Article

Comparison of Nutritional Composition and Antioxidative Activity for Kabocha Squash and Pumpkin

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Abstract

Nutritional compositions and antioxidative activity of Kabocha squash (Cucurvita maxima Duch) as health food were compared with those of pumpkin (Cucurvita moschata Duch). Kabocha squash had higher soluble solids and twofold harder flesh than pumpkin. Crude protein, crude lipid and total amino acid contents of Kabocha squash were higher than those of pumpkin. Major free sugar in Kabocha squash was sucrose, and its content were 2.1 times higher than that of pumpkin. Major organic acids of Kabocha squash and pumpkin were succinic and malic acid, respectively. Kabocha squash had higher amounts of vitamins and C than pumpkin, while both showed similar mineral contents except for iron. Contents of Total pectin and hydrochloric acid soluble pectin of Kabocha squash were 17.00 and 7.37 g/100 g AIS, respectively. In pumpkin, total pectin content was 25.14 g/100 g AIS, and water soluble pectin content was higher than those of other pectin fractions. Contents of carotenoid in Kabocha squash and pumpkin were 285.91 and 24,62 mg% d.b., respectively. Kabocha squash had higher electron-donating radical-scavenging activity, SOD-like activity and nitrite-scavenging effect than pumpkin.

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... C. pepo had the most moisture in all parts, and C. maxima had the lowest. The moisture contents in the current study were similar to previous reports for C. maxima (87.6%) and C. moschata (92.3%) [30]. The flesh and peel of C. maxima had more amino acids than the other two species. ...
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Pumpkins have considerable variation in nutrient contents depending on the cultivation environment, species, or part. In this study, the general chemical compositions and some bioactive components, such as tocopherols, carotenoids, and β-sitosterol, were analyzed in three major species of pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae pepo, C. moschata, and C. maxima) grown in Korea and also in three parts (peel, flesh, and seed) of each pumpkin species. C. maxima had significantly more carbohydrate, protein, fat, and fiber than C. pepo or C. moschata (P < 0.05). The moisture content as well as the amino acid and arginine contents in all parts of the pumpkin was highest in C. pepo. The major fatty acids in the seeds were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. C. pepo and C. moschata seeds had significantly more γ-tocopherol than C. maxima, whose seeds had the highest β-carotene content. C. pepo seeds had significantly more β-sitosterol than the others. Nutrient compositions differed considerably among the pumpkin species and parts. These results will be useful in updating the nutrient compositions of pumpkin in the Korean food composition database. Additional analyses of various pumpkins grown in different years and in different areas of Korea are needed.
... Kabocha pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Duchesne is a potential carotenoids source. Kabocha has higher carotenoids content (285.91 mg•100 g −1 ) than local pumpkins (26.62 mg•100 g −1 ) [6]. In present study, the microencapsulation process of carotenoids from kabocha was conducted by freeze dryer. ...
... The fat-substituted buffalo patties had a higher moisture content compared to the control (70.08-72.94% vs. 61.46%; p < 0.05) probably due to the high moisture content of raw kabocha squash (87.60%), butternut squash (91.20%), chayote squash (94.00%), snake gourd (94.60%) and bottle gourd (96.10%) (Kim et al., 2005;Rahman et al., 2008;Viera et al., 2019;Armesto et al., 2020). Water can be used as a fat substitute, maintaining a high moisture content of the final meat product (Kumar et al., 2007), therefore the high moisture content of these squashes and gourds directly influenced the moisture of the fat-substituted buffalo patties. ...
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This study aimed to produce buffalo patties formulated with different types of squashes and gourds as fat substitutes. Kabocha squash, butternut squash, chayote squash, snake gourd and bottle gourd from the Cucurbitaceae family were used as the fat substitutes and buffalo meat patties with animal fat were the control. All patties were analysed and statistically compared in terms of physical properties and sensory acceptance. Generally, the moisture content, water holding capacity, cooking yield significantly increased for all samples compared to the control. The fat content reduced significantly below 3% for all fat-substituted patties, thus they can be regarded as low-fat. All fat-substituted samples were lighter in colour, with a harder texture than the control but the sensory analysis showed that the colour, texture, juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability of the fat-substituted patties were no different from the control. In conclusion, all the squashes and gourds tested were suitable as fat substitutes to produce low-fat buffalo patties, with chayote squash having the highest potential.
... Material before extrusion cooking. 2) Total carbohydrate was calculated by removing moisture content, crude ash, crude fat, and crude protein. 수분 함량, 스크루 회전속도, 사출구의 구조, 스크루 배열 등을 조절하여 다양한 특성을 가지는 제품을 생산할 수 있다 (10). ...
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The study was designed to investigate the effects of cold and conventional extrusion on antioxidant properties of extruded rice with vegetables. Moisture content and screw speed were fixed at 25% and 150 rpm. Cold extrusion and conventional extrusion were adjusted at die temperature of 80°C with a CO CO2 injection rate of 300 mL/min and 140°C without a CO2 injection, respectively. Pumpkin, tomato, strawberry, and green tea powder of 10% were individually blended with rice flour. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity of extruded pumpkin and tomato mix by conventional extrusion was higher than that by cold extrusion. Total phenolic content in extruded pumpkin, tomato, and strawberry mix by cold extrusion was higher than that by conventional extrusion. Total flavonoid content was highest (18.82 mg/g) in extruded green tea by conventional extrusion. Total carotenoid content decreased in extruded pumpkin but increased in extruded tomato. Tomato extrudates with cold extrusion had higher lycopene content than conventional extrusion. Anthocyanin content of conventional extruded strawberry was higher than that of cold extrudates. Total chlorophyll contents decreased through the extrusion process. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
... [11,22]. 이러한 호박의 다양한 이용과 관련하여 호박 꿀차 [18], 고구마와 호박을 첨가한 요구르트 제조연구 [20], 호박식초 [23], 호박떡 [8], 호박첨 가수프 [9], 호박양갱제조 [3] (Fig. 4). ...
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... Compared with the previously reported results, it is concluded that the inhibition of SOD-like activity of PP and PS and PE containing the PP is relatively high. Kim et al. [2005] studied the antioxidative activity of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita spp and reported that the lyophilized powder of C. maxima and Cucurbita spp had 60.4 and 12.6% of inhibition against SOD-like activity at 500 ppm. Similarly, Lee et al. [2005] reported that the inhibition of SOD-like activity of Lespedeza bicolor extract was 20.0, 44.1, and 29.9% in extraction method using hot water, ethanol, and hot water with pressure, respectively, at a 1,000 ppm level. ...
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Ionizing radiation can be used to improve the color of green tea extract to brighter. As a result, the irradiated green tea extract can be applied easier and broader in food or cosmetic industry. To confirm the retention of the biological activities of the cosmetic products added with green tea polyphenols (PPs), the real cosmetic products including a skin lotion (PS) and an essence (PE) cream were manufactured. Irradiation also applied to the manufactured cosmetic products to see their improvement of color and changes of biological activity. The PP showed 72% of electron donating ability (EDA) at a 5 ppm concentration and the PS and PE containing 2% PP showed higher than 60%, which was similar inhibition activity to vitamin C. The inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of PP, PS, and PE were higher than 55% at a 500 ppm concentration and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XOase) were also higher than 65% at a 200 ppm concentration. The measurement of lipid oxidation by addition of and as prooxidants showed that PP and PS had higher metal chelating ability for than that of PE and the ability increased by increase of polyphenol concentration isolated from green tea. The chelating ability of PP and PS showed higher than 90% at a 200 ppm concentration. Therefore, it is concluded that addition of PP in manufacturing PS and PE retains its biological activities including EDA, inhibition of XOase and SOD-like activity, and metal chelating ability in the manufactured cosmetic products. In addition, irradiation of PS and PE improved color of the products containing PP brighter without any adverse changes in biological activity of the products.
... Pumpkins are widely used in Korea as healthy and functional vegetables, because they are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin A and C, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, amino acids, carbohydrates, minerals, and fibers. Pumpkins are known to have physiological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-obesity (10)(11)(12)(13). Pumpkin leaves have distinct taste and texture and are used as Korean cuisine "ssam" to wrap a piece of meat such as pork or other filling accompanied by a condiment. ...
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... 비타민 A의 전구체인 카로테노이드는 항산화, 항암 효과 등 다양한 생물학적 효과 를 갖고 있어 이용가치가 높다. 활성산소의 소거제로 작용함 으로서 항산화효과를 갖는 것으로 알려져 있다 (Kim et al., 2005). β-Carotene은 심혈관질환, 폐암에 대한 활성을 갖는 다고 알려져 있다 (Omenn et al., 1996). ...
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... C. pepo had the most moisture in all parts, and C. maxima had the lowest. The moisture contents in the current study were similar to previous reports for C. maxima (87.6%) and C. moschata (92.3%), Kim et al., (2005). ...
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... rein the carotenoid compounds will come out as a result of osmotic pressure, besides that the maceration process is usually carried out by stirring and heating to speed up the extraction process. Solvents that are often used are acetone and ethanol (Maleta et. al., 2018). (Belitz et. al., 2004in Nururrahmah et. al., 2013 : Manasika et. al. (2015); Kim et. al. (2005);Darmawati et. al. (2016);Magdalena et. al. (2007);Made et. al. (2018);Suparmi et. al. (2012);Qurniati et. al. (2013); Setyawati (2015); Yolanda (2012). ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different steaming and drying temperature conditions on the physicochemical characteristics of pumpkin powder. All the samples were steamed for 30 or 60 s and then were dried using hot air at 40, 50, 60, and . The moisture content decreased with an increase in the hot-air drying temperature, while the soluble solid content and yield increased. The color values, L, a, and b of the pumpkin powder decreased with increasing hot-air drying temperature. The pumpkin powder, which was steamed for 60 s had the highest water absorption and water solubility indexes. The carotenoid content of pumpkin powder was mostly destroyed with the increase in the steaming and drying temperatures. The total sugar and reducing sugar contents increased with increasing steaming and drying temperatures. Thus, the steaming and dehydration temperature conditions influenced the physicochemical characteristics of the pumpkin powder.
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In this study, sensory evaluation was performed to select the pretreatment method for dried sweet pumpkin products, and the drying conditions were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the results of the sensory evaluation, the steaming method was selected for pretreatment. To optimize the drying conditions of the steamed sweet pumpkin products, the temperature (30, 40 and 50°C) and duration (4, 6 and 8 h) of hot-air drying were set as independent variables, and moisture content, water activity, soluble solids, strength, hardness, and free sugar contents were set as dependent variables. In the process of optimization, moisture contents, water activity, and soluble solids were designated as optimization variables by R2 and Pr>F values. The optimum drying conditions were found to be 42°C and 5.7 h. The suitability of the experimental design and model was evaluated by comparing the predicted values with the experimental values measured under optimal conditions. The moisture content and water activity were within the 95% confidence interval. Although the soluble solids contents were out of range, it was calculated to be higher than the predicted interval and appeared closer to the target value. Therefore, it was concluded that the manufacturing conditions optimized in this study were the ideal conditions for drying sweet pumpkin products.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-cancer activities of squash leaf extract (SLE) in vitro. The total polyphenol and flavonoid levels of SLE were 263.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and 73.6 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g, respectively. The radical-scavenging activity of SLE at the concentration of 300 was 69.4%. SLE significantly inhibited human cancer cell growth (by 60.6-87.9% in HCT116 colon cancer cells and by 73.4-86.4% in H1299 lung cancer cells at the concentrations of 37.5, 75, and 150 ) and attachment (by 28.4% in HCT116 and by 16.8% in H1299 at the concentration of 150 ). SLE also altered nucleus morphology and increased nuclear staining intensity (by 42.8-58.2% in HCT116 and by 25.5-32.9% in H1299 at the concentrations of 37.5 and 75 ), indicating its apoptosis-inducing activity. These results demonstrate the antioxidant and anti-cancer activities of SLE in vitro.
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For the production of pumpkin paste with respect to heating conditions, we steamed the pumpkin for roughly 15 min, heated it with high pressure treatment for 0 min (A), 10 min (B), 20 min (C), 40 min (D), and subsequently investigated the quality characteristics. Generally a significant difference was observed between the pumpkin paste treated with and without high-pressure heat. The values of water content, crude protein and crude fiber of the high-pressure heat-treated groups B, C, D were decreased compared with untreated group A. The soluble fiber in experimental group B sweet-pumpkin paste treated with high-pressure heat for 20 min was higher than the control, and the highest value at 2.02. Experimental group D sweet-pumpkin paste treated with high-pressure heat for 40 min was found to have a decreased soluble fiber content relative to the control. The L value for the color of the group A untreated control sweet-pumpkin paste (no high-pressure heating) decreased as the time increased from 10 min to 40 min, with L values of 50.33, 49.46, and 48.06, respectively. The b value for the color of the sweet-pumpkin paste also decreased, showing a significant difference. Taking into account all the results, we chose experimental group B in order to prepare sweet-pumpkin latte. We used 0.2% gum (xanthan gum, locust bean gum, guar gum) as a stabilizer. Sweet-pumpkin latte with xanthan and locust bean gum has a suspension stability effect that lasts 90 min. The L and b values of sweet-pumpkin latte with gums increase and a value decrease compared with the control. In terms of the overall acceptance of the sweet-pumpkin latte, the experimental group with xanthan gum scored the best.
Article
Sweet pumpkin paste (SPP) was fermented by Leuconostoc mesenteroides SM at 25℃ for 3 days for enhancing its physicochemical properties. SPPs with 5%, 10%, and 15% solid contents (SC) were fortified with 20% sucrose and 0.5% yeast extract. The unfermented SPP with 15% SC indicated L, a, and b color values of 25.02, 4.66, and 13.35, respectively, and a consistency index of 48.6 Pa·sn. During the 3 days of fermentation, both the a and b color values decreased slightly, whereas the consistency index increased to 188.8 Pa·sn, giving the fermented product a pudding-like consistency. This fermented SPP (15% SC) showed the highest acid production and viable cell counts among samples, indicating pH 3.85, 1.30% acidity and 9.2×108 CFU/mL respectively. The added sucrose was completely utilized after 1 day of fermentation. After 3 days, the insoluble and soluble dextran contents were 8.9% and 4.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the contents of mannitol and fructose were 3.11% and 1.76%, respectively. Regarding the sensory evaluation, this fermented sample also indicated the highest color, taste and texture scores, and was the overall preferred sample. In conclusion, the fermented SPP with 15% SC was carotinoid-rich a wholesome pumpkin-based product that is rich in probiotics and lactic bacteria-produced mannitol and dextran, which gave the product an acceptable viscous pudding-like consistency and good organoleptic properties.
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This study investigated the effects of freeze-dried sweet pumpkin powder on the baking of butter sponge cake. Freeze-dried sweet pumpkin powder (0, 3, 6, 9, 12%) was supplemented during the baking progress and the results were as follows. In terms of the Farinograph characteristics of the batter, the absorption rate increased slightly as the amount of sweet pumpkin powder added increased, and the development time to reach the peak was slightly longer, increasing from 12%. The amylogram characteristic showed that the gelatinization starting temperature seemed to increase as the amount of sweet pumpkin powder added was increased and the maximum viscosity was lower. The specific gravity of the sponge cake increased as the amount of the pumpkin powder added was increased. From the crust of the sponge cake, the L-values (brightness, p<0.01), a-values (redness, p<0.05), and b-values (yellowness, p<0.05) were significantly lower as the amount of the pumpkin powder added was increased. Volume (p<0.01) and symmetry index (p<0.05) decreased when the sweet pumpkin powder was added. In terms of textual characteristics, hardness increased as the amount of the sweet pumpkin powder was increased (p<0.05). However, when the sweet pumpkin powder was added at 9% and, 12%, brittleness decreased (p<0.01). © The Korean Society of Food Preservation. All rights reserved.
Article
For the production of Yakhobak (Cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima) paste under various heating conditions, we steamed Yakhobak for roughly 20 min, followed by heating under high pressure treatment for 0 min (HHP0), 20 min (HHP20), 40 min (HHP40), and 60 min (HHP60). The physicochemical and sensory characteristics were subsequently investigated. Generally, no significant difference was observed in organic acid content and sensory characteristics score between Yakhobak paste treated with and without high-pressure heating. However, there was a significant difference in color value, soluble solids, and free sugar content. The L value for color of the group HHP0, untreated control Yakhobak paste (no high-pressure heating), decreased as time increased from 20 min to 60 min, with L values of 44.33, 44.25, and 42.86, respectively. The b value for the color of Yakhobak paste also decreased, showing a significant difference. Soluble solids and free sugar (fructose, glucose, sucrose) contents of the high-pressure heat-treated groups HHP20, HHP40, and HHP60 decreased compared with untreated group HHP0. Organic acid composition of Yakhobak paste included citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid, and the major organic acid was malic acid. Sensory score of HHP40 was the highest among all experimental groups in terms of overall preference, but there was no significant difference.
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Effect of Ripening Conditions on Quality of Winter Squash ‘Bochang’ Do-Su Park, Shimeles Tilahun, Jae-Young Hyun, Hye-Soon Kwon1, and Cheon-Soon Jeong* Department of Horticulture, Kangwon National University 1Food safety Research Institute, National Agricultural Cooperative Federation Abstract Ripening conditions of the winter squash ‘Bochang’ were evaluated. Soluble solids contents increased as the ripening duration was prolonged and with higher temperature. After harvest, the Hunter ‘b’ value of the skin was 2.42. At 25 and 30oC, the Hunter ‘b’ values were recorded at approximately 6.91 and 7.56, respectively. At 35oC, the Hunter ‘b’ value was increased to about 7.79 on day 9. Furthermore, at 35oC, the appearance quality was reduced with a yellowing phenomenon of the pericarp observed after 9 days. The starch contents also decreased with higher temperature, and sucrose contents increased in all ripening conditions with a longer period and higher temperature. Overall, these results indicate that ripening conditions of 25oC for 18-21 days and at 30oC for 12-15 days are suitable for the optimum ripening of winter squash. Keywords: carotenoid, ripening, starch, sucrose, temperature
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This study aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of iced pumpkin paste cookies prepared using different fat and fatty oils (butter, olive oil, soybean oil, and grape seed oil). The pH, density, and moisture content were the highest in the cookies prepared with butter dough, and the lowest in the cookies prepared with grape seed oil dough. The spread factor of the cookies prepared using with butter was the highest, and the cookie with olive oil, soybean oil and grape seed oil showed lower values. The L values of olive oil cookies, a values of soybean oil cookies, b values of grape seed oil cookies were the highest. The hardness of the cookies prepared using soybean oil was the highest. The overall sensory evaluation showed high overall acceptability for grape seed oil cookies, whereas butter cookies showed lower overall acceptability. The acid value (AV) and peroxide value (POV) were lower in the grape seed oil cookies than in the butter cookies as the storage period of the cookies had passed.
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This research aimed to develope squash sikhye containing retrograded rice flour using response surface methodology. For this, nonlinear regression equation was calculated with the setting of independent variables as retrograded rice flour containing resistant starch and squash, and dependent variables as viscosity, sugar content, pH, color, and sensory attributes. Under the experimental condition, the quality characteristics of squash sikhye were found as 6.20~6.25 for pH, for sweetness, 2.64~4.45 cP for viscosity, 57.51~60.18 for lightness, 4.94~7.52 for redness, and 50.98~60.29 for yellowness. It also was revealed overall acceptability in sensory evaluation rated as 9.67~10.83 out of 15 point. These results showed statistically significant differences in quality attributes with the increase of retrograded rice flour and squash(p
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Sweet pumpkin is a squash fruit that contains low total solids but is rich in carotene, pectin, mineral salts, vitamins, and other substances beneficial to health. An attempt was made to develop a value-added food product; sweet pumpkin powders (SPP) were incorporated into a model system of noodles as a healthy food ingredient, and selected physicochemical properties and consumer preferences were determined. Elevated SPP concentration was associated with increased pH, soluble solids, and turbidity; however, moisture absorption decreased (P<0.05). Increasing amounts of SPP significantly reduced both raw and cooked noodle brightness (L*); however, yellowness (b*) appeared to increase. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity increased significantly (P<0.05). The consumer acceptance test indicated that incorporation of 10% SPP to the formulation is recommended to take advantage of the health benefits of SPP without major sacrificing the quality acceptance of consumers. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Article
To determine the characteristics of four different sweet pumpkins (Minimam, Bojjang, Ajikuroi and Kurijiman), juices were made from these varieties. The carotenoids in the flesh were 1.5~2 times higher than those in the skin and were highest in the flesh of the Minimam pumpkin among all the pumpkin varieties studied. The vitamin A contents were higher in the skin than in the flesh, and Minimam had the highest vitamin A content (2,016.57 IU/100 g) while Kurijiman had the lowest (998.83 IU/100 g). The vitamin C contents varied from 43.21 to 82.35 mg%, but there were no significant differences between the flesh and the skin. That of Kurijiman was the highest among the varieties studied. The major mineral of these varieties was potassium, which was highest in the flesh of Ajikuroi, followed by phosphorus. The antioxidant activities of the sweet pumpkin water extracts were higher in the skin than in the flesh. The EC_{50} of the Minimam skin was the highest (4.01 mg/mL), and that of the Ajikuroi flesh was the lowest. The sweet pumpkin juice yields were 69.5~89.4%, with significant differences shown according to the variety. That of the peeled Ajikuroi`s flesh was the highest. The pH was 7.17~7.83, and the unpeeled sweet pumpkin`s pH was higher than that of the peeled sweet pumpkin. The Brix degree was 12.5{\sim}16.6^{\circ}Brix, with that of the unpeeled Bojjang being the highest(16.1^{\circ}Brix) and that of the unpeeled Ajikuroi the lowest (12.7^{\circ}Brix). The sweet pumpkin beverage made with pressed juice was adjusted by pH 3.5 with citric acid, and the Brix degree was maintained at the 12^{\circ}Brix with sugar. The adjusted beverage, which was the peeled pumpkin flesh juice, had suspension stability for a short time. The sweet pumpkin beverage had a certain flovor and a slimy mouthfeel. Bojjang and Kurijiman were evaluated as the best in the terms of taste and color, but the peeled Minimam and Bojjang showed the best results overall.
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This study was carried out to analyze the change of major nutrient components of spaghetti squash by boiling. The moisture, crude protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents in fresh squash were 94.2%, 0.6%, 0.1%, 0.7% and 4.4% respectively as against 95.1%, 0.5%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 3.8% in boiled squash. The decrease in protein and ash contents of the boiled sample were found to be significant. Major component of the minerals were potassium and the fresh and boiled squash had the contents of 330 mg and 256 mg, respectively. There were no differences of dietary fiber between the fresh and boiled squash. Beta-carotene contents of the fresh and boiled spaghetti squash were and , respectively. The contents of tocopherol were decreased as like 4.3 mg and 2.0 mg. A total of 17 kinds of amino acids were isolated from squash and they were decreased by boiling and the high content of amino acids in order were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, lysine, and leucine in raw squash. Particularly, total amino acid of fresh squash were 6,739.5 mg per 100 g edible portion and higher than that of boiled squash(4,820.3 mg). Total polyphenolic compound of the fresh squash from was slightly decreased to by boiling.
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The new version of sikhye(sweet rice drink) was prepared by adding sweet pumpkin (SP) in order to improve customers' preferences for sikhye by modifying the color, and flavor, as well as health functionality. The independent variables were sweet pumpkin amount(0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% malt powder extract) and storage periods(0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days). Each sample was measured by using physicochemical and sensory evaluations, and results were statistically tested to examine significant differences among samples. pH increased with higher amounts of added pumpkin. As additional levels of sweet pumpkin increased, the Hunter's L value decreased, whereas the b value increased. In a consumer acceptance test, all characteristics except for sweetness were significantly different at p
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Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) is an important medicinal plant that has been historically used in herbal medicine and in the health food throughout Asia etc. Recently, the demands on rhizome of turmeric are increasing greatly by well-being boom, but there is not enough to meet the demands. To fulfill increasing demands, cultivation system strategies using the organic fertilizers are required to produce a greater amount of rhizome with good quality and yield. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of composts, NPK fertilizer(control, F), NPK + swine manure(SM) and NPK + fermentation manure from the wasted oriental medicine materials(OMWM), on rhizome yield and the content of bioactive components for quality. Our results showed that two compost applications can increase both rhizomes(24.1-25.9%) and curcumin(21.7-41.0%) yields, respectively, compared to F control. The content of amino acids increased significantly by SM and OMWM treatments. SM and OMWM application also increased the total phenol yields 7.8 and 8.7 g/10a compared with control 6.3 g/10a, the flavonoid yields 6.3 and 7.3 g/10a compared with control 5.3 g/10a, and also antioxidant activity 21.7 and 41%, respectively, as compared to the control. Especially, OMWM was more effective in total rhizomes yields and bioactivities and in the biosynthesis of curcumin and bioactive components than SM treatments, but the biological pathway was not clear, still. This experiment suggests that curcumin or bioactive components affected by adding SM and OMWM could increase the yields and quality of turmeric.
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To develop new high-quality Yakchobugak, features of Lactococcus lactis-fermented waxy rice paste after addition of some colored powdered agro-food products were investigated. Total and reducing sugars of waxy rice paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria were higher than those of control raw waxy rice paste. Total acidity gradually increased as powder concentration rose, being 1.02-1.56% and 0.96-1.87% in samples fermented with Cucurbita maxima and Capsicum annuum powders, respectively; these values were 3-4 times those in rice fermented with other powders. Fermented waxy rice paste viscosities were lower than those of non-fermented samples. The viscosities of samples fermented with Curcuma longa and Opuntia ficus powders were in the range centipoise(), and those of pastes fermented with Robus coreanus and Camellia sinensis extracts were under . Hunter color lightness(L) values decreased and yellowness(b) values rose after fermentation. Waxy rice paste fermented with Robus coreanus showed uniform particle size distribution, and many pores, by scanning electron micrography.
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Changes in organic acid, mineral, color, curcumin and bitter taste of Curcuma longa L. (autumn woolgeom in Korean) and Curcuma atomatica Salib (spring woolgeom) were investigated according to picking time. Oxalic and lactic acid were gradually increased, and then malic acid and malonic acid were decreased by extending the picking time. Total organic acid was increased by extending the picking time and then decreased after January of the coming year. Minerals were increased by extending the picking time and decreased slightly after the coming year. Hunter color index, L, a and b, was increased by extending the picking time. Contents of curcumin in spring woolgeom was slowly increased by extending the picking time and autumn woolgeom was times higher than spring woolgeom. Intensity of bitter taste in two woolgeoms were not different by picking time and extracting solvents. Bitterness of spring woolgeom was strong as compared to autumn woolgeom.
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OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relationships between dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and the risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness among adults. DESIGN--The multicenter Eye Disease Case-Control Study. SETTING--Five ophthalmology centers in the United States. PATIENTS--A total of 356 case subjects who were diagnosed with the advanced stage of AMD within 1 year prior to their enrollment, aged 55 to 80 years, and residing near a participating clinical center. The 520 control subjects were from the same geographic areas as case subjects, had other ocular diseases, and were frequency-matched to cases according to age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The relative risk for AMD was estimated according to dietary indicators of antioxidant status, controlling for smoking and other risk factors, by using multiple logistic-regression analyses. RESULTS--A higher dietary intake of carotenoids was associated with a lower risk for AMD. Adjusting for other risk factors for AMD, we found that those in the highest quintile of carotenoid intake had a 43% lower risk for AMD compared with those in the lowest quintile (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.92; P for trend = .02). Among the specific carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, which are primarily obtained from dark green, leafy vegetables, were most strongly associated with a reduced risk for AMD (P for trend = .001). Several food items rich in carotenoids were inversely associated with AMD. In particular, a higher frequency of intake of spinach or collard greens was associated with a substantially lower risk for AMD (P for trend < .001). The intake of preformed vitamin A (retinol) was not appreciably related to AMD. Neither vitamin E nor total vitamin C consumption was associated with a statistically significant reduced risk for AMD, although a possibly lower risk for AMD was suggested among those with higher intake of vitamin C, particularly from foods. CONCLUSION--Increasing the consumption of foods rich in certain carotenoids, in particular dark green, leafy vegetables, may decrease the risk of developing advanced or exudative AMD, the most visually disabling form of macular degeneration among older people. These findings support the need for further studies of this relationship.
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わが国のかんきつ果実生産の中心である温州ミカンのペクチンについて,その性質を詳細に把握する目的で,系統,熟期,部位別に可溶性ペクチンを抽出,定量し,性状を調べた.(1) 4画分に抽出した可溶性ペクチンのうち,HSPが最も多く,AIS当たり15~25%であった.最も少ない画分のペクチンは,フラベド部を除く3部位ではASPであった.系統,熟期,部位を問わずHSPが最も高いのが温州ミカン果実の特徴といえる.従来の3画分のペクチンに加えて,抽出したアルカリ可溶性ペクチンのSSPは,AIS当たり約5~10%で,全ペクチン中約15~30%を占めた.(2) AISより抽出,調製したペクチンの無水ガラクツロン酸量はフラベド部のものが最も高く,さじょう部では最も低かった.ペクチンの酸性多糖分子中の中性糖量は8~11%であり,アラビノースが全体の約半量を占め,他にガラクトース,ラムノース等を含む7種類の糖が検出された.ペクチンのエステル化度は,じょうのう部のものが最も高く,70~80%であったが,反対に,フラベド部では50~55%の値を示す系統の果実が多かった.
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The degradation of nitrite and the inhibition towards formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines by melanoidins, produced from the glucose-glycine system were investigated at various conditions. The degradation of nitrite was highest at pH 1.2 (29%), when the ratio of melanoidins to nitrite was 1: 3. The inhibition towards formation of nitrosamines by melanoidins had the same tendency as the degradation of nitrite, the inhibition also being highest at pH 1.2 (99%). In addition, melanoidins after nitrite treatment exhibited a little higher mutagenicity and much stronger desmutagenicity than those of the original melanoidins. The change of the structure of melanoidins after treating with nitrite was also investigated by HPLC and CP-MAS NMR.
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities of sixteen kinds of fruits, vegetable juice and commercial concentrates were measured by pyrogallol autoxidation method. The changes in SOD-like activity by heat treatment and the increase in SOD-like activity of apple juice mixed with fruits and vegetables were investigated. SOD-like activity of broccoli juice was 41.7%, the highest value among tested sample. SOD-like activities of strawberry juice, carrot concentrate, kiwi juice, radish juice and apple juice were 30.2, 30.0, 27.6, 26.7, 24.1 and 14.6%, respectively. SOD-like activity was increased generally after heat treatment at until 20 min. SOD-like activity of apple juice was increased by mixing with 20% of carrot concentrate, kiwi juice, strawberry juice, broccoli juice, respectively and particularly was increased 48% by mixing with 20% of raddish juice.
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Mixtures (total solid content: 15%) prepared with whole milk added with skim milk powder and/or sweet potato and/or pumpkin were fermented with 0.205% gelatin, 2% sugar and yogurt bacteria. The fermented mixtures (curd yogurt) were evaluated for acid production (pH, titratable acidity), number of viable cell, sensory property and keeping quality. The acid production of all mixtures remarkably increased for the first 12 hours and there is no significant difference among the mixtures. The lactic acid bacteria counts in the all products after 24 hours incubation were above . In organic acids, the mixture added with skim milk powder was higher ratio of lactic acid content to total acidity than those added with sweet potato and/or pumpkin. The sensory score of mixture containing sweet potato was best but curd yogurt containing pumpkin reduced the sensory property. When each mixtures were kept at for 15 days, pH, titratable acidity, and number of viable tells of yogurt were not changed.
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The present paper was investigated to elucidate the nitrite-scavenging ability of vegetable extracts. Vegetable extracts possessed the scavenging ability of nitrite. By fractionatioh of vegetable extracts,nitrite-scavenging ability of garlic (Allitum sativum for. Pekinense), chinese pepper (Zanthexylum schinifolium), onion (Allium cepa), welsh onion (Allium fistulosum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts were effective in the water-soluble fraction, but carrot (Daucus carota uar. sativa) in the methanol-soluble fraction. Nitrite-scavenging ability of vegetable extracts was also pH-dependent, highest at pH 1.2 and lowest at pH 6.0. Particularly, nitrite-scavenging abilities of water-soluble fractions obtained from garlic and chinese pepper were similar to that of L-ascorbic acid at pH 1.2. After vegetable extracts were treated with sodium borohydride, nitrite-scavenging ability was remarkably decreased at pH 1.2. It is assumed that reducing powers of vegetable extracts participated in their nitritescavenging abilities.
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This research investigates the sensory and compositional differences of six cultivars of buttercup squash (Cucurbita maxima)—'Ajihei’, ‘Delica’, ‘Emiguri’, ‘Kofuki’, ‘Miyako’, and T133'—using a combination of sensory analysis and physical measurements of viscosity and colour (Minolta Chromameter (CR 200) recording L*, a*, b* values) and biochemical measurements of glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, starch, and dry matter (DM) content. The results obtained clearly indicate significant differences in all sensory attributes except for sweetness, nutty flavour, and fibres. Similarly all physical properties and chemical measurements except for starch content are significantly different. A principal component analysis of the sensory data shows that the textural attributes are the main source of cultivar differences for these cultivars. DM and starch content are significantly correlated with the principal sensory dimension indicating its importance in influencing most of the sensory properties. The lack of correlation of sugars, and the significant correlation of textural properties with perceived sweetness suggests the influence of squash texture and cell wall properties modifying the perception of sweetness and flavour. Overall ‘Emiguri’ and ‘Delica’ are the most similar squash cultivars. ‘Kofuki’, the most dry and crumbly cultivar, is different from these two cultivars.
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The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
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There is considerable current interest in the influence of certain foods on human health. In the study of the relationship between nutrient intake, nutritional status and morbidity, the need for accurate qualitative and quantitative data on the nutrients in these foods has become increasingly important. β-Carotene has attracted particular attention not only because of its nutritional role as a vitamin A precursor but also because of its antioxidant potential. More recently interest has been extended to the possible importance of other naturally occurring carotenoids. Their measurement in natural products involves extraction and chromatography with organic solvents. The potential for loss during sampling, extraction and saponification has been recognised, although definitive methods have yet to be described satisfactorily. It is however often overlooked that the response of carotenoids may be affected by artefacts produced during chromatography. Two areas in particular are (i) the reaction between carotenoids and metal surfaces with particular reference to stainless steel frits and (ii) the reaction between carotenoids, injection solvents and the mobile phase. These may result in peak distortion and the production of artifacts which can lead to misinterpretation of the chromatogram and the production of erroneous and unreliable data. Studies to identify the problems, and preliminary conclusions on the way they may be overcome are reported.
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The epidemiologic evidence that carotenoids are involved in cancer etiology is evaluated. Low intake of vegetables and fruits and carotenoids is consistently associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in both prospective and retrospective studies. In addition, low levels of serum or plasma beta-carotene are consistently associated with the subsequent development of lung cancer. The simplest explanation is that beta-carotene is indeed protective. Since retinol is not related in a similar manner to lung cancer risk, beta-carotene seems to play a role that does not require its conversion into vitamin A. However, the importance of other carotenoids, other constituents of vegetables and fruits, and other nutrients whose levels in the blood are partially correlated with those of beta-carotene has not been adequately explored. In addition, smoking, a powerful risk factor for lung cancer, is associated with reduced intake of carotenoids and lowered blood levels of beta-carotene and has not always been adequately controlled in these analyses. Prospective and retrospective studies suggest that carotenoids may reduce the risk of certain other cancers; however, too few studies have looked at these sites to examine the consistency of the evidence. Although clinical trials of the efficacy of beta-carotene in cancer prevention are underway, it is still necessary and prudent to continue well-designed prospective and retrospective studies of the carotenoid hypothesis.
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The human diet contains a great variety of natural mutagens and carcinogens, as well as many natural antimutagens and anticarcinogens. Many of these mutagens and carcinogens may act through the generation of oxygen radicals. Oxygen radicals may also play a major role as endogenous initiators of degenerative processes, such as DNA damage and mutation (and promotion), that may be related to cancer, heart disease, and aging. Dietary intake of natural antioxidants could be an important aspect of the body's defense mechanism against these agents. Many antioxidants are being identified as anticarcinogens. Characterizing and optimizing such defense systems may be an important part of a strategy of minimizing cancer and other age-related diseases.
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Methods for the quantitative derivatization of amino acids with phenylisothiocyanate and for the separation and quantitation of the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography are described. Phenylthiocarbamylation of amino acids proceeds smoothly in 5 to 10 min at room temperature. Coupling solvents, reagent, and some byproducts are removed by rotary evaporation under high vacuum, and the phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives are dissolved in 0.05 M ammonium acetate, pH 6.8, for injection onto the octyl or octadecylsilyl reverse-phase column. Columns are equilibrated with the same solvent and the effluent stream is monitored continuously at 254 nm for detection of the amino acid derivatives. Elution of all of the phenylthiocarbamyl amino acids is achieved in about 30 min utilizing gradients of increasing concentrations of ammonium acetate and acetonitrile or methanol. This approach to amino acid analysis offers select advantages, both with respect to methods which employ reverse-phase separation of prederivatized samples and to the classical ion-exchange procedure. All amino acids, including proline, are converted quantitatively to phenylthiocarbamyl compounds and these are stable enough to eliminate any need for in-line derivatization. Furthermore, results comparable in sensitivity and precision to those obtained by state-of-the-art ion-exchange analyzers may be generated with equipment that need not be dedicated to a single application.
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The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of natural antioxidants was evaluated by measuring the inhibition of pyrogallol autoxidation that is catalyzed by the superoxide radical. Among 22 water-soluble antioxidants tested, L-ascrobic acid, L-ascorbic acid 6-palmitate, glutathione (reduced form), (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin showed effective SOD-like activity. To analyze lipophilic antioxidants, an optically clear organic system composed of diethyl ether, surfactant (dioctyl sulfosuccinate, AOT) and water, called reverse micelles, was developed. The optimum concentrations of AOT, water and pyrogallol for determining SOD-like activity were found to be 50 mM, 1.3 M, and 40 mM, respectively. After proving that pyrogallol autoxidation was mediated by the superoxide anion in that system, the SOD-like activity of 24 lipophilic antioxidants was measured. Cinnamon oil, gamma-oryzanol, extract of rosemary leaf, L-alpha-lecithin, and L-alpha-cephalin exhibited activity, although the activity of some antioxidants could not be measured because of the intense color or low solubility.
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