. In addition, Permatahati et al. (2019) reported that DMI from female Japanese quail was not affected by female field cricket supplementation by up to 8%. ...
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This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of cricket meal substituted soybean meal in the diet of white-eared Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) on feed intake and weight gain. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (4 white-eared Junglefowl per replication). The treatments consisted of control: diet without cricket meal (control); treatment 1: a diet containing 3% cricket meal (3CM) to substitute 12.05% of soybean meal; treatment 2: a diet containing 6% cricket meal (6CM) to substitute 26.93% of soybean meal. The results from the experiment showed that birds consumed up to 6% cricket meal in the diets without the negative impacts on dry matter intake (DMI), body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion rate (FCR) as compared to the control (p>0.05). However, birds supplemented with 3% cricket meal improved weight gain and decreased FCR compared to control (p<0.05). Additionally, Junglefowl fed with 3% cricket meal were the best choices for economic return. It can be concluded that cricket meal was considered as a protein resource that can partly replace soybean meal in the diet of white-eared Junglefowl.
... Insect meal has been developed as the best substitute ingredient to be included in animal feed (Abdel-Tawwab et al., 2020;Abdel-Latif et al., 2021) due to its high amino acid content, lipid profiles with high digestibility (Wang et al., 2005;Nogales-Merida et al., 2019) and high content of vitamins and minerals (Akinawa & Ketiku, 2000). Furthermore, insect farming has several advantages over traditional animal feed, including environmentally friendly breeding conditions, a short life cycle, lower production cost, lower carbon footprint, less competition for space or resource complement and high feed conversion efficiency (Henry et al., 2015;Huis & Oonincx, 2017;Taufek et al., 2017;Dickie et al., 2019;Lambert et al., 2022). ...
... Amino acid profiles of the ingredients are more important in the feed formulations than crude protein content (Houlihan et al., 2001). EAAs of FM and FCM were comparable to estimated requirements for Nile tilapia (Table 3), which are close to earlier reports (Houlihan et al., 2001;Wang et al., 2005;Taufek et al., 2017;Perera & Bhujel, 2022;Hanan et al., 2022). Lysine content in FCM is comparable to FM, and some EAAs are available in higher concentrations than HCM. ...
Insect meal is a candidate and promising ingredient to replace the unsustainable fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds. However, previous studies showed that the total replacement of FM with some insect meals was not successful for some stages of Nile tilapia. Therefore, this experiment aimed to evaluate the growth performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings, replacing the FM with house cricket meal (HCM) and field cricket meal (FCM). The FM of the control diet (100FM) was 100% replaced in the house cricket-included diet (100HCM) and field cricket-included diet (100FCM). All the fish were fed on the respective research diets for six weeks. The weight gain (WG), daily weight gain (DWG), and relative weight gain (RWG) of 100FM were significantly (P<0.05) higher than in 100HCM and 100FCM. However, the specific growth rate (SGR) of 100FM was not significantly different from 100FCM, while the SGR of 100HCM was significantly lower than both 100FM and 100FCM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 100FM and 100FCM were statistically similar (P<0.05), and significantly lower than that of 100HCM. Survival was not significantly different among all the treatments. Results suggest that FCM has the potential as an alternative to FM in Nile tilapia fingerling feed.
... In the same line, Perera and Bhujel (2021) used cricket meal to replace fish meal in Oreochromis niloticus diets, obtaining better results in growth with partial substitutions than with total substitution. Similarly, Wang et al. (2005) argued that the use of cricket meal in isoproteic and isonergic poultry diets was more productive and beneficial at low inclusion levels. This result could be extrapolated to other insect Figure 1. ...
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Sustainable poultry meat production involves the use of slow-growing chick strains and the utilization of new protein sources as an alternative to the current monopoly of soybean meal. In this scenario, a study was conducted to assess the effect of replacing soybean meal with domestic cricket (Acheta domesticus) meal on the developing cycle of slow-growing chicks. To this end, a total of 128 one-day-old male chicks (Colorield) were randomly assigned into 16 experimental units, each consisting of eight chicks, which in turn were grouped into two groups fed isoproteic and isoenergetic diets in which the protein source differed: the control group (C) fed soybean meal and the Acheta group (AD) fed Acheta domesticus insect meal as the main protein source. Chicks were slaughtered at 95 days of age. Three different diets (F1, F2 and F3) were used for each experimental group according to the nutritional needs of the birds during their growth. The F1 diet (1-29 d) resulted in higher feed and water intake and higher body weight gain for group C, but a lower feed conversion rate. On the contrary, during F2 (29-60 d) no differences in productive performances were observed between the two groups, except for a higher water intake for group C. Finally, during the period corresponding to diet F3 (60-95 d) there were only differences in feed intake, which was higher for the AD group. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal for Acheta domesticus meal caused a decrease in feed intake during the first month and consequently a lower body weight. During the first four weeks of life of the chicks, a partial replacement of soybean meal may be recommended, since high inclusions of A. domesticus meal in this period seem to be detrimental in young chicks. Given the absence of relevant differences in productive performances between both groups, it could be concluded that the use of A. domesticus cricket meal can be a potential protein alternative to soybean meal.
... Orthoptera, like other insects, are highly nutritious and contain high amounts of protein. Several grasshoppers, leafhoppers, and cricket species are already used for raising pets and zoo animals and have been investigated for livestock feed [52]. ...
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Every day, there is an increase in environmental damage on the planet regarding human action. One of the causes is food production. Edible insects are presented as an option to mitigate the environmental damage generated by the production of conventional food for humans and animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the main nutritional aspects of insects and how they can provide a nutritional and sustainable alternative to the planet. As the main results, the nine orders of insects that are most consumed on the planet are presented: Blattodea, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, and Orthoptera. Their main macro- and micronutrient aspects as well as their bioavailable and bioaccessibility proteins and essential amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, and fiber (chitin) are also explored. Additionally, some of the species that are used for animal food processing and the possible risks that insects can present when used as food are discussed. With this, edible insects are established as a real option to mitigate climate change being an important nutritional source for the development of food for humans and animals.
... Several types of insects belonging to the order of Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Trichoptera, Odonata, and Diptera can decompose organic wastes and reduce odors and the presence of pathogenic microbes (Surendra et al. 2020). Other insects can live in various organic wastes, such as the Hong Kong caterpillar or mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) (Azizah et al. 2019;Schiavone et al. 2019), locust insects (Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria) (Alegbeleye et al. 2012;van Huis 2013), crickets (Acheta domestica and Gryllodes sigillatus) (Wang et al. 2005; Navarro del Hierro et al. 2020), house fly (Musca domestica) (Adesina et al. 2012;Okah and Onwujiariri 2012), and black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucent) (Purnamasari et al. 2019). ...
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The use of black soldier fly (BSF) as a bioconversion agent has become an emerging breakthrough in waste processing. Organic wastes, such as household waste and livestock manure, can be used as a growth medium for BSF larvae and converted into favorable products. The average composting time of BSF larvae is around 12– 15 days, which is faster than that of microbes or earthworms (4–5 weeks). BSF shows potential as a feed and food ingredient because it has a high nutritional content, such as enzyme, chitin, medium-chain fatty acid, and antimicrobial peptides, and can be used as a functional food ingredient. From an economical perspective, the short composting period and the role of BSF as a feed and food alternatives can benefit producers and consumers. The safety aspects of BSF utilization, including microbial safety, chemical safety, and environmental safety, warrant clarification to ensure BSF safety. However, some challenges arise regarding the use of BSF larvae (BSFL) as a bioconversion agent, such as for heavy metal residues, pesticide residues, pathogens, and antimicrobial gene transmission and residues that require the best composting strategy for mitigation. The environmental safety of organic waste treated with BSFL has a good impact; therefore, this strategy can be used to reduce global warming. Research must focus on effectively and safely enhancing the cultivation and processing of BSF and its applications as a functional food. In conclusion, BSF is a profitable alternative for organic waste bioconversion in developed and developing countries.
... The field cricket native to China, Teleogryllus (Macroteleogryllus) mitratus (Burmeister, 1838) (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) ( Figure A5g), synonym of Gryllus testaceus [200], has a crude protein of 58.3%, crude fat of 10.3%, chitin 8.7% and ash 2.96% (on dry matter basis), respectively. When fed as a replacement of 15% of soybean meal, it showed no significant differences with the control group (poultry feedstuff) in weight gain, feed intake, or gain/feed ratio [202]. ...
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While the use of alien insect species for food and feed can help to alleviate protein shortage and provide for a more sustainable feed production, their invasive potential should be considered since invasive alien species represent one of the five main global threats to biodiversity. In the European Union (EU), eight insect species have already been authorized to be used as feed ingredients for aquaculture organisms, pets, poultry, and pigs. These species were selected based on available national risk assessments, as most of them are non-native to Europe. However, it is not clear how these risk assessments truly consider all EU bioregions, given that the information used was mostly biased towards northern European regions. As a large proportion of invasive alien species already present in the EU were introduced unintentionally, it is therefore crucial to understand and manage the potential pathways of such introductions in a more effective way. Here, we provide a critical overview of the potential risks of rearing alien insect species as feed or as pet food (for both livestock and exotic pets) in the EU. The results showed that some of these insect species have an invasive potential, either due to their reproductive capacity in different climates or due to the fact that they have already established populations in areas where they were introduced, with negative effects on local ecosystems or causing economical losses. For this reason, it is recommended that risk assessments should be performed in other EU bioregions as well as monitoring programs to control the spread of insect species with invasive potential. In addition, other available native insect species with potential to be used as feed ingredients should be considered.
Sustainable diets are key for mitigating further anthropogenic climate change and meeting future health and sustainability goals globally. Given that current diets need to change significantly, novel/future foods (e.g., insect meal, cultured meat, microalgae, mycoprotein) present options for protein alternatives in future diets with lower total environmental impacts than animal source foods. Comparisons at the more concrete meal level would help consumers better understand the scale of environmental impacts of single meals and substitutability of animal sourced foods with novel foods. Our aim was to compare the environmental impacts of meals including novel/future foods with those of vegan and omnivore meals. We compiled a database on environmental impacts and nutrient composition of novel/future foods and modeled the impacts of calorically similar meals. Additionally, we applied two nutritional Life Cycle Assessment (nLCA) methods to compare the meals in terms of nutritional content and environmental impacts in one index. All meals with novel/future foods had up to 88 % less Global Warming Potential, 83 % less land use, 87 % less scarcity-weighted water use, 95 % less freshwater eutrophication, 78 % less marine eutrophication, and 92 % less terrestrial acidification impacts than similar meals with animal source foods, while still offering the same nutritional value as vegan and omnivore meals. The nLCA indices of most novel/future food meals are similar to protein-rich plant-based alternative meals and show fewer environmental impacts in terms of nutrient richness than most animal source meals. Substituting animal source foods with certain novel/future foods may provide for nutritious meals with substantial environmental benefits for sustainably transforming future food systems.
Conference Paper
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A study to compare smallholder farmer capacity in providing feeds and nutrients for dairy cattle have been done in 5 different population density villages (Boyong, Tunggalarum, Cemoroharjo, Kemiri and Tambakrejo) of Sleman regency, DIY province. Forty cattle have been observed and 15 farmers have been interviewed. Feeds offered have been identified, weighted, sampled and analyzed for their proximate compositions and minerals. Nutrients requirement and balance of each cow has been calculated. The result showed that type and amount of feed offered related to the village typological area. Farmer in Tunggalarum provided sufficient nutrient and balanced ration with forage to concentrate ratio 55:45. The study concluded that the less population densities, the higher dairy farmer capacities in providing feeds and nutrients for their cattle. Keywords: Nutrient balance, dairy cattle, typological area, requirement, traditional
In our present study, we observed the effect of cricket meal (CM) on disease resistance of African catfish. Fish were fed diets containing 350 g kg–1 and 400 g kg–1 of CM and 350 g kg–1 of fishmeal as control. The fish were divided into triplicates treatments of ten fish per replicate, weighed 22.5±0.6 g and fed with experimental diets for 40 days before being challenged against Aeromonas hydrophila. Relative percentage of survival (RPS) was recorded over 12 days post-challenge. White blood cell count, total protein, globulin and lysozyme showed significantly increasing levels in those fed with cricket meal diet compared to the control group. Mortalities at 12-day post-challenge significantly decreased to 30% (RPS: 66.7%) and 27% (RPS: 70%) for 35% and 40% CM respectively compared to 90% mortality in control group. Intestines and liver tissues of infected fish were dissected for pathogenic confirmation. The intestines of control diet showed the highest bacterial load (58.2×107 cfu g–1) compared to CM diets. The current study indicates that dietary CM could enhance the innate immune system and disease resistance of African catfish.
Insects, such as crickets, are being used as a viable food source in many regions of the world, given their nutritional value for human and animal consumption. This study investigated the viral communities present in European house crickets and whether feed influences the composition of the crickets’ virome. The crickets were reared under environmentally controlled conditions and fed fresh red clover (fresh), red clover haylage (haylage), red clover hay (hay) or control feed. The viral metagenomic analysis of six replicates from each feed treatment showed that only a few reads were classified as viruses, mainly assigned to phages and insect-related viruses. A significant difference (P<0.001) was observed between the different treatments in regard to the number of viral reads. The highest number of viral reads was identified in the fresh treatment (2,568 reads), whereas the control treatment had the fewest viral reads (90). Phages were identified in all the treatments; however, they were clearly dominant in the fresh and hay feed treatments. A limited number of insect and plant viral reads from Xinmoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Metaviridae, unclassified and ‘other’ viruses were also found in all the feed treatments. The results from this study may indicate that the feed for the crickets determines the richness of the viral flora of crickets, but overall, very few viral reads were identified, making it hard to draw any conclusion regarding the impact of the feed on viral richness.
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An experiment was made to determine if the basic methodology of the bioassay for true metabolizable energy (TME) can be applied to the measurement of available amino acids (AAA) in feedingstuffs. Administration of graded levels of glucose (0–30 g) had no effect on the excretion of 13 AA by adult roosters. Feeding graded levels of soybean meal, alone or in combination with glucose, caused linear increases in AA excretion. Methods of measuring AAA are described and the importance of correcting for metabolic and endogenous AA excretion is discussed. A bioassay for AAA which may be combined with the measurement of TME is described.
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Two broiler chick feeding trials were conducted to determine the protein quality of dried house cricket meal. The first used semipurified diets to identify limiting amino acids. There were no significant differences in weight gain of chicks fed diets with amino acid additions, but feed:gain ratios indicated that arginine, methionine, and tryptophan were probably limiting. In the second experiment, dried house cricket meal was incorporated into practical diets replacing soybean meal as the major source of protein. There were no significant differences in weight gain between chicks fed corn-soybean meal diet and those fed corn-cricket diets. Feed:gain ratios improved significantly when diets were supplemented with methionine and arginine.
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A study was conducted to examine the effects of the correction of excreta energy to nitrogen equilibrium in the determination of true metabolizable energy (TME). Roosters and laying hens were fed diets consisting of a standard layer ration blended with increasing amounts of dehulled soybean meal ranging from 0 to 100%. Dry matter digestibility, nitrogen retention, and apparent metabolizable energy were greater for females than the males. For males and females, dehulled soybean meal had values for dry matter digestibility of 50.1 and 52.0%, TME of 3.087 and 3.145 kcal/g dry matter, metabolizable energy corrected to nitrogen equilibrium (MEn) of 2.683 and 2.719 kcal/g dry matter, and TME corrected to nitrogen equilibrium (TMEn) of 2.890 and 2.946 kcal/g dry matter, respectively. The differences between TME and TMEn values were due to larger nitrogen losses from nondietary sources by fasted birds than by fed birds. Thus, the metabolic fecal and endogenous urinary energy as measured from the fasted birds provides a larger correction than justified for accurate TME determinations. The difference between the TME and the TMEn in this study explains in part the previously reported abnormally high values for TME over MEn. Thus, MEn appears to be a more accurate measurement of metabolizable energy than TME.
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Two feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the protein quality of Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex Haldeman) when fed to broiler chicks. The first trial was designed to identify the limiting amino acids in Mormon crickets using purified diets. The basal diet was supplemented with amino acids based on an amino acid analysis of Mormon crickets and preliminary feeding trials, and the results indicated that methionine and arginine were probably colimiting. In the second experiment Mormon crickets were incorporated into practical diets replacing soybean meal as the major source of protein. In an 8-week feeding trial the corn-cricket diet compared favorably with a corn-soybean meal diet with no significant differences in weight gain or feed/gain ratios. There was no adverse effect on the taste of the meat from birds fed the corn-cricket diet as determined by a taste panel.
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An experiment was conducted to study the performance of broilers chicks (2 to 42 d of age) fed diets containing pearl millet (PM, Pennisetum typhoides), foxtail millet (FOM, Setaria italica) or finger millet (FIM, Elusine coracana) totally replacing (w/w) yellow maize (YM) with and with out supplementing non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) hydrolysing enzymes at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. Enzyme preparation contained amylase 2,400 units, hemi-cellulase 5,400 units, cellulase 12,000 units, protease 2,400 units and beta-glucanase 106 units/g. Each diet was fed to eight replicates (five female Vencob broilers/replicate) housed in stainless steel battery brooders. The estimated metabolizable energy (ME) contents of YM, PM, FOM and FIM were FM (PM) were about 3,389, 2,736, 3,303 and 2,846 kcal/kg, respectively. Total replacement of YM with FOM did not influence the body weight gain, ready to cook yield, relative weights of giblet, liver, intestine, lymphoid organs (bursa and spleen) and length of intestine, antibody titers and livability at 42 d of age. But the food efficiency decreased significantly in FOM fed broilers compared those fed YM. Further, the fat content in thigh muscle reduced with FOM fed groups compared to those fed YM. The performance of broilers decreased significantly in PM and FIM fed broilers compared to those fed YM. The relative weights of giblet, gizzard and liver increased in FIM fed groups compared to those fed YM as the principal source of energy in broilers. Incorporation of NSP hydrolysing enzymes in commercial broiler diets improved the efficiency of feed utilization during starter phase but not at 42 d of age. The results thus indicate that yellow maize can be replaced in toto on weight basis in commercial broiler diets without affecting the performance. Supplementation of NSP hydrolysing enzymes was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase.
A study was undertaken to determine the composition of the body material of alates of Macrotermes falciger and to investigate the nutritional value of termite material when fed to white rats. Termites were found to contain 44,3 % fat and 41,8 % protein, on a dry mass basis, and to have a calorific value of 3,2 ± 0,042 Megajoules/100 g. Incorporating termite material into commercial rat pellets at various levels produced no adverse effects on the rats. A full amino-acid analysis of termite protein is given and three unidentified amino-acids were recorded. A protein efficiency ratio of 1,7± 0,1 was obtained for termite protein, and digestibility of termite material was found to be poor, compared to that of casein, when fed to white rats.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary FERMKIT, a commercial toxin binder consisting of probiotic-fermented natural product containing chitin, chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharides (FERMKITO?, EASY-BIO SYSTEM, Inc., Korea), in binding aflatoxin (AF) and zearalenone (ZEN) and ameliorating their mycotoxicity in meat type ducks. FERMKIT was supplemented to AF contaminated diets (at 120 ppb) at either 0.3 or 0.6% in experiment 1 and to ZEN contaminated diets (at 150 ppb) at 0.6% in experiment 2. In experiment 1 body weight gains were reduced by 37% and mortality was increased by 18% in ducks fed diet contaminated with AF at 120 ppb compared to ducks fed control diet (
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding dried leftover food (DLF) on growth, body composition and feed conversion of broiler chicks. One hundred ninety-six of one-day old Ross broiler chicks were assigned to 7 treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment had four replications with seven chicks per replication. The treatments groups included control without DLF, dietary 10% level of DLF, dietary 20% level of DLF and dietary 30% level of DLF, 5% higher protein level of diet containing 10% DLF, 10% higher protein level of diet containing 20% DLF and 15% higher protein level of diet containing 30% DLF than control diet. Body weight gain was slightly higher in control group than that of DLF-fed groups. However, there were no significant differences in body weight gain among those groups fed diets containing different levels of DLF. In general, increasing dietary level of DLF resulted in decreasing feed conversion. Content of crude protein in whole broiler body was slightly higher in control group although any significant difference was not found among treatments (p>0.05). Content of crude fat in whole broiler body was lowest in groups fed diets containing 30% DLF with 15% higher protein level than control diet, showing significant difference from groups fed diets containing 20% DLF (p0.05). Fatty acid contents in broiler meat were higher in the order of oleic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid without significant differences among treatments. Content of DHA in broiler meat was higher in groups fed diets containing DLF than that of control group although there were no significant differences among treatments (p>0.05).