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In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality.
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INTRODUCTION
Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is native to the
Mediterranean area, but is also grown in some regions of
the USA, Latin America and Australia (Custodio et al.,
2011). Worldwide, the main producers of carob fruits are
Spain, Italy, Portugal, Morocco and Greece (FAO, 2009).
Traditionally, carobs were cultivated for human and
animal nutrition, while nowadays carob seeds and pods
have a wide application in the food industry as natural food
additives, e.g. as thickener and stabilizer agents, in
industrial products such as cocoa substitute, gums, sugars,
beverages or pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries
(Barracosa et al., 2007; Tous et al., 2009).
Carob pods, which represent about 90% of the fruit
weight, are a very good source of sugars (48 to 56%) and
gross energy, making them a high energy feed for animal
nutrition. However, the addition of carob pods in animal
diets should be limited due to their relatively high content
of tannins (38%), but low content of proteins (3 to 4%) and
lipids (0.4 to 0.8%) (Albanell et al., 1991; Karabulut et al.,
2006; Silanikove et al., 2006; Mohamed et al., 2008).
Tannins are natural polyphenolic compounds of relatively
high molecular weight, having the ability to form insoluble
complexes with proteins and digestive enzymes, as well as
carbohydrates (Biagi et al., 2010), resulting in the reduction
of nutrients digestibility (Kotrotsios et al., 2010).
Nevertheless, the presence of tannins in carob pods may
have beneficial effects on human and animal health, due to
their other properties, such as antidiarrheal, antibacterial,
antioxidant and free-radical scavenging and
antiproliferative activity in liver cells (Biagi et al., 2010;
Custodio et al., 2011).
Carob pods have been used in animal nutrition, in diets
of sheep (Karabulut et al., 2006), lamps (Priolo et al., 1998),
rabbits (Gasmi-Boubaker et al., 2008), poultry (Sahle et al.,
1992; Ortiz et al., 2004). Regarding pig nutrition, carob
pods have been examined mainly in piglets (Lizardo et al.,
2002; Andres-Elias et al., 2007; Biagi et al., 2010).
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of
dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening
pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical
composition and fatty acid profile.
Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.
Vol. 25, No. 6 : 880 - 885
June 2012
www.ajas.info
http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11521
Dietary Carob Pods on Growth Performance and
Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs
Nikolaos Kotrotsios1, Efterpi Christaki*, Eleftherios Bonos2 and Panagiota Florou-Paneri
Laboratory of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
54124, Thessaloniki, Greece
ABSTRACT: In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality,
including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated
into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets,
containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass
subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment
showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant
effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for
fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality. (Key Words: Carob Pods, Pigs, Meat Quality, Carcass Composition,
Fatty Acids)
Kotrotsios et al. (2012) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25:880-885
881
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Animals
The experiment was performed in a commercial pig
farm in Greece with a capacity of 200 sows. A total of 160
weaning piglets (Seghers malesWhiterock females), 30
days old, were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, D)
with four subgroups of 5 males and 5 females each. Each
subgroup was housed in a flat-deck unit until the age of 8
weeks and then the pigs were moved into the stable units
until the end of the trial. The whole experiment had 150
days duration and was performed under commercial
conditions, according to the guidelines of the Greek
Directorate General of Veterinary Services. All pigs were
vaccinated against Aujesky disease virus, enzootic
pneumonia and swine influenza virus.
Diets
Carob pods of Greek origin were used in this
experiment. Their chemical composition was determined
according to AOAC (2005), as follows: 897.7 g/kg dry
matter (DM), 44.1 g/kg crude protein (CP), 2.4 g/kg ether
extract (EE), 79.8 g/kg crude fibre (CF) and 30.0 g/kg ash
(AS). Moreover, it was determined that the carob pods had
48.9 g/kg total phenolic compounds and 35.1 g/kg total
tannins (expressed as tannic acid equivalent), using the
Folin-Ciocalteu method (Makkar, 2003). The condensed
tannins content was determined 9.7 g/kg (expressed as
leukocyanidine equivalent) (Porter, 1989).
To meet the nutrient requirements of pigs (NRC, 1998)
for each of the growth periods - weaning, growing,
fattening - four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were
formulated to contain 0 g/kg, 75 g/kg, 100 g/kg and 125
g/kg carob pods, and were offered to the pigs of groups A,
B, C and D, respectively. These diets were based on maize,
barley and soybean meal and were given to the animals in
mash form. The diets were analyzed according to AOAC
(2005) for DM, CP, EE, CF and AS. The metabolisable
energy (ME) content (kcal/kg) was calculated from the feed
ingredients. The ingredients and composition of these diets
is presented in Table 1. Feed and drinking water were
offered to the animals ad libitum, and feed consumption
was recorded daily.
Measurements
All animals were individually weighted at days 85, 115
and 180 of age. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated
as “kg feed/kg weight gain” for ages 30 to 85, 85 to 115,
and 115 to 180.
At the end of the experiment all pigs were slaughtered
in a commercial slaughter house. For each animal carcass
weight was recorded and carcass dressing percentage
(carcass weight/body weight) was calculated.
In 8 carcasses from each group (1 male and 1 female
from each subgroup) the thickness of subcutaneous fat at
the 13th rib and the 6th to 7th lumbar vertebrae were
Table 1. Ingredients and chemical composition of the weaning, grower and finisher experimental diets
Ingredients (g/kg)
Weaning diet
Grower diet
Finisher diet
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
Maize
581.2
493.5
465.5
429.0
361.0
299.9
290.0
280.2
380
323
313
303
Barley
90
90
90
90
309
309
309
309
300
300
300
300
Soyabean meal, CP 44%
260
270
272
276
200
199
205.2
211.3
180
190
195
200
Carob pods
-
75
100
125
-
75
100
125
-
75
100
125
Vitamin+mineral premix
40
40
40
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
Milk powder
25
25
25
25
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Acidifier
2
2
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Vegetable fat
1.8
4.5
5.5
13
10
12
12
12
10
12
12
12
Wheat bran
-
-
-
-
90
75.1
53.8
32.5
100
70
50
30
Total
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
Analyzed composition (g/kg)
Dry matter
878
877
877
878
878
877
877
876
877
877
876
876
Crude protein
180.2
180.8
180.6
180.5
160.6
160.0
160.4
160.3
153.2
153.9
153.5
153.0
Ether extract
30.8
32.0
32.5
38.3
36.6
37.3
36.7
36.2
37.2
37.7
37.2
36.7
Crude fiber
36.8
43.6
45.8
48.0
47.3
50.3
50.4
50.5
47.1
49.3
49.5
49.6
Ash
54
55
55
55
55
53
53
55
55
55
55
55
Calculated composition (g/kg)
Calcium
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
Total phosphorus
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
Lysine
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
Methionine and cystine
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.4
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
Threonine
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.3
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
Tryptophane
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg)
3,200
3,200
3,200
3,200
3,050
3,050
3,050
3,050
2,900
2,900
2,900
2,900
Kotrotsios et al. (2012) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25:880-885
882
measured with an electronic caliper (Electronic Digital
Caliper, EMC, China). Afterwards, from these carcasses the
steak of the 13th rib was removed, sealed in a plastic bag
and frozen at -20C for further analysis. These steaks were
later analyzed according to the guidelines of AOAC (2005)
for AS, EE, CP and moisture (MO). Moreover, the fatty acid
composition of these steaks was determined according to
AOAC (2005) with a gas chromatographic system
(TraceGC model K07332, ThermoFinnigan, ThermoQuest,
Milan, Italy).
Statistical analysis
The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS
16.0.1 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chigaco, IL, USA).
The one-way analysis of variance for the four groups of the
experiment was performed. Furthermore, regression
analysis of the dietary carob pods inclusion effect was
performed using the curve estimation function of SPSS. A
value of p0.050 was considered significant. Levene’s test
was applied to test the homogeneity of the variances.
Duncan’s test was applied to determine statistical
differences between the means.
RESULTS
Table 2 presents the body weight and feed conversion
ratio for the weaning, growing and fattening periods of pigs.
No significant differences (p>0.05) were noticed in the
body weight on days 85 and 115. In the last measurement
on day 180 of age it was found that groups B and C had
significantly (p<0.050) higher body weight, compared to
groups A and D. Regarding the FCR, no significant
differences (p>0.05) were noticed in any period of age. Also,
mortality did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between the
groups.
Dietary carob pods effect on pig carcass weight, carcass
dressing percentage, and subcutaneous fat of the 13th rib
and the 6th to 7th lumbar vertebrae is given in Table 3.
Carcass weight was significantly (p<0.050) higher, in
groups B and C compared to groups A and D, but no
differences (p>0.05) were found for the other parameters.
The results concerning the 13th rib steak chemical
composition are shown in Table 4. No significant (p>0.05)
Table 3. Effect of dietary carob pods on pig carcass weight, carcass dressing percentage, and subcutaneous fat of the 13th rib and the 6th
to 7th lumbar vertebrae (MeanSD)
A
B
C
D
Carcass weight (kg)
66.90a6.94
68.28b9.41
69.43b7.63
64.30a9.35
Carcass dressing (%)
60.362.62
60.323.30
60.383.10
60.062.77
Subcutaneous fat of 13th rib (mm)
16.822.13
16.872.95
16.353.98
15.563.81
Subcutaneous fat of 6th to 7th lumbar vertebrae (mm)
23.754.80
23.384.65
20.534.37
27.814.52
Groups: A = 0 g carob pods/kg feed; B = 75 g carob pods/kg feed; C = 100 g carob pods/kg feed; D = 125 g carob pods/kg feed.
Means in the same row with different superscript differ significantly (p<0.05).
Table 2. Effect of dietary carob pods on pig body weight and feed conversion ratio (MeanSD)
A
B
C
D
Age (d)
------------------------------------------- Body weight of groups (kg) ----------------------------------------
85
28.75.97
29.516.54
31.086.13
27.727.05
115
51.249.61
51.9010.96
54.039.20
49.4711.45
180
110.89a11.77
113.21b14.93
115.00b12.11
106.85a13.63
Rearing period
----------------------------------------- Feed conversion ratio of groups ------------------------------------
Day 30 to 85
2.030.09
2.050.07
2.080.09
2.170.07
Day 85 to 115
2.440.20
2.530.08
2.560.23
2.510.14
Day 115 to 180
3.180.30
3.280.30
3.320.34
3.380.28
Groups: A = 0 g carob pods/kg feed; B = 75 g carob pods/kg feed; C = 100 g carob pods/kg feed; D = 125 g carob pods/kg feed.
Means in the same row with different superscript differ significantly (p<0.05).
Table 4. Effect of dietary carob pods on the chemical composition of the 13th rib steak of the pigs (MeanSD)
A
B
C
D
Ash (g/kg)
8.90.8
9.30.7
9.10.6
9.50.9
Ether extract (g/kg)
157.673.3
128.658.2
131.256.7
121.944.6
Crude protein (g/kg)
200.735.6
211.341.6
196.429.0
214.520.4
Moisture (g/kg)
632.851.0
651.627.4
663.339.1
654.139.1
Groups: A = 0 g carob pods/kg feed; B = 75 g carob pods/kg feed; C = 100 g carob pods/kg feed; D = 125 g carob pods/kg feed.
Groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05).
Kotrotsios et al. (2012) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25:880-885
883
differences were found for the steaks’ AS, EE, CP and MO.
Also, according to Table 5, no differences (p>0.05) were
noticed in the 13th rib steak fatty acid profile between the
four experimental groups.
Moreover, Table 6 presents the result of the regression
analysis of the effect of dietary carob pods on the
performance and meat quality parameters. A strong
tendency (p = 0.056) for linear increase was found in the
polyunsaturated fatty acids content of the 13th rib steak. No
significant effects (p>0.05) were noticed in the other
examined parameters.
DISCUSSION
The target of the present research was to evaluate the
effect of dietary carob pods on growth performance of
fattening pigs and their carcass quality, since current
information concerning this data is non existent.
The utilization of carobs pods in pig feeding at level of
125 g/kg did not have any effect on body weight during the
whole experimental period, whereas at levels of 75 g/kg and
100 g/kg resulted in significant increase of body weight at
slaughter. In previous studies by Lizardo et al. (2002) and
Andres-Elias et al. (2007) it was reported that dietary carob
did not affect the growth of weaned piglets. Carob pod
contain tannins that can act as antinutritional factors, due to
their capacity to reduce the digestibility of proteins in the
pig rations (Mariscal-Landin et al., 2004). According to
Kotrotsios et al. (2010) carob pods inclusion in pig diets
significantly reduced the digestibility of proteins, fats,
fibers and minerals, especially in the weaning and growing
periods. The action of tannins on animals probably depends
on their solubility, in the gastrointestinal tract (Tamir and
Alumot, 1969; Serrano et al., 2009). Experimental diets at
any level had no influence on feed efficiency, results that
are in accordance with previous findings in weaned piglets
(Lanza et al., 1983).
Carcass yield was not affected by the dietary inclusion
of carob pods at any level, compared to controls, while
carcass weight was heavier in pigs fed carobs either 75 g/kg
or 100 g/kg. This finding is probably the result of the
increased body weight of the pigs.
Table 5. Effect of dietary carob pods on the fatty acid composition (g/100 g fatty acids) of the 13th rib steak of the pigs (MeanSD)
Fatty acids
A
B
C
D
C10:0
0.090.02
0.120.05
0.090.06
0.130.04
C12:0
0.130.04
0.120.03
0.160.12
0.110.02
C14:0
1.650.10
1.550.14
1.760.38
1.520.12
C14:1
0.010.01
0.020.01
0.020.01
0.030.03
C15:0
0.020.01
0.050.03
0.030.02
0.030.01
C15:1
0.040.03
0.050.03
0.050.02
0.050.03
C16:0
27.362.17
25.410.75
26.472.26
25.641.39
C16:1 trans
0.340.07
0.380.05
0.380.04
0.320.04
C16:1 cis
2.210.12
2.160.14
2.110.23
2.110.16
C17:0
0.210.06
0.230.03
0.200.08
0.220.06
C17:1
0.250.06
0.290.04
0.220.09
0.240.07
C18:0
13.680.57
14.250.54
14.320.92
14.470.91
C18:1 trans
0.310.15
0.330.20
0.320.15
0.240.07
C18:1 cis
40.311.39
41.181.03
39.232.10
39.362.01
C18:1 n7
1.980.78
1.481.32
1.661.23
2.150.84
C18:2 n6 trans
0.150.03
0.130.04
0.140.03
0.140.02
C18:2 n6 cis
10.021.61
11.291.28
11.112.26
11.551.19
C18:3 n3 trans
0.120.08
0.110.07
0.140.05
0.080.06
C18:3 n3 cis
0.440.11
0.580.18
0.580.17
0.550.11
C20:0
0.310.09
0.230.12
0.250.03
0.240.04
C20:1
0.780.26
0.640.15
0.680.13
0.710.17
C22:0
0.150.06
0.130.07
0.220.26
0.130.06
Saturated FA
43.602.22
42.091.04
43.502.07
42.482.04
Monounsaturated FA
46.211.00
46.511.25
44.672.21
45.202.24
Polyunsaturated FA
10.741.70
12.111.29
11.962.32
12.321.24
FA = Fatty acids. Groups: A = 0 g carob pods/kg feed; B = 75 g carob pods/kg feed; C = 100 g carob pods/kg feed; D = 125 g carob pods/kg feed.
Groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05).
Kotrotsios et al. (2012) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25:880-885
884
Carob pods had no significant effect on examined meat
quality, since neither lard thickness nor chemical
composition and fatty acid profile of the pig steaks were
influenced. Nevertheless, it was noticed that increased
inclusion rates of dietary carob pods resulted in a tendency
for increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the steak.
In conclusion, from the present study it is evident that
the inclusion of carob pods in fattening pig diets, at the
level of 75 g/kg and 100 g/kg improved body weight and
carcass weight. Moreover, carob pods at any examined level
had no influence on the meat quality of pigs, including lard
thickness, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of
the steak. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a
potential feed for fattening pigs.
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Table 6. Regression analysis of the effect of dietary carob pods on pig performance and meat quality parameters
Parameter
P
R2
A
B
Body weight at d 85 (kg)
0.791
0.000
28.777
0.003
Body weight at d 115 (kg)
0.842
0.000
51.009
0.004
Body weight at d 180 (kg)
0.574
0.002
112.419
-0.013
Carcass weight (kg)
0.566
0.002
67.832
-0.009
Carcass dressing (%)
0.729
0.001
60.412
-0.002
Subcutaneous fat of 13th rib (mm)
0.487
0.016
17.038
-0.009
Subcutaneous fat of 6th to 7th lumbar vertebrae (mm)
0.263
0.041
24.067
-0.020
Steak ash (g/kg)
0.149
0.068
0.887
0.000
Steak ether extract (g/kg)
0.206
0.053
15.576
-0.028
Steak crude protein (g/kg)
0.590
0.010
20.074
0.007
Steak moisture (g/kg)
0.168
0.062
63.481
0.021
Steak saturated FA (%)
0.361
0.028
43.375
-0.007
Steak monounsaturated FA (%)
0.146
0.069
46.413
-0.010
Steak polyunsaturated FA (%)
0.056
0.117
10.822
0.012
Regression equation: Parameter = A+BCarob pod addition in feed (g/kg). Steak = Steak of the 13th rib; FA = Fatty acids.
Kotrotsios et al. (2012) Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25:880-885
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... The influence of dietary T. molitor inclusion seems to be both species-specific and dose-dependent. Although in some livestock the inclusion of carob pod meal has been previously reported to enhance body weight, feed conversion ratio and growing performance with no adverse effects on meat quality [28,45], other species exhibit no such changes in their growth under the effect of dietary carob pods inclusion [46,47]. In non-livestock animals such as rats, carob dietary fiber inclusion exhibits no statistically relevant effect on body ...
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... In the present study, EM fed up to 15% sainfoin, which amounts to a total CTs intake of 12.0 g/kg DM, exhibited growth rates comparable to those of the T0 group. Similarly, Kotrotsios et al. (2012) found no negative effects on BW development and feed efficiency when diets contained up to 9.7 g/kg of CTs from carob pots. Thus, one can conclude that pigs are relatively resistant to the consumption of tannin-rich feed up to those concentrations, especially if the diets are formulated isocaloric and isoproteic. ...
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The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a forest tree with a wide distribution in northern Algeria and around the Mediterranean. It is listed among the under-utilized species whose development and cultivation are to be encouraged. However, good valuation of the species requires knowledge of its genetic resources. Seven (07) Algerian provenances of the carob tree extending from Tlemcen, in the west, to Annaba, in the east, and covering different bioclimates (semi-arid, sub-humid and humid) and different altitudes (32 to 1050 m ), were studied for leaf, pod and seed morphology and the content of some physicochemical parameters of pulps, seeds and leaves. Random sampling on 20 trees per provenance at a rate of 20 pods and 20 mature leaves per tree was carried out. That is a total of 140 trees, 2800 pods, 2800 seeds and 2800 leaves measured for quantitative characteristics (leaf size, number of leaflets per leaf, size of pods and seeds, total pod weight, number of seeds per pod, seed yield) and qualitative traits (pod and seed color, shape and surface; leaf color and presence / absence of the terminal leaflet). The physicochemical study of the three plant parts (leaf / pulp / seed) focused on the dry matter content, the ash, fat and total sugars content. Results showed a significant variability in the pod, seed and leaf morphology among the carob tree provenances. Leaf morphological study provided data on such trait characteristics for the first time on the Algerian carob tree. The biochemical study showed in particular the superiority of certain provenances for the pulp sugar content. Provenance clustering indicates, however, that the variability evidenced does not reflect the conditions (i.e. bioclimate, altitude and continentality) at the site of origin. The morphological study indicates the existence of provenances at the top position and others at the bottom position for pod and leaf dimensions, while the biochemical study, in particular the pulp total sugar content, does not confirm this ranking. Keywords : Ceratonia siliqua L., Algeria ; morphology ; phytochemistry ; provenance ; variation. Le caroubier (Ceratonia siliqua L.) est un arbre forestier à large répartition en Algérie du nord et dans le pourtour méditerranéen. Il est répertorié parmi les espèces sous-utilisées et dont la valorisation et la culture sont à encourager. Toutefois, une bonne valorisation nécessite la connaissance de la ressource génétique de l’espèce. Sept (07) provenances algériennes du caroubier s’étendant depuis Tlemcen, à l’Ouest, jusqu’à Annaba, à l’Est, et couvrant différents bioclimats (semi-aride, subhumide et humide) et différentes altitudes (32 à 1050 m), ont été étudiées pour la morphologie des feuilles, des gousses et des graines et la teneur en quelques paramètres physico-chimiques des pulpes, des graines et des feuilles. Un échantillonnage aléatoire sur 20 arbres par provenance à raison 20 de gousses et de 20 feuilles matures par arbre a été fait. Soit un total de 140 arbres, 2800 gousses, 2800 graines et 2800 feuilles mesurées pour les caractères quantitatifs (taille de la feuille, nombre de folioles par feuille, taille des gousses et graines, poids total, nombre de graines par gousse, rendement en graines) et qualitatifs (couleur, forme et aspect de la surface des gousses et des graines ; couleur de la feuille et présence/absence de la foliole terminale). L’étude physico-biochimique des trois parties végétales (feuille/ pulpe/graine) a porté sur le taux de matière sèche, la teneur en cendres, en matière grasse et en sucres totaux. Les résultats ont montré une variabilité significative de la morphologie des gousses, des graines et des feuilles du caroubier selon les provenances géographiques. L’étude morphologique des feuilles a permis de fournir des données sur ses caractères pour la première fois chez le caroubier algérien. L’étude biochimique a montré notamment la supériorité de certaines provenances pour le taux de sucres des pulpes. Le classement des provenances indique toutefois que la variabilité mise en évidence ne reflète pas les conditions (i.e. bioclimat, altitude et continentalité) du site d’origine. L’étude morphologique indique l’existence de provenances bien classées et d’autres mal classées aussi bien pour les dimensions des gousses que des feuilles, tandis que l’étude biochimique, en particulier la teneur en sucres totaux des pulpes, ne conforte pas ce classement. Mots clés : Ceratonia siliqua L., Algérie, morphologie, phytochimie, provenance, variabilité. شجرة الخروب (Ceratonia siliqua L.) هي شجرة غابية واسعة الانتشار في شمال الجزائر وفي منطقة البحر الأبيض المتوسط. وهذا النوع مدرج ضمن الأنواع التي لم تُستغل استغلالاً كافياً والتي ينبغي تشجيع تقييمها وزراعتها. الا أن التقييم الجيد يتطلب معرفة الموارد الوراثية للأنواع. في سبعة (07) مناطق جزائرية للخروب تمتد من تلمسان غربا، إلى عنابة شرقا وتشمل ظروف مناخية متنوعة من رطبة الى شبه جافة وعلى ارتفاعات مختلفة (32 إلى 1050 م). من أجل دراسة مورفولوجيا الأوراق، والقرون، والبذور، ومحتوى بعض الخصائص الفيزيوكيميائية للب، والبذور، والأوراق. أخذنا عينات عشوائية من 20 شجرة لكل منطقة مع 20 قرنا و20 ورقة بالغة لكل شجرة. وما يقاس مجموعه 140 شجرة، و2800 قرن، و2800 بذرة و2800 ورقة، لدراسة الخصائص الكمية (حجم الورقة، وعدد الوريقات لكل ورقة، وحجم القرون والبذور، والوزن الكلي، وعدد البذور لكل قرن، والمردود). والخصائص النوعية (لون وشكل ومظهر سطح القرن والبذور؛ لون الورقة وعدم وجود الوريقة الطرفية). وفحصنا من خلال الدراسة الفيزيوكيميائية للأجزاء النباتية الثلاثة (ورقة/لب/بذرة) محتوى المادة الجافة والرماد والدهون والسكر الكلي. وأظهرت النتائج تبايناً كبيراً في مورفولوجيا القرون والبذور وأوراق الخروب بين المناطق الجغرافية. وقد أتاحت الدراسة المورفولوجية للأوراق تقديم بيانات عن هذه الصفات لشجرة الخروب لأول مرة في الجزائر. وأظهرت الدراسة الفيزيوكيميائية بشكل خاص تفوق مناطق معينة على محتوى السكر في اللب. ومع ذلك، فإن تصنيف المناطق يشير إلى أن التباين الذي تم تسليط الضوء عليه لا يعكس الظروف المناخية او الارتفاع لموقع المنطقة. وتشير الدراسة المورفولوجية إلى وجود مناطق مصنفة بشكل جيد ومناطق أخرى غير مصنفة لكل من أبعاد القرون والأوراق، في حين أن الدراسة الفيزيوكيميائية، ولا سيما المحتوى الكلي للسكر في اللب، لا تدعم هذا التصنيف. الكلمات المفتاحية: شجرة الخروب – الجزائر – مورفولوجيا – فيتو كيمياء – منطقة – تغيرات.
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Chapter
The carob is a dome-shaped evergreen tree that is a member of the pea family (Fabaceae). Its fruit has been used for human consumption and as animal feed in the Mediterranean countries for centuries and was also widely used as a herbal remedy in traditional folk’s medicine. In this paper, an in-depth literature review was conducted about this species discussing its history, origins, main current uses, components (both nutrient and bioactive), biological activities, and potential applications as the source of sustainable ingredients and products. Among the many bioactive compounds that were found in carob, the most well studied are polyphenols. The levels of these compounds were found to vary depending on many factors, such as the variety, plant part, geographic location, roasting and extraction conditions, and even analysis methods. In the light of these researches, it was recognized that carob offers several biological activities including antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-diabetic due to the presence of a high quantity of pinitol and antibacterial. Rich in sugars, proteins, and minerals, the carob has a vast range of industrial applications such as cacao substitute, sugars substitute, free from gluten making it cereal-derived foods for celiac people.
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The aim of the present research is the evaluation of the influence of carob seed and the methanolic, petroleum ether and crude polyphenols extract of carob pods on glucose tolerance curve in addition of studying the glycaemic index of carob pods. The aim also includes assessing the proximate analysis of carob pods and determination of total polyphenols and condensed tannins content. The results revealed that total polyphenol in the prepared crude polyphenol was 18.610 g/100 g, while condensed tannins in crude polyphenol was 3.808 g/100 g. Proximate analysis revealed that carob pods have high percentage of carbohydrates (57.71) followed by crude fiber (17.21) and protein (9.69). Fat was the lowest component 0.31 %. Administration of crude polyphenol extract or carob seeds powder to male rats showed significant reduction of the rise in blood glucose after 1/2, 1 and 2 hours with different degrees when compared with control group. Oral administration of methanol or petroleum ether extract of carob pods showed no improvement in blood glucose response compared with control. Glycaemic index of carob pods was evaluated as 83.4%.
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The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) shows interesting prospects for some coastal Mediterranean growing areas and is widely used for industrial, agricultural, and ornamental purposes. It can be an alternative crop adapted to part-time farming and can also be used to regenerate vegetation in areas with a mild climate and erosion problems. Four Spanish carob cultivars were examined (Banya de Cabra, Duraio, Matalafera, and Rojal) to determine the one that performed the best for planting new orchards in northeastern Spain (Catalonia). The trees in this rain-fed trial (average rainfall of 500 mm) were planted in 1986 using seedling rootstocks that were budded in 1987. The trees were trained using the free-vase system and were spaced 8 × 9 m (138 trees/ha including 12% pollinators). The results showed that 'Rojal' was the earliest bearing cultivar. However, no significant differences were observed for cumulative pod production 18 years after budding. With respect to cumulative seed yield, 'Duraio' had the highest production (95 kg/tree). The lowest tree vigor (trunk cross-section) was observed in 'Matalafera'. Rojal trees produced the largest pods (average fruit weight of 18.9 g) and lowest seed content (11.8%), while 'Banya de Cabra' and 'Duraio' produced the smallest fruit (weighing 15.3 and 16.2 g, respectively) with the highest seed content (15.2% and 17.3%, respectively). Gum content, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight, was highest in 'Duraio' (56.9%) and was lowest in 'Rojal' (54.1%). Thus, in terms of kernel and pod production, 'Duraio' appeared to be the best-performing female cultivar for planting new carob orchards.
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The nutritive value of different fractions of naturally grown carob pods was evaluated by their chemical composition and in vitro gas production method. Gas production were calculated at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and their kinetics were described using the equation p = a + b (1-e-ct). There were significant differences among the fraction of carob pods in terms of chemical composition. Crude protein content ranged from 5.9 to 27.7 %. Crude protein content of carob seeds was significantly higher than that of whole carob pods and carob kibbles. The NDF, ADF and ADL contents ranged from 29.20 to 38.04 %, % 14.39 to 20.14%, 6.44 to 10.20% respectively. The NDF, ADF and ADL of seed were significantly higher than those of whole carob pods and kibbles. There was no significant difference in starch content among the fractions of carob pods whereas the sugar content of whole carob pod and kibbles were significantly higher than that of carob seed. After 24 h incubation times the in vitro gas production of whole pods and kibbles are significantly higher than that of seed. The gas production rate of carob seed was significantly higher than that of carob kibbles whereas the potential gas productions (a+b) of whole carob pods and carob kibbles were significantly higher than that of carob seed. On the other hand the estimated OMD and ME values of carob seed were significantly higher than that of whole carob pods. It was concluded that whole carob pods contain high level of sugar but low protein and lipid. Apart from nonstructural carbohydrates, the pods contain high amounts of dietary fibre. The carob seed is rich in cell wall content and CP whereas carob kibbles is rich in non-structural carbohydrate. Therefore whole carob pods have a potential energy source for sheep. Protein supplementation will be required when carob pods is included into ruminant diets.
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A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, D) with four subgroups of 10 animals each, in order to investigate the effect of the dietary inclusion of carob pods of Greek origin on nutrient digestibility during weaning, growing and fattening periods of pigs. The whole experimentation lasted 150 days. Carob pods containing 48.9 g kg-1 total phenolic compounds and 35.1 g kg-1 total tannins (expressed as tannic acid equivalent) and 9.7 g kg-1 condensed tannins (expressed as leukocyanidine equivalent) were included in graded levels - 0, 75, 100 and 125 g kg-1, in the feed of groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The apparent digestibility (AD) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF) and ash (AS) were determined by 8 total faecal collections (2 in weaning, 4 in growing and 2 in fattening periods). Regression analysis of the results showed that the increase of the inclusion rate of carob pods significantly decreased the AD of DM, CP, EE, CF and AS during the weaning and growing period, whereas during the fattening period AD of DM, CP and CF decreased significantly. Moreover, according to the overall results the decrease of AD was significant for all examined nutrients.
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Here is the most complete guide available for the analysis of tannins. A battery of tannin methodologies is presented in a simple, clear and easy-to-understand manner. This unique guide covers chemical, biological and radio isotopic tannin assays. Comprehensive step-by-step protocols are presented for each method. The protocols enable non-specialists and specialists alike to implement the methods easily in the laboratory. It is an ideal laboratory manual for research scientists, graduate students, and laboratory personnel working in the fields of animal nutrition, soil nutrient management, wild life-plant interactions, and plant breeding.
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Nucleotides and carob pulp were tested as possible alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters for newly weaned pigs. Four dietary treatments were used: basal diet, nucleotides, carob pulp and nucleotides+carob pulp. Performance was measured in a group of 72 pigs. Another group of 60 pigs was used for histological measurements of the jejunal mucosa and microbiological measurements by RFLP in ileum and caecum at different post-weaning intervals. Treatment did not affect performance. On the other hand, the morphology parameters of the jejunum were significantly (P0.05) of treatment were observed on these parameters. The similarity (intra and inter-group) of the intestinal microbiota decreased with day after-weaning (P