ArticlePDF Available

Instant effects of peppermint essential oil on the physiological parameters and exercise performance

Authors:

Abstract

Objective: Effect of peppermint on exercise performance was previously investigated but equivocal findings exist. This study aimed to investigate the effects of peppermint ingestion on the physiological parameters and exercise performance after 5 min and 1 h. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male university students were randomly divided into experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. Maximum isometric grip force, vertical and long jumps, spirometric parameters, visual and audio reaction times, blood pressure, heart rate, and breath rate were recorded three times: before, five minutes, and one hour after single dose oral administration of peppermint essential oil (50 µl). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Our results revealed significant improvement in all of the variables after oral administration of peppermint essential oil. Experimental group compared with control group showed an incremental and a significant increase in the grip force (36.1%), standing vertical jump (7.0%), and standing long jump (6.4%). Data obtained from the experimental group after five minutes exhibited a significant increase in the forced vital capacity in first second (FVC1)(35.1%), peak inspiratory flow rate (PIF) (66.4%), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) (65.1%), whereas after one hour, only PIF shown a significant increase as compare with the baseline and control group. At both times, visual and audio reaction times were significantly decreased. Physiological parameters were also significantly improved after five minutes. A considerable enhancement in the grip force, spiromery, and other parameters were the important findings of this study. Conclusion : An improvement in the spirometric measurements (FVC1, PEF, and PIF) might be due to the peppermint effects on the bronchial smooth muscle tonicity with or without affecting the lung surfactant. Yet, no scientific evidence exists regarding isometric force enhancement in this novel study.
AJP, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014 72
Original Research Paper
Instant effects of peppermint essential oil on the physiological
parameters and exercise performance
Abbas Meamarbashi
1*
1
Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, I. R. Iran
Article history:
Received: Jun 8, 2013
Received in revised form:
Jul 2, 2013
Accepted: Jul 29, 2013
Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014,
72-78
* Corresponding Author:
Tel: +984515512081-9
Fax +984515516402
a_meamarbashi@yahoo.com
Keywords:
Isometric force
Peppermint
Reaction time
Spirometry
Abstract
Objective: Effect of peppermint on exercise performance was
previously investigated but equivocal findings exist. This study
aimed to investigate the effects of peppermint ingestion on the
physiological parameters and exercise performance
after 5 min
and 1 h
.
Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male university students
were randomly divided into experimental (n=15) and control
(n=15) groups. Maximum isometric grip force, vertical and long
jumps, spirometric parameters, visual and audio reaction times,
blood pressure, heart rate, and breath rate were recorded three
times: before, five minutes, and one hour after single dose oral
administration of peppermint essential oil (50 µl). Data were
analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA.
Results: Our results revealed significant improvement in all of the
variables after oral administration of peppermint essential oil.
Experimental group compared with control group showed an
incremental and a significant increase in the grip force (36.1%),
standing vertical jump (7.0%), and standing long jump (6.4%).
Data obtained from the experimental group after five minutes
exhibited a significant increase in the forced vital capacity in first
second (FVC
1
)(35.1%), peak inspiratory flow rate (PIF) (66.4%),
and peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) (65.1%), whereas after one
hour, only PIF shown a significant increase as compare with the
baseline and control group. At both times, visual and audio
reaction times were significantly decreased. Physiological
parameters were also significantly improved after five minutes. A
considerable enhancement in the grip force, spiromery, and other
parameters were the important findings of this study.
Conclusion: An improvement in the spirometric measurements
(FVC
1
, PEF, and PIF) might be due to the peppermint effects on
the bronchial smooth muscle tonicity with or without affecting the
lung surfactant. Yet, no scientific evidence exists regarding
isometric force enhancement in this novel study.
Please cite this paper as:
Meamarbashi A. Instant effects of peppermint essential oil on the physiological parameters and exercise
performance. Avicenna J Phytomed, 2014; 4 (1): 72-78.
Peppermint improves the physiological and exercise performance
AJP, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014 73
Introduction
Mint is a well-known natural herb,
which grows in most countries with
different climates. Peppermint is a hybrid
of both spearmint (Mentha Spicata) and
water mint (Mentha Aquatica). The
peppermint plant contains over 40 distinct
chemical compounds (including menthol,
menthone, and menthyl acetate) and its
consumption safety was proven in
toxicological investigations (Nair, 2001).
Peppermint possesses a broad range of
biological activities including digestive,
choleretic, carminative, antiseptic,
antibacterial, antiviral, antispasmodic,
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
myorelaxant, expectorant, analgesic, tonic,
and vasodilatator (Duke, et al., 2002,
McKay and Blumberg, 2006). The main
pharmacodynamic effect of peppermint
essential oil is related to its dose-dependent
antispasmodic effect on the gastrointestinal
tract smooth muscles due to the
interference of menthol with the movement
of calcium across the cell membrane
(Grigoleit and Grigoleit, 2005).
Previous researches have shown a great
impetus in the search for improvement of
athletic performance (Zoladz, et al., 2004,
Meamarbashi and Rajabi, 2013).
Effectiveness of peppermint aroma on
perceived physical workload, temporal
workload, effort, and anxiety was also
studied (Raudenbush, et al., 2002). Other
researchers examined the effects of
peppermint aroma administered through the
nose or orally on the augmenting cognitive
performance(Zoladz, et al., 2004).
Peppermint aroma caused improvement
on tasks related to attentional processes,
virtual recognition memory, working
memory, and visual-motor response.
Inhalation of peppermint aroma
improved the lung capacity and inhalation
ability in healthy participants using a peak
flow meter (Raudenbush and Zoladz,
2003). However, in a four-week
randomized, placebo-controlled study on
23 patients with chronic
asthma, there were no significant
differences in vital capacity, forced
expiratory volume, or change in peak
expiratory flow rate, between the placebo
and the menthol groups (Tamaoki, et al.,
1995). Moreover, previous study on athletic
performance, reported that peppermint
essential oil had no significant effect on
blood oxygen saturation, pulse rate, systolic
& diastolic blood pressure, and mean
arterial pressure (MAP) (Raudenbush, et
al., 2001). Very recent finding unraveled
the effectiveness of ten days oral
supplementation with peppermint essential
oil on the exercise performance, gas
analysis, spirometry parameters, blood
pressure, and respiratory rate
(Meamarbashi and Rajabi, 2013).
Hence, the aim of this study was to
assess the rapid effects of oral
supplementation with peppermint essential
oil on the spirometric parameters, visual
and audio reaction time, muscular strength
tests, and other physiological parameters.
Materials and Methods
Participants and study design
Thirty healthy male university students
(24.8±1.26 age; 66.7±4.32 kg body weight;
176.2±4.4 cm height) were randomly
selected from 70 volunteers and then
randomly divided into experimental and
control groups. Ethical approval to conduct
this study was obtained from the University
Human Ethics Committee. Participants
were fully aware of the scope of the study
and signed an informed consent form.
Methodology
Participants were familiarized with the
laboratory setting and the measurement
techniques before data collection. In both
groups, maximum grip isometric force,
standing vertical jump and standing long
jump, forced spirometry test, reaction time
tests, blood pressure, heart rates, and breath
rate were recorded three times: before, five
minutes, and one hour after peppermint
essential oil administration.
Meamarbashi
AJP, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014 74
Peppermint essential oil administration
Participants in the experimental group
received 50 µl of pure peppermint essential
oil onto the tongue using a sampler and
control group similarly received mineral
water.
Handgrip strength
Dominant hand strength was measured
using a computerized handgrip
dynamometer with adjustable handle
spacing.
Standing vertical jump
Vertical jump test was performed with
the knees being bent with their hands on
their hips. The difference in distance
between the standing reach height and the
jump height was recorded.
Standing long jump
The participant stands behind a line
marked on the ground with feet slightly
apart. A two foot take-off and landing was
used, with the swinging of the arms and
bending of the knees to provide forward
drive.
Spirometry test
After 15 minutes rest and before
applying the test, subjects were asked to sit
in armed chair. The forced spirometry test
was performed using a calibrated handheld
electronic turbine spirometer (Microlab
spirometer, Micro Medical Limited of
Rochester, England) and the best
parameters of three forced efforts such as
forced vital capacity in first second (FVC
1
),
peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and peak
inspiratory flow (PIF) were recorded.
Reaction time tests
Two simple reaction time tasks were
performed using custom designed reaction
time software. In visual task, a yellow box
was displayed on the monitor and
participant had to press a key as soon as the
yellow box appeared. In audio task,
participant had to press a key once heard a
beep sound. Audio signal and visual
presentation had a random variable period
(1-3 seconds). These tasks were repeated
ten times and the average time was saved in
a database. Participants were given a trial
practice prior to the actual test and tests
were performed in a quiet room.
Cardiorespiratory tests
Blood pressure and heart rate were
determined by a digital blood pressure
monitor (OMRON One Plus, Omron
Healthcare Inc., Bannockburn, IL, USA).
Examiner recorded the breath rate during
blood pressure measurement.
Statistical analyses
Normal distribution of the data was
tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and
Shapiro-Wilk tests. Changes in the
measures in two groups over time were
analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA
with Bonferroni pairwise comparisons.
Mauchly's test of sphericity was used to
determine whether the assumption of
sphericity was being violated by the data
and the Greenhouse-Geisser correction was
applied when necessary. Measurements
before the peppermint supplementation
were used as a baseline for the statistical
analysis. To calculate the magnitude of the
difference between pre-test and post-test,
partial Eta squared (partial η
2
) was
calculated (where 0.1 is a small, 0.25 is a
medium, and 0.4 is a large effect size). All
statistical analyses were performed with
SPSS 12.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago,
IL, USA). Difference changes (%) between
experimental and control group after five
minutes and one hour was compared with
before mint administration. Data are
presented as means±SD and the level of
significance was accepted at p<0.05.
Results
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-
Wilks tests revealed a normal distribution
of the data. Maximum isometric grip force
in the experimental group was 17.4% with
Peppermint improves the physiological and exercise performance
AJP, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014 75
27.1% increase while the control group
showed 7.5% with 9.0% force decline after
five minutes. Overall comparison between
experimental and control groups
demonstrated 24.9% difference after five
minutes and 36.1% difference after one
hour (Table 1). The changes in maximum
grip force were significant (p<0.05) after
one hour of peppermint intake.
Results obtained from standing vertical
jump (6.0% and 11.4% vs. 0.0 % and 1.5%)
and standing long jump (4.0% and 6.4% vs.
-0.4 % and -0.6% ) revealed a considerable
increase compared with control group after
five minutes and one hour (Table 1).
Noticeably, vertical jump increased
significantly after five minutes (p<0.05)
and one hour (p<0.005) while long jump
significantly increased after one hour
(p<0.05).
Table 2 shows a significant increase in
FVC
1
, PIF, and PEF between experimental
and control groups after five minutes of
peppermint administration. Only PIF was
remained high as compared with baseline
after one hour (p<0.5).
Visual reaction time (RT) was
significantly decreased after five minutes
(10.1%) and one hour (11.8%) following
peppermint administration in the
experimental group. Audio reaction time
showed a significant and shorter reaction
time after five minutes (17.1%) and one
hour (20.5%) as compared with visual RT
in the experimental group (Table 3).
Systolic blood pressure as well as heart
rate and breath rate were significantly
changed after five minutes as compared
with baseline. Diastolic BP showed
significant changes after one hour as
compared with baseline (Table 4).
Table 1. Muscular strength parameters compared between experimental (n=15) and control groups (n=15)
during three times of peppermint essential oil administration: before (1), after five minutes (2), and after one
hour (3)
Parameter Group Before (1) After five
minutes (2)
After one
hour (3)
Grip test
(kg force)
Experimental 38.2±13.8 44.9±12.6 48.6±11.2
*
Control 34.2±12.7 31.6±11.0 31.1±12.0
Standing
vertical jump
(cm)
Experimental 45.2±5.3 47.9±7.2
*
50.3±7.0 ** +
Control 45.5±7.2 45.5±7.1 46.2±8.8
Standing long
jump
(cm)
Experimental 177.2±22.0 184.2±14.9 188.5±13.7
*
++
Control 173.5±16.0 172.8±15.1 172.5±16.4
Data presented as mean±SD. Statistical analysis used repeated measures with bonferroni pairwise comparison
between experimental and control groups during three times: before and after five minutes (1-2), before and
after one hour (1-3), and after five minutes and after one hour (2-3). Statistical difference between group 2 and 3
vs. group 1 *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01. Statistical difference between group 2 vs. group 3 +: p<0.05; ++: p<0.01.
Meamarbashi
AJP, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014 76
Table 2. Spirometric parameters compared between experimental (n=15) and control groups (n=15) during three
times of peppermint essential oil administration: before (1), after five minutes (2), and after one hour (3)
Parameter Group Before (1) After five
minutes (2)
After one
hour (3)
FVC
1
(L)
Experimental 3.98±0.66 4.75±0.57
*
4.84±0.52
Control 4.15±0.71 3.87±0.57 3.58±1.09
PIF
(L/s)
Experimental 304.8±78.1 400.1±85.5
*
446.8±90.5
*
Control 290.3±97.0 255.5±91.3 232.8±107.5
PEF
(L/s)
Experimental 376.4±120.4 505.9±71.08
*
544.5±82.9
Control 403.6±101.9 387.6±116.08 321.0±113.8
Data presented as mean±SD. Statistical analysis used repeated measures with bonferroni pairwise comparison
between experimental and control groups during three times: before and after five minutes (1-2), before and
after one hour (1-3), and after five min and after one hour (2-3). Statistical difference between group 2 and 3 vs.
group 1 *: p<0.05. There was not significant difference between group 2 and 3.
Table 3. Visual and audio reaction time compared between experimental (n=15) and control groups (n=15)
during three times of peppermint essential oil administration: before (1), after five minutes (2), and after one
hour (3)
Parameter Group Before (1) After five
minutes (2)
After one hour
(3)
Visual RT
(msec) Experimental 313.1±30 284.4±21
**
280.4±18
*
Control 321.2±42 313.8±34 318.5±36
Audio RT
(msec) Experimental 294.0±26 251.2±17
***
244.1±16
***
Control 289.0±22 270.0±27 282.0±42
Data presented as mean±SD. Statistical analysis used repeated measures with bonferroni pairwise comparison
between experimental and control groups during three times: before and after five minutes (1-2), before and
after one hour (1-3), and after five minutes and after one hour (2-3). Statistical difference between group 2 and 3
vs. group 1 *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.001. There was not significant difference between group 2 and 3.
Table 4. Physiological parameters comparison between experimental (n=15) and control groups (n=15) during
three times of peppermint essential oil administration: before (1), after five minutes (2), and after one hour (3)
Parameter Group Before (1) After five
minutes (2)
After one hour
(3)
Systolic BP
(mmHg)
Experimental 129.9±12.0 131.4±10.7
*
128.2±11.1
***
Control 133.0±10.8 122.6±12.7 120.1±9.8
Diastolic BP
(mmHg)
Experimental 74.6±9.2 77.1±8.9 73.0±10.6
**
+
Control 81.4±7.6 76.8±7.0 74.5±7.1
Heart rate
(min
-1
)
Experimental 68.0±8.5 74.7±6.5
*
71.3±10.5
++
Control 77.1±7.7 77.3±6.4 73.3±7.1
Breath rate
(min
-1
)
Experimental 17.9±3.2 15.1±3.1
***
14.6±4.1
***
Control 18.6±4.5 18.0±4.3 17.9±4.4
Data presented as mean±SD. Statistical analysis used repeated measures with bonferroni pairwise comparison
between experimental and control groups during three times: before and after five minutes (1-2), before and
after one hour (1-3), and after five minutes and after one hour (2-3). Statistical difference between group 2 and 3
vs. group 1 *: p<0.05; **: p<0.01; ***: p<0.001. Statistical difference between group 2 vs. group 3 +: p<0.05;
++: p<0.01.
Peppermint improves the physiological and exercise performance
AJP, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014 77
Discussion
Current results revealed significant
improvement in all of the tested variables
after five minutes or one hour in the
experimental group compared with the
control group. Lack of scientific evidence
on the effect of peppermint is hindering a
comprehensive and detailed treatise
regarding a significant increase (36.1%) in
the maximum grip force or significant
improvement in the standing vertical jump
and standing long jump.
Current research shows an improvement
in the experimental group spirometric
measurements (FVC
1
, PEF, and PIF) after
five minutes (p<0.05). A previous study
showed that inhaling peppermint aroma has
no effect on the lung function tests and
physical performance during acute and
intensive exercise (Pournemati, et al.,
2009). A four-week inspiratory and
expiratory muscle training program on the
respiratory muscle strength and endurance
in healthy people has been reported a
significant increase in the respiratory
muscle strength (Tamaoki, et al., 1995). It
is surprising that in the current study,
FVC
1
, PEF, and PIF which are mostly
dependent on the strength and speed of
shortening of the inspiratory muscles,
remarkably improved after five minutes
and also one hour of ingestion.
Menthol (peppermint component) has
lowered the surface tension on synthetic
surfactant films in an in-vitro study
(Zänker, et al., 1980). The author theorized
that it may change the lung surface tension
and its function (Zänker, et al., 1980). The
effect of salbutamol as a β
2
-adrenergic
receptor agonist and bronchodilator on
cycling performance was also investigated
(Norris, et al., 1996) but, there was no
significant difference in any variables
related to aerobic endurance or cycling
performance. In yet another four-week
randomized placebo controlled study, 23
participants with chronic mild asthma
received either nebulized menthol (10 mg
twice a day) or placebo. No effect on the
forced expiratory volume was reported in
the experimental group (Tamaoki, et al.,
1995). Current findings might be due to the
relaxing effect of peppermint on the airway
and bronchial smooth muscle tonicity with
or without effect on the lung surfactant.
Current results support the theory of
stimulating effect of peppermint on the
brain (Umezu, et al., 2001). In the
professional sport competitions, lesser
reaction time is crucial in scoring the game.
Results obtained in the current study after
five minutes and one hour reveal significant
and considerable faster visual and audio
reaction times. Previous researches have
indicated that reaction to the audio signal is
faster than reaction to the light (Kosinski,
2012) and aromas have broad spectrum
effects on the human central nervous
system (Kobal and Hummel, 1988, Lorig
and Schwartz, 1988). However the
mechanism of action is still unknown but it
is hypothesized that the scents of
peppermint can stimulate the areas of the
brain responsible for alertness (e.g., brain’s
reticular activating system) (Raudenbush,
et al., 2009).
It seems that peppermint has a lowering
effect on the heart rate and the systolic
blood pressure. Yet in another study,
peppermint aroma was administered by
nose but no significant effect in both heart
rate and blood pressure was observed.
Reduction in the arterial smooth muscle
tonicity could be a plausible explanation for
these effects.
Decrease in the breath rate after five
minutes is another challenging finding of
this study. The author has previously
presented the effectiveness of ten days
peppermint essential oil consumption on
exercise performance as well as breath rate
(Meamarbashi and Rajabi, 2013).
Pondering on the results of pulmonary gas
exchange obtained during exercise
concurring with lower breath rate may
support a theory suggesting the rapid effect
of peppermint essential oil on the
pneumotaxic center in the brainstem.
Current results imply that only 50 µl of
peppermint essential oil ingestion had
Meamarbashi
AJP, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2014 78
significant effects on the spirometric
measurements (FVC
1
, PIF, and PEF),
visual reaction time, audio reaction time,
systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood
pressure, heart rate, breath rate, grip force,
vertical jump test, and long jump test after
five minutes and remained effective after
one hour. The mechanism underlying the
effectiveness of peppermint observed in the
current study needs further investigation.
Acknowledgement
Author is grateful to the participation
of enthusiastic students in this project and
greatly appreciated Mr. Ali Rajabi for
assistance in subjects’ recruitment and
testing procedures.
Conflict of interest
There is not any conflict of interest in
this study.
References
Nair B. 2001. Final report on the safety
assessment of Mentha Piperita (Peppermint)
Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf
Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf,
and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf
Water, Int J Toxicol, 20: 61-73.
McKay DL, Blumberg JB. 2006. A review of
the bioactivity and potential health benefits
of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.).
Phytother Res, 20: 619.
Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, duCellier J
and Duke PAK. 2002. Handbook of
medicinal herbs In. CRC Press. 562-564,
Boca Raton.
Grigoleit HG, Grigoleit P. 2005. Pharmacology
and preclinical pharmacokinetics of
peppermint oil. Phytomedicine, 12: 612-
616.
Zoladz P, Raudenbush B, Lilley S. 2004
Cinnamon perks performance,April 21-25
Proceedings of Annual meeting of the
Association for Chemoreception Sciences,
Sarasota, FL, USA.
Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A. 2013. The effects of
peppermint on exercise performance. J Int
Soc Sports Nutr, 10: 15-21.
Raudenbush B, Koon J, Meyer B, Flower N.
2002 Effects of ambient odor on pain
threshold, pain tolerance, mood,workload,
and anxiety Proceedings of Second Annual
Meeting of the Society for
Psychophysiological Research, Washington
DC.
Raudenbush B, Zoladz P. 2003 The effects of
peppermint odor administration on lung
capacity and inhalation ability Technical
Report for HealthCare International (Seattle,
Washington).
Tamaoki J, Chiyotani A, Sakai A, Takemura H,
Konno K. 1995. Effect of menthol vapour
on airway hyperresponsiveness in patients
with mild asthma. Respir Med, 89: 503-504.
Raudenbush B, Corley N, Eppich W. 2001.
Enhancing athletic performance through the
administration of peppermint odor. J Sport
Exerc Psychol, 23:156-160.
Pournemati P, Azarbayjani MA, Rezaee MB,
Ziaee V. 2009. The effect of inhaling
peppermint odor and ethanol in women
athletes. Bratisl Med J, 10: 782-787.
Zänker KS, Tölle W, Blümel G, Probst J.
1980. Evaluation of surfactant-like effects
of commonly used remedies for colds.
Respiration, 39: 150-157.
Norris SR, Petersen SR, Jones RL. 1996. The
effect of salbutamol on performance in
endurance cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol
Occup Physiol, 73: 364-368.
Umezu T, Sakata A, Ito H. 2001. Ambulation-
promoting effect of peppermint oil and
identification of its active constituents.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 69: 383-339.
Kosinski RJ. 2012. A Literature Review on
Reaction Time (South Carolina,USA,
Clemson University).
Kobal G, Hummel C. 1988. Cerebral
chemosensory evoked potentials elicited by
chemical stimulation of the human olfactory
and respiratory nasal mucosa.
Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 71:
241-250.
Lorig TS, Schwartz GE. 1988. Brain and odor
I. Alteration of human EEG by odor
administration. Psychobiol, 16: 281-284.
Raudenbush B, Grayhem R, Sears T and
Wilson I. 2009. Effects of peppermint and
cinnamon odor administration on simulated
driving alertness, mood and workload. N
Am J Psychol, 11: 245-256.
... Another essential oil used in aromatherapy is peppermint (Mentha x piperita) from the Lamiaceae family (Karkanis et al., 2018). The main components of peppermint essential oil include menthol, menthone, and menthyl acetate (Meamarbashi, 2014). This essential oil is known to increase brain perfusion, improve lung ventilation, and reduce pain (Moss et al., 2016). ...
... This essential oil is known to increase brain perfusion, improve lung ventilation, and reduce pain (Moss et al., 2016). The results of previous studies have shown that aromatherapy with peppermint has positive effects on the reduction of heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, fatigue, and anxiety (Meamarbashi, 2014;Moss et al., 2016;Meamarbashi & Rajabi, 2013;Cruz et al., 2010). ...
... However, the results of several studies have indicated that aromatherapy with peppermint essential oil has positive effects on decreasing the heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, fatigue, and anxiety. It also relaxes the bronchial muscles, and increases oxygenation in the lungs and brain (Meamarbashi, 2014;Moss et al., 2016;Meamarbashi & Rajabi, 2013;Cruz et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sleep disorder is a critical problem in cardiac patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of aromatherapy ‌with peppermint and lavender essential oils on the sleep quality of cardiac patients. Methods A total of 105 patients were randomly allocated to three groups of peppermint essential oil, lavender essential oil, and control. In each experimental group, the patients inhaled three drops of lavender and peppermint essential oils, whereas the control group received aromatic distilled water. Data were collected using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The participants completed PSQI before and after the intervention. Results There was a significant difference in the mean score of PSQI in each of the experimental groups before and after the intervention; however, the difference was not statistically significant between the experimental groups. Conclusion Aromatherapy with lavender and peppermint essential oils can improve the sleep quality of cardiac patients. Therefore, use of this non-pharmacological intervention, as an effective and simple approach, is recommended for cardiac patients. Trial registration IRCT, IRCT201601244736N10. Registered 4 November 2016.
... Meamarbashi and Rajabi (2013) found that subjects who drank 50uL MP aqueous solution for 10 consecutive days enhanced FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and time to exhaustion, maximal workload, and VO 2max . Moreover, direct oral administration of 50uL MP oil increased grip strength, standing vertical jump, standing long jump, FVC 1 , PIF, PEF, and reaction times (Meamarbashi, 2014). Similarly, the benefits of uptake MP essential oil are still questioned. ...
... MP essential oil was selected from the products manufactured by the U.S. dealer FBI, and the products had qualified production and safety certificates (Name: Mentha piperita; No: 31060). The amount of MP essential oil in this study was determined according to previous studies and confirmed the dosage was lower than the daily uptake recommended by the U.S. FDA (Meamarbashi, 2014;Meamarbashi & Rajabi, 2013;Nair, 2001). The experimental design of this study is shown in Figure 1. ...
... Meamarbashi and Rajabi (2013) noted that lung function (such as FVC, PEF, and PIF) increased significantly after 10 days of supplementation of MP essential oil. Meamarbashi (2014) used the supplementation of MP essential oil once and found that FVC 1 , PEF, and PIF all increased significantly after 5 minutes of supplementation. A more recent study by Shepherd and Peart (2017) pointed out that there was no obvious change in FVC, FVC 1 , and FVC 1 /FVC under the supplementation of peppermint oil for 10 consecutive days, and there was only an increase in chest circumference at the maximum exhale. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the effects of the uptake or inhalation of 50uL Mentha piperita (MP) essential oil for 10 days on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiopulmonary regulation during various exercise intensities. Forty-eight healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to MP uptake (MPU; n=16), MP inhalation (MPI; n=16), and control group (C; n=16). All participants were measured resting HRV, respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters during aerobic, anaero- bic, and graded exercise tests (GXT) before and after treatment. There were significant increases in the low-frequency area (LFa; 1.8±0.1 vs 2.2±0.2 ms²), the ratio of low frequency to respiration frequency area (LFa/RFa; 0.9±0.1 vs 1.3±0.1) at resting and carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ; 41.2±4.0 vs 49.2±6.8 mL/min -1 /kg -1 ), ventilation per minute (V E ; 80.2±4.3 vs 97.5±5.5 L/min -1 ), and respiratory rate (RR; 38.2±1.9 to 44.3±2.1 breath/min -1 ) in an anaerobic test following MPU inter- vention. In GXT, maximal carbon dioxide production (VCO 2max; 51.9±3.5 to 59.1±6.4 mL/min -1 /kg -1 ), maximal ventilation per minute (V Emax ; 126.4±6.5 to 138.4±5.4 L/min -1 ) and maximal respiratory rate (RR max ; 52.7±3.6 to 60.1±2.3 breath/min -1 ) significantly increased in MPU. The correlations of ΔLFa with ΔVCO 2max , ΔV Emax , and ΔRR max in the MPU group were signifi- cant. Continuous uptake or inhalation of 50uL MP oil for 10 days does not improve aerobic capacity and maximal exercise performance, but 10 days’ uptake of MP essential oil increased sympathetic activity at rest and may relate to respiratory regulation under high-intensity exercise.
... Essential oil of holy basil, Ocimum basilicum, is also well credited for its neuroprotective functions. GC/MS analysis of essential oils of O. basilicum has (2002), Koulivand et al. (2013) and Sayorwan et al. (2012) Lemon balm Melissa officinalis (2003), Gobel et al. (1994), Meamarbashi (2014) and Rohloff (1999) Rosemary Possesses sedative effects and affects central nervous system by modulating dopamine and 5hydroxytryptamine levels Dayawansa et al. (2003), Eller andKing (2000) and Zhang and Yao (2018) shown linalool, 1,8-cineol, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, α-caryophyllene, and αcubebene as the major components (Ismail 2006;Mahajan et al. 2015). It is effective against variety of neurodegenerative problems like strokes, anxiety, headaches, nervous pain, and convulsions, and plays role in memory enhancement and motor coordination. ...
... Essential oils from mint are known to effectively relax mental fatigue and possess psychoactive potential (Umezu et al. 2001). Aroma of peppermint enhances concentration and helps in improvement of working memory, virtual recognition memory, and visual-motor responses (Meamarbashi 2014). The hot water infusions of leaves of peppermint have been shown to affect motor coordination, behavior, motility, and barbiturate induced sleep in mice (Della Loggia et al. 1990). ...
Chapter
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited disorder in the β-globin chain of hemoglobin that affects millions of people around the world, especially children. This disease prevalently occurs in some Mediterranean and Saharan Africa. For the treatment of SCA patients, a wide range of drugs have been explored by targeting antisickling activity, γ-globulin induction, antiplatelet effect, etc., but hardly a few drugs have shown potential to combat with this complex disease phenomenon. In spite of unprecedented advances in modern system of medicine, people in the disease-prone area have been taking traditional medicinal plants or plant-derived products to increase the life span of patients. Moreover, numerous clinical trials have been going on for the use of natural products under the purview of symptomatic management of SCA. This chapter is focused on the effect of natural products in pure form or characterized phytoconstituents on particularly inhibition of hemoglobin polymerization. This summarized information will be beneficial for further exploration of new therapeutics in the treatment arena of SCA.
... Essential oil of holy basil, Ocimum basilicum, is also well credited for its neuroprotective functions. GC/MS analysis of essential oils of O. basilicum has (2002), Koulivand et al. (2013) and Sayorwan et al. (2012) Lemon balm Melissa officinalis (2003), Gobel et al. (1994), Meamarbashi (2014) and Rohloff (1999) Rosemary Possesses sedative effects and affects central nervous system by modulating dopamine and 5hydroxytryptamine levels Dayawansa et al. (2003), Eller andKing (2000) and Zhang and Yao (2018) shown linalool, 1,8-cineol, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, α-caryophyllene, and αcubebene as the major components (Ismail 2006;Mahajan et al. 2015). It is effective against variety of neurodegenerative problems like strokes, anxiety, headaches, nervous pain, and convulsions, and plays role in memory enhancement and motor coordination. ...
... Essential oils from mint are known to effectively relax mental fatigue and possess psychoactive potential (Umezu et al. 2001). Aroma of peppermint enhances concentration and helps in improvement of working memory, virtual recognition memory, and visual-motor responses (Meamarbashi 2014). The hot water infusions of leaves of peppermint have been shown to affect motor coordination, behavior, motility, and barbiturate induced sleep in mice (Della Loggia et al. 1990). ...
... Essential oils from mint are known to effectively relax mental fatigue and possess psychoactive potential (Umezu et al. 2001). Aroma of peppermint enhances concentration and helps in improvement of working memory, virtual recognition memory, and visual-motor responses (Meamarbashi 2014). The hot water infusions of leaves of peppermint have been shown to affect motor coordination, behavior, motility, and barbiturate induced sleep in mice (Della Loggia et al. 1990). ...
Chapter
Presently, neurological disorders form a major proportion of non-communicable diseases. Their incidence has increased due to several factors such as lifestyle changes, changes in dietary patterns, and increased psychological stress. Due to increase in awareness regarding these disorders by health-care professionals and general public, increasing number of cases are diagnosed with every passing year. This presents a challenge, especially in under-developed and developing countries, where the public health-care systems are not well established and penetration of health insurance cover is relatively much lower. Alternative medicine has traditionally been used in several cultures around the world to treat neurological problems. Essential oils and other plant volatiles have a long history of traditional use for ameliorating symptoms of neurological and psychological disorders. Essential oils of lavender, rose, lemon balm, etc. have shown good promise. Further, modern research has validated some of the claims with regard to relieving of neural and psychological issues by plant VOCs. Some of these have been shown to modulate key enzymes that are targets for depression therapy. In the present chapter we have presented an overview of above, and toward the end we have attempted to identify lacunas in this area which may help to formulate future research strategies.
Chapter
The peppermint plant (Mentha piperita) is a hybrid of water mint and spearmint. It is commonly used as an essential oil and is the first herb to try for abdominal pain related to irritable bowel syndrome. It has a relaxing effect on the smooth muscles of the GI tract. Peppermint may be beneficial for gastric hypermotility, nausea and vomiting, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, infantile colic, pruritus gravidarum, nipple fissures, tension headache, cognitive performance, hirsutism, and athletic performance. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on peppermint, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of peppermint’s use in treating oral and dental, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurological, psychiatric, infectious, and oncological disorders. Finally, the chapter presents a list of peppermint’s active constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
Chapter
Herbal medicines are complex compounds with multiple synergistic mechanisms of action that modulate (patho)physiological functions. Pharmacognosy is the study of medicine derived from natural sources that include plants, animals, and microorganisms, and the scope of the field depends on knowledge about the safety, purity, and efficacy of complex multicompound products. Herbal pharmacognosy is the application of this science specifically to traditional herbal medicine sources. Traditional medicines, particularly herbal medicine, remain the primary source of medicine in many countries and cultures globally. Although the root of this field is within traditional medicine, there is increased scientific focus on herbal pharmacognosy in recent years for novel therapeutic molecules. Modern pharmacognosy includes the application of molecular, genomic, and metabolomic techniques, providing a significant increase in knowledge on the biological and clinical applications of herbal medicines. Secondary plant metabolites serve numerous roles in plant biology, including innate immunity, defense against herbivores and pathogens, antioxidant activity, and attraction of pollinators for cellular communication. These compounds have been used by humans throughout recorded and prerecorded history as various commodities, including pigments, condiments, nutrition sources, and medicines. This chapter considers some of the major and well-defined groups of secondary plant metabolites, specifically terpenoids, glycosides, saponins, phenols (including flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, lignans), tannins, alkaloids, and essential oils. Currently, an interdisciplinary approach is needed in basic and clinical research for the identification and standardized extraction of secondary metabolites from suitable herbs, and for the development of medicines for clinical practice.
Chapter
Several medicinal plants are traditionally used in different regions of Africa for the treatment of male infertility, sexual asthenia, erectile dysfunction, and impotency or used as an aphrodisiac. Scientific studies, mostly conducted in vitro or in animals, have proven the acclaimed traditional use of these plants to enhance sexual activities or sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Some of the mechanisms of actions associated with these plants include increased level of testosterone and the relaxation of the smooth cavernosal muscles. However, some plants were also shown to have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system. This may be due to the varying modes of plant extraction, duration of treatment, experimental design, dosage used, quality of the plant, or toxic effects. There is a need to standardize the protocols as well as to better understand the mechanism of actions of the respective plants. Further studies should be conducted using human subjects.
Chapter
Functional foods are recently introduced to assure superior nutritional quality; contain biologically active compounds in defined amounts. These foods have to be effectively packaged and stored in order to prevent microbial spoilage and risk of food borne infections. Recently, food technologists and scientists are formulating the Essential Oil (EOs) containing functional foods. The antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of EOs have been proved by a number of researchers. Health conscious consumers prefer natural additives, hence these volatile oils due to their green image can be safely used as a replacement of synthetic preservatives. The shelf life of functional foods can be improved by antimicrobial packaging incorporating EOs and their derivatives in the edible films and coatings. EOs can be easily fabricated as microencapsules and nanoparticles, which increases their stability and solubility. Hence EOs are considered as the most usable additives in future functional foods.
Article
In this paper, the data processing platform for the detection of wearable Sports Physiological Parameters Based on the medical Internet of things can be connected with the network to build a medical Internet of things platform for remote monitoring of patients' lives, which can process physiological data in real time. Finally, the important physiological parameter array of human body is obtained and transmitted to ZigBee network in real time. If the patient needs further diagnosis, the collected data can also be sent to the home gateway through ZigBee and then sent to the telemedicine center through internwt for diagnosis by the doctor and the diagnosis results will be sent back to the patient. The data processing platform can realize the remote and real-time information interaction between doctors and patients.
Article
Full-text available
Background Enhancing athletic performance is a great desire among the athletes, coaches and researchers. Mint is one of the most famous natural herbs used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and vasoconstrictor effects. Even though inhaling mint aroma in athletes has been investigated, there were no significant effects on the exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy male students every day consumed one 500 ml bottle of mineral water, containing 0.05 ml peppermint essential oil for ten days. Blood pressure, heart rate, and spirometry parameters including forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF) were determined one day before, and after the supplementation period. Participants underwent a treadmill-based exercise test with metabolic gas analysis and ventilation measurement using the Bruce protocol. Results The FVC (4.57 ± 0.90 vs. 4.79 ± 0.84; p < 0.001), PEF (8.50 ± 0.94 vs. 8.87 ± 0.92; p < 0.01), and PIF (5.71 ± 1.16 vs. 6.58 ±1.08; p < 0.005) significantly changed after ten days of supplementation. Exercise performance evaluated by time to exhaustion (664.5 ± 114.2 vs. 830.2 ± 129.8 s), work (78.34 ±32.84 vs. 118.7 ± 47.38 KJ), and power (114.3 ± 24.24 vs. 139.4 ± 27.80 KW) significantly increased (p < 0.001). In addition, the results of respiratory gas analysis exhibited significant differences in VO2 (2.74 ± 0.40 vs. 3.03 ± 0.351 L/min; p < 0.001), and VCO2 (3.08 ± 0.47 vs. 3.73 ± 0.518 L/min; p < 0.001). Conclusions The results of the experiment support the effectiveness of peppermint essential oil on the exercise performance, gas analysis, spirometry parameters, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in the young male students. Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles, increase in the ventilation and brain oxygen concentration, and decrease in the blood lactate level are the most plausible explanations.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhaling peppermint odor has effects on time of running, maximum heart rate (MHR), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation (VE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during acute intensive exercise or not. 36 women soccer player were chosen for participating in this research. They were randomly divided in 3 groups (control, inhaling peppermint, inhaling mixture of peppermint and ethanol). In order to be aware of similarity of groups, the subjects' BMI was determined and ANOVA did not show any significant differences (p < 0.05). The subjects of three groups ran on treadmill according to Bruce test. Heart rate, time of running, VO2max, VO2, VE and RER were measured by Gas Analyzer. After collecting the data, ANOVA was done (p < 0.05) and the results showed that in this study the inhaling of fragrant odors did not have any significant effect on the time of running, MHR, VO2max, VO2, VE and RER, which we think is due to the intensity and duration of training. Referring to our results of the present study; we suggest that inhaling peppermint odor during acute intensive exercise has no significant effect on pulmonary indexes and physical performance (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 21).
Book
Still considered the definitive work on medicinal herbs and their uses after two decades, the Handbook of Medicinal Herbs has undergone a long-anticipated revision. In the second edition, world-renowned ethnobotanist James A. Duke provides up-to-date data on over 800 of the world's most important medicinal plant species. The book contains more species, phytochemicals, proven indications, folk indications, and dosage data than the first edition in a new easier to use format. The in-depth content, the addition of color plates and over 200 black and white illustrations makes this book the most comprehensive resource on medicinal herbs available. NEW IN THE SECOND EDITION: • Over 100 color plates, 4 color maps • Over 200 black and white illustrations • Over 800 medicinal plants? more than twice as many as the previous edition organized alphabetically by common name • More herbs from the African, Ayurvedic, Chinese, and Jamu traditions EASY ACCESS TO INFORMATION YOU NEED Designed to give you fast access to the information you need on a regular basis, this new edition is organized more systematically than any other medicinal herb publication. The entries are now arranged alphabetically by common name with the scientific name in parenthesis. Major synonyms are also provided. • It has become increasingly clear that there are hundreds of biologically active compounds, often additive or synergistic, in all our plants, foods, spices, herbs, medicinal, and poisonous plants. The debate continues on how these plants work and how they should be used. Blending scientific fact with folk uses and the author's personal experience, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Second Edition provides the most well rounded discussions of safety, efficacy, toxicity, and rational use found in any herbal reference.
Article
Previous research has indicated that odorant presentations can have both positive and negative effects on psychological perceptions of athletic task performance. The present study extends past research by assessing how the administration of peppermint odor affects actual athletic task performance. Forty athletes undertook a series of physical tasks under conditions of no-odor or peppermint odor. The peppermint odor condition resulted in increases in running speed, hand grip strength, and number of push-ups, but had no effect on skill related tasks such as basketball free-throw shots. The implications are particularly salient in regard to enhancing athletic performance using a nonpharmacological aid and as an adjunct to athletic training and physical therapy.
Article
Past research indicates the odors of peppermint and cinnamon (1) enhance motivation, performance, and alertness, (2) decrease fatigue, and (3) serve as central nervous system stimulants. Given these results, it is reasonable to expect that the presentation of peppermint or cinnamon odor while driving may produce a more alert and conscientious driver, and minimize the fatigue associated with prolonged driving. In the present study, participants were monitored during simulated driving under three odor conditions (peppermint, cinnamon, non-odor control). Odors were added to low flow oxygen (1.3L/min) via an oxygen concentrator and presented at the rate of 30 seconds every 15 minutes. Measures of cognitive performance, wakefulness, mood, and workload were also assessed. Both cinnamon and peppermint administration led to increased ratings of alertness, decreased temporal demand, and decreased frustration over the course of the driving scenario. In addition, peppermint scent reduced anxiety and fatigue. Periodic administration of these odors over prolonged driving may prove beneficial in maintaining alertness and decreasing highway accidents and fatalities.
Article
Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.
Article
Two experiments examined the relationship between time domain patterns of EEG activity and self-reports for individuals exposed to different odorants. In Exp 1, 3 odorants produced different patterns of EEG theta activity and self reports from 9 adults, suggesting that odor administration is a reliable variable in manipulating neurophysiological response systems and may influence performance and mood. In Exp 2, EEG activity was recorded while 10 adults smelled 5 similar commercial odorous chemicals and an unscented base. Ss also completed questionnaires on odor character and mood. Results indicate that few perceptual or mood differences were produced by the odors. EEG alpha and theta activity in the left and right hemispheres, however, differed depending upon the odor presented and was dissociated from self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A Practical, Authoritative CompendiumThis handbook catalogs 365 species of herbs having medicinal or folk medicinal uses, presenting whatever useful information has been documented on their toxicity and utility in humans and ani-mals. Plants from all over the world - from common cultivars to rare species - are included in these 700 pages. The toxicity of these species varies, but the safety of each has been formally or informally questioned by the Food and Drug Administration, National Cancer Institute, Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administra-tion, or Herb Trade Association. Easy-to-Locate Facts and FiguresDesigned to enable fast access to important information, this hand-book presents information in both catalog and tabular forms. In the catalog section, plants are presented alphabetically by scientific name. (The index permits you to locate an herb by its common name.) A detailed sketch of the chief identifying features accompa-nies most catalog entries. For each species the following information, as available, is presented and referenced: Family and colloquial namesChemical contentUses and applications - present and historicalProcessing, distribution, and economic potentialToxicological agents and degree of toxicityPoison symptoms in humans and animalsTreatment and antidotes References to original literature Five Tables of Accessible DataGiven a plant species, you can easily determine its toxins; or, given a toxin, you can discover which plants contain it. These and other data are presented in convenient tabular formats as appendixes to the handbook. Other information contained in these tables include toxicity ranking and other toxicity data (as applicable), such as mode of contact, organs affected, and lethal dose; and proximate analyses of selected foods. These tables are titled: Medicinal Herbs: Toxicity Ranking and PricelistToxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant GeneraHigh Plant Genera and Their ToxinsPharmacologically Active PhytochemicalsProximate Analyses of Conventional Plant Foods
A stimulation method was employed by which chemosensory evoked potentials were recorded without tactile somatosensory contamination. The purpose of the study was to determine whether potential components evoked by stimulation of the chemoreceptors of the trigeminal nerve can be distinguished from those of the olfactory nerve. The stimulants (vanillin, phenylethyl alcohol, limonene, menthol, anethol, benzaldehyde, carbon dioxide and a mixture of vanillin and carbon dioxide) were presented in a randomized order to 13 volunteers. Chemosensory evoked potentials to substances which anosmics are unable to perceive (vanillin, phenylethyl alcohol) were termed olfactory evoked potentials; potentials to CO2, which effected no olfactory sensations were termed chemo-somatosensory potentials. Analysis of variance revealed that the different substances resulted in statistically significant changes in the amplitudes and latencies of the evoked potentials, and also in the subjective estimates of intensity. An increased excitation of the somatosensory system resulted in reduced latencies and enhanced amplitudes of the evoked potentials. Responses to the mixture of carbon dioxide and vanillin appeared significantly earlier (50-150 msec) than responses to either substance alone.
Article
Volatile aromatics, eucalyptol, eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol were spread on synthetic DPL films and pulmonary surfactants; the initial surface pressure of the surfactants was measured and the additional surface pressure increment recorded. Eucalyptol was allowed to be inhaled by rabbits and lung compliance was monitored. Under our experimental conditions the volatile aromatics exhibited surfactant-like effects, namely a decrease in surface tension between water and air and thus improved lung compliance values in vivo.