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This study analysed women participation in agricultural production in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. It investigated the women’s access to economic resources and examined the influence of selected socio-economic characteristics of women and access to economic resources on their participation in agricultural production. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 50 respondents for this study. The research was carried out with the use of well structured interview schedule to obtain the necessary data. Both descriptive and inferential analytical tools were employed. Probit analysis was employed to investigate the determinants of women participation in agricultural production in the study area. The empirical results revealed that household size, marital status and local taboos had significant impact on the women participation in agricultural production; all at 5% probability level with a log likelihood of -96.160222, pseudo R2 of 0.0875 and LR statistic of 18.44 which shows that the model has a good fit. Most of the respondents were illiterate with non-formal educational status which directly informed their participation in agricultural production. The study concludes that there is high rate of involvement of women in agricultural production in the study area; hence the role of some socio-economic variables as well as assets such as social capital, landed-property, cash as well as savings are central in determining the participation level or perception on agricultural production. Keywords: Women participation, Agricultural production, Egbedore, Probit analysis
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
 
    
! "   
' "
 
Analysis of Women Participation in Agricultural Production in Egbedore Local
Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria
Oladejo, J. A., S. O. Olawuyi, and T. D. Anjorin,
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension,
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
e-mail: seyidolapo@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract: This study analysed women participation in agricultural production in Egbedore Local
Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. It investigated the women’s access to economic resources and
examined the influence of selected socio-economic characteristics of women and access to economic
resources on their participation in agricultural production. Multistage random sampling technique was used
to select 50 respondents for this study. The research was carried out with the use of well structured
interview schedule to obtain the necessary data. Both descriptive and inferential analytical tools were
employed. Probit analysis was employed to investigate the determinants of women participation in
agricultural production in the study area. The empirical results revealed that household size, marital status
and local taboos had significant impact on the women participation in agricultural production; all at 5%
probability level with a log likelihood of -96.160222, pseudo R2 of 0.0875 and LR statistic of 18.44 which
shows that the model has a good fit. Most of the respondents were illiterate with non-formal educational
status which directly informed their participation in agricultural production. The study concludes that there
is high rate of involvement of women in agricultural production in the study area; hence the role of some
socio-economic variables as well as assets such as social capital, landed-property, cash as well as savings
are central in determining the participation level or perception on agricultural production.
Keywords: Women participation, Agricultural production, Egbedore, Probit analysis
INTRODUCTION
Women constitute more or less half of
any country’s population. In most countries
however, women contribute much less than men
towards the value of recorded production both
quantitatively in labour force participation and
qualitatively in educational achievement and
skilled manpower (Lawanson, 2008). She
pointed out that, the under-utilization of female
in Agriculture has obvious implications for
economic welfare and growth. Several factors,
both economic and non-economic are
responsible for this. Traditionally, women are
regarded as homemakers, who oversee and
coordinate the affairs and activities at home.
Previously in Africa, women remained at home
while their husbands and sons went out to the
farm to work. But at home, however, they were
not idle as they engaged in manual processing of
food crops and other farm produce in addition to
their housekeeping duties. With the advent of
western education, industrialization and paid
employment, men as well as women are drifted
into the modern sector of the economy. And
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 
    
! "   
today, there are visible changes in the perception
of women, principally because they have greater
opportunities for education than before. They
now constitute themselves into various societies
or organizations and they are aggressively
fighting for the liberalization of the role of
women as opposed to restricting them to the
home and home-based activities. In Nigeria
today, however, women are excluded from
certain occupational categories due to formal
barriers as well as informal barriers to entry; the
formal barriers which continue to hinder the
entry of women into such occupational
categories include: (i) lack of educational or
technical training, (ii) labour laws and trading
customs. The informal barriers include: (i)
customs and religious practices, (ii) difficulties
in combining domestic and labour market
activities, (iii) management and worker attitudes,
(Lawanson, 2008). According to Anne and Mary
(1998), the early studies legitimized the idea of
women as productive partners in agriculture,
discovering and documenting the various roles
played by women as farmers, farm wives, and
agricultural professionals and recounting the
stories of successful women in these roles.
Nigerian women are saddled with most of the
tasks in agricultural production 'supposedly'
meant for the man but the benefits gained by
them are not commensurate to the man-hours
they spend on the task. Despite the dominant and
important role women play in agricultural
production in the country, they are hardly given
any attention in the area of training and/or
visitation by extension agents with improved
technologies. Banks hardly grant them loans and
they are hardly reached with improved seeds,
fertilizer and other inputs (Damisa, Samndi and
Yohanna, 2007) citing (Saito and Spurring,
1992). These conditions have entrenched the
women in a vicious cycle of poverty that places
them at a less advantageous vantage of income
and resource empowerment. Few Nigerian
women are engaged in top management cadre of
formal sector establishments simply because
majority of them lack the educational
qualifications necessary for such positions. There
is a long history of women participation in
productive labour in Nigeria. In traditional
communities, women like their male
counterparts, hold farmlands and assist their
husbands in all farming activities. Besides
working on the farms, women of Nigeria as
elsewhere in West Africa, actively participate in
non-agricultural activities such as craft and
dyeing, weaving and spinning, food processing,
retail trade and other home-based informal
activities. Lawanson (2008) shed more light on
the role of Nigerian women in agriculture. As in
other parts of Africa, Nigerian women have
worked side by side with men in agriculture with
some marked division of labour between them.
The men performed the tedious tasks of felling
trees, gathering and burning of bush and making
ridges while women were involved in planting of
seeds particularly food crops, harvesting,
transportation, processing and selling of farm
products. In Nigeria, there are significant
regional differences in women participation in
agriculture. For instance, a study of women in
the country revealed that on an overall basis, 40
per cent of the rural women surveyed regarded
farming as their major occupation. On regional
basis, 89, 10 and 6 per cent of those in the East,

 
    
! "   
' "
 
West and South respectively regarded agriculture
as their main occupation (Lawanson, 2008).
Damisa et al., (2007) pointed out that
various researches conducted on the contribution
of women to agricultural development in the
country suggest that women contribution to farm
work is as high as between 60 and 90% of the
total farm task performed. The contribution of
the women ranges from such tasks as land
clearing, land-tilling, planting, weeding,
fertilizer/manure application to harvesting, food
processing, threshing, winnowing, milling,
transportation and marketing as well as the
management of livestock. Charles and Willem
(2008) opined that the importance of the role
played by women in agricultural production is
such that the widespread failure so far to reach
women farmers through formal extension
services has major repercussions for national
output and food security as well as social justice.
Sharon (2008) viewed that both women and men
play critical roles in agriculture throughout the
world, producing, processing and providing the
food we eat. Women make up half the rural
population and they constitute more than half of
the agricultural labor force. Rural women in
particular are responsible for half of the world's
food production and produce between 60 and 80
percent of the food in most developing countries.
Yet, despite their contribution to global food
security, women farmers are frequently
underestimated and overlooked in development
strategies.
Fabiyi, Danladi, Akande, and Mahmood
(2007) quoting Folasade (1991) on ‘the role of
women in food production’ submitted that lack
of separate land for women and inadequate
contact with extension agents are serious
constraints faced by women farmers. Women
very rarely own land in Nigeria, despite their
heavy involvement in agriculture. Because
women generally do not own land or other assets
it has traditionally been difficult for women to
obtain Bank loans or other forms of credit
through the banking system. Land tenure system
is largely by inheritance. This lack of title to land
prevents women from exercising or improving
their expertise in crop production and animal
husbandry because of security of tenure.
Majority of them use low yielding and
unimproved planting materials, primitive and
labour intensive farm implements, traditional
farming practices, which have adversely affected
agricultural production. It has been reported that
80% of the work done on the farm in agricultural
activities takes place in rural areas. It is now
widely demonstrated that rural women, as well
as men, throughout the world are engaged in a
range of productive activities essential to
household welfare, agricultural productivity and
economic growth. Yet women’s substantial
contribution continues to be under-valued in
conventional agricultural and economic analyses
and policies, while men’s contribution remains
the central, often sole focus of attention (Fabiyi
et al., 2007).
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to
analyze women participation in Agricultural
production in Egbedore L.G.A. of Osun State.
The specific objectives are to:
1. identify the personal and socio-
economic characteristics of the
respondents.
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 
    
! "   
2. determine the women’s access to
economic resources (including access to
capital, land, natural resources, credit
and savings programmes), technical and
professional skills information.
3. examine the influence of selected socio-
economic characteristics of women and
access to economic resources on their
participation in agricultural production.
4. identify the constraints militating
against women participation in
agricultural production.
Hypothesis of the study
Null hypothesis (Ho): There is no
significant relationship between selected socio-
economic characteristics of women, access to
economic resources and the level of their
participation in agricultural production.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Damisa and Yohanna (2007) stated that
the role of women in agricultural production in
Nigeria can never be underestimated. They
perform crucial roles in the domestic and
economic life of the society. Rural and national
developments can hardly be achieved with the
neglect of this important and substantial segment
of the society. In recognition of the important
role of women in nation building, the Nigerian
Government more than ever before is keen upon
rural poverty alleviation as a way of improving
the economy. As such, focus is on planned and
desirable change in the rural societies in the form
of agricultural development. The success of this
planned change is however hinged largely on the
active participation of women in agricultural
production. A lot of literatures have shown the
various contributions of women to agricultural
production in Nigeria. The role of women in
agricultural production has however not widely
been explored. Male dominance in decision
making in the household and economy as well as
agricultural production has continued even in
areas where women are the key providers of
labour because the influence of women has not
been recognized. The women have more or less
been relegated to play second fiddle in homes
and the economy. Considering therefore the
importance of active participation of rural
women in agricultural production, it is necessary
to correct for this anomaly.
According to the World Bank
participation source book, in Nigeria, women
play a dominant role in agricultural production.
This was confirmed by the findings of a study
financed by the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) in which the study revealed
that women make up 60-80 percent of the
agricultural labor force in Nigeria, depending on
the region, and produce two-thirds of the food
crops. Yet, despite the facts, widespread
assumptions that men-and not women-make the
key farm management decisions have prevailed.
As a result, agricultural extension services in
Nigeria (as in other African countries) have
traditionally been focused on men and their farm
production needs, while neglecting the female
half of the production force. Most extension
messages targeted at women emphasized their
domestic role with topics on child care and
family nutrition.
It became clear that despite a decade of
Bank assistance in building up Nigeria's
agricultural extension service, women were
receiving minimal assistance and information

 
    
! "   
' "
 
from extension agents. The study caught the eye
of the head of the Nigeria's Federal Agriculture
Coordinating Unit (FACU) and the Bank
division chief on agriculture in the West Africa
department who were both committed to finding
a solution. In 1988 their support led to the
creation of Women in Agriculture (WIA)
programs within the existing state agricultural
development projects (ADPs) in an attempt to
address the gender-related deficiencies within the
existing extension program. The ADPs were
created in the 1970s with funding assistance
from the Bank and their main objective was to
increase the production of both food and
industrial crops by stimulating agricultural
production at the small farmer level.
Probit Model
A lot of research has been carried out
on the influence of socio-economic variables on
farmers' adoption decision especially in
agricultural participation. In most cases, the use
of Probit, Tobit or Logit was applied (Damisa et
al., 2007). Farmers were assumed in these
models to make adoption decisions based on an
objective of utility maximization. If a farmer has
options of Ui and Uii; then the farmer would
either prefer Ui to Uii or would be indifferent.
Given agriculture as an occupational technology,
the socio-economic and demographic
characteristics of the woman may influence her
participation decision and this in turn is likely to
influence the level of her participation in
agricultural production; hence, a Probit model
was used to capture the participation process.
Probit modelling is used for explaining a
dichotomous dependent variable with the
empirical specification formulated in terms of
latent response variable (Damisa et al., 2007)
quoting (Verbeke et al., 2000). Defining as
the utility index of participation in agricultural
production then Yi is a function of the socio-
economic and demographic characteristics of the
woman: Yi = 1 for woman to participation in
agricultural production and Yi = 0 for non-
participation in agricultural production. Where
Y* is the latent or unobservable variable.
According to Damisa et al., (2007), the
observable variable is a dummy representing the
agricultural participation decision of the woman;
that is, Y = 1 if Y*>0 and Y = 0 otherwise; since
utilities are random, the i-th woman farmer will
agree to participate in agricultural production if
and only if Ui ^ Uii, for the i-th woman therefore,
the probability of participating in agricultural
production is given by the utility maximization
function.
METHODOLOGY
The Study area
The Study area is Egbedore Local
Government Area of Osun State; having its
headquarters in an ancient town named Awo. It
is located in a warm tropic region of the rain
forest of the South Western Nigeria. And, it
experiences an average monthly rainfall of
25mm between May and July and 2.5mm
between December and January. Also, the study
area covers an approximately 102 sq km which is
bounded by Ede North L.G.A to the south,
Ejigbo and Surulere L.G.As to the West,
Irepodun L.G.A to the North and both Olorunda
and Osogbo L.G.As to the East. In addition, the
study area being located in plain and hilly
terrains with beautiful climate and favourable
vegetation is noted for agricultural activities.
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 
    
! "   
Majority of the farmers engage in large scale
production of food and cash crops such as
Cocoa, Kolanut, Palm-products, Orange,
Banana, Maize, Yam, Cassava, Cocoyam e.t.c.
Although, peasant farming is predominant in the
area, a sizeable percentage of farmers engage in
other forms of agricultural practices like Poultry-
keeping, animal husbandry, fishing and bee-
keeping. Other occupations of the people include
blacksmithing, hunting, dyeing, weaving among
many others. The Local Government area
comprises of the following historical and notable
towns and villages: Ido-Osun, Ara, Iragberi, Ojo,
Ikotun, Ilawe, Iwoye, Idoo, Ofatedo, Okinni,
Aro, Ekuro, Olorunsogo, Ooye, Ilaasan, Igbokiti,
Abudo and many others. People in the L.G.A are
predominantly Yorubas of Oyo extraction. The
historical profile shows that the indigenes of the
area are direct descendants of Oduduwa or
notable members of the ancestral ruling houses
in the old Oyo kingdom. Yoruba is the common
spoken dialect.
Sampling procedure and sample size
From the identified towns/ villages in
the Local Government Area, 10 of them were
randomly selected. In the second stage, five
registered female farmers from each of the
selected villages were randomly chosen and
interviewed for the purpose of this study. Thus, a
total of 50 women were used for this study.
Research Instrument
The instrument used for data collection
is structured interview schedule. Information
collected were on socio-economic characteristics
of respondents, agricultural activities engaged in,
as well as level of access to economic resources.
Data analysis
Descriptive Statistics: Such as
percentages and frequency distribution tables
were used to analyze data on selected personal
and socio-economic characteristics of the
women, their access to economic resources,
technical and professional skill information
(extension services).
Inferential Statistics: Probit model was
used to analyze the relationship between selected
socio-economic characteristics of the respondent
women and their participation in agricultural
production. Women participation in agricultural
production was assigned a discrete choice
variable (yes or no) where a selected woman was
asked to individually indicate whether she
participates in agricultural production or not.
Model specification
According to Oni, Oladele and Oyewole
(2005), the probit model is expressed as:
Y = Bo + BiXi + ei
Where Y is dichotomous dependent
variable which can be explained as;
Y = 1, if women participate, Y = 0, if women did
not participate,
Bo = the intercept
Bi = regression coefficients that explain the
probability of participation by women farmers,
ei = the error term.
Given agriculture as an occupational
technology, the socio-economic and
demographic characteristics of the women
farmers may influence the level of their
participation in agricultural production (Damisa
et al., 2007).
Xi = Vectors of parameters to be estimated, i.e
independent variables (i =1, 2, 3…11) where:

 
    
! "   
' "
 
X1= Age (years), X2= Level of education (Years
of formal education) , X3= Household Size
(Actual number), X4= Level of Disposable
Income (Naira), X5= Land tenure right (Dummy;
Yes =1, No = 0) , X6= Marital Status (Dummy;
Married = 1, Otherwise = 0), X7= Years of
experience in farming (years), X8= Distance of
the women's farm from homestead (Km), X9=
Access to subsidized Inputs (Dummy; Yes =1,
No = 0), X10= Access to credit facilities
(Dummy; Yes =1, No = 0), X11= Taboo
(Dummy; Yes =1, No = 0).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
As shown in Table 1, majority (52.0%)
of the respondents fall between age range of 41-
50 years which simply means that they are
within the active and productive age while most
of them have no formal educational attainment.
It was revealed that 78.0% do not have land
tenure rights which connotes that, majority of
them operate on rented, leased or borrowed
farmland. There is inadequate extension service
delivery in the study area as most of the
respondents (74.0%) reported lack of access to
extension services. The overall perception on
participation in agricultural production was
positive as most of them see it as non-gender
vocation. Agricultural production constraints
faced by the respondents are lack of capital, lack
of government support, poor weather condition
and diseases; 30.0% claimed lack of capital
while 46.0% claimed combination of the listed
production constraints. Mindset and land tenure
rights were identified as participation constraints
by 48.0% and 28.0% of the respondents
respectively.
Table 1: Socio-economic Characteristics of the
respondents
Variables Frequency Percentage
Age
31-40 17 34.0
41-50 26 52.0
51-60 4 8.0
Above 60 3 6.0
Educational level
Non-formal 33 55.0
Primary 11 27.0
Secondary 6 16.0
Land tenure
rights
No 39 78.0
Yes 11 22.0
Access to
extension services
No 37 74.0
Yes 13 26.0
Participation
perception
Negative 11 22.0
Positive 39 78.0
Agricultural
production
constraints
Lack of capital 15 30.0
Lack of
government
support
3 6.0
Poor weather
condition and
Diseases
9 18.0
Combination of
above factors
23 46.0
Participation
constraints
Land tenure rights 14 28.0
Gender inequalities 5 10.0
Mindset 24 48.0
Combination of
above factors
7 14.0
Total 50 100
Source: Field survey, 2009
Probit Estimates of selected explanatory
variables
The probit model was used to examine
the influence of selected socio-economic
characteristics of women and access to economic
(  ))* * * +,$ +( $ +
 
    
! "   
resources on their participation in agricultural
production. The model does this by estimating
the log likelihood of the explanatory variables
that influence the dependent variable; the level of
significance and true relationship of this
influence is also appropriately estimated and
indicated by the model.
The empirical estimation of the Probit
analysis result as presented in Table 2 reveals a
log likelihood of -96.160222, pseudo R2 of
0.0875 and LR statistic of 18.44, all significant
at 5 percent probability level; this shows that the
model has a good fit. Considering p>|z| values
for all the variables included in the model as
shown in table 2, only X3, X6, and X11 are
significant and they are all significant at 5
percent -levels; having confidence interval of
95 percent each. The implication of these from
the finding is that increase in the level of any of
the explanatory variables with positive sign, X11
in this case will have a positive effect on the
women participation in agricultural production,
whereas those explanatory variables with
negative sign, X3 and X6 will exert a negative
relationship on women participation perception
in agricultural production. However, taboo (X11)
being positive and significant at 5 percent
indicates that, it is a strong factor considered for
women participation in agricultural production;
although its coefficient being positive is contrary
to apriori expectation because it is expected to be
contributing negatively to participation, the
positive sign could be attributed to more
emphasis being placed on both crop and animal
production other than animal production only
which mainly focuses on piggery. However,
household size (X3) and marital status (X6) are
negatively significant at 5 percent -level
respectively; this means that, they are both
important factors towards participation in
agricultural production but their negative
coefficients is at variance with a-priori
expectations and findings of (Damisa et al; 2007)
because, household size should measure number
of working members; generally, an increase in
family size is likely to increase the probability of
participation in agricultural production; all things
being equal; this probably means that, younger
members of the households are not participating
actively in agricultural production because
youths of modern days prefer white-collar jobs.
In the same vein, most of the respondents are
married and as such marital status has a direct
relationship with household size. All other
estimated variables, that is: X1, X2, X4, X5, X7, X8,
X9, and X10 were found to have no significant
statistical effect on the dependent variable.
In conclusion, some of these findings
are contrary to a prior expectations and findings
of (Oni et al., 2005 and Damisa et al., 2007) but
may be explained by insincerity on the part of
the respondents; thinking that, government
inadequacies could better be expressed by
inaccurate responses. Poor record keeping and
the use of memory estimates by the respondents
also contribute to the little deviation from the
apriori expectations experienced.

 
    
! "   
' "
 
Table 2: Probit Estimates of selected explanatory variables on the dependent variable
Variables Coefficient Standard Error Z statistics P-value
Constant 1.797291 1.1019832 1.76 0.078
Age (X1) -0.017307 0.0216464 -0.80 0.422
Education (X2) 0.2279989 0.1708957 1.33 0.182
Household size (X3) -0.5673548 0.277094 -2.05 0.041**
Income (X4) 8.09e-08 2.12e-06 0.04 0.970
Tenure right (X5) -0.0730558 0.2783172 -0.26 0.793
Marital status (X6) -0.3293294 0.170241 -1.93 0.053**
Years of experience (X7) 0.1143045 0.1664658 0.69 0.492
Distance travelled (X8) -0.0363675 0.194804 -0.19 0.852
Access to subsidized input
(X9)
0.0176362 0.2374294 0.07 0.941
Access to credit facilities
(X10)
0.3985417 0.2938333 1.36 0.175
Taboo (X11) 1.797291 0.3126904 2.19 0.029**
Source: Field survey, 2009
Log likelihood = -96.160222, LR statistic = 18.44, Pseudo R2 = 0.0875, Prob > chi2 = 0.0719
** Significant at 5% probability level
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The women in the area of study see
agriculture as the major means of livelihood and
therefore put high expectation of returns on the
occupation. Majority of the women farmers are
between the ages of 47 and 50; this might have
accounted for the negative coefficient of the age
variable; also, most of the respondents have non-
formal educational status and it is expected that, the
higher the education level of the woman farmer, the
more the likelihood of her to out- migrate to seek for
better placed employment. Then, household size,
marital status, and taboo have significant influence
on women participation; this is so because marital
status is directly related to household size and this
thus dictates, to some extent, the availability of
labour for agricultural activities. Then, taboo is also a
significant variable; this forbids them from
cultivating certain crops and rearing a particular
animal; and as learnt, this has cultural and religious
attachment. Years of experience on the other hand,
has an insignificant influence on the level of women
participation in agriculture; also is the subsidized
input, this is quite expected since the women
interviewed claimed they have never come in contact
with any extension agent through whom they believe
subsidized inputs will reach them. This goes to
support the claim of women being side-lined in
important agricultural policy related issues. The
empirical estimation of the probit analysis shows a
log likelihood of -96.160222, pseudo R2 of 0.0875
and LR statistic of 18.44, all significant at 5 percent
probability level; this shows that the model has a
good fit. Considering p>|z| values for all the variables
(  ))* * * +,$ +( $ +

 
    
! "   
included in the model, only X3, X6, and X11 are
significant at 5 percent -levels each. The implication
of all these from the finding is that increase in the
level of any of the explanatory variables with positive
sign, X11 in this case will have a positive effect on the
women participation in agricultural production,
whereas those explanatory variables with negative
sign, X3 and X6 will exert a negative relationship on
women participation perception in agricultural
production. Hence, the study concludes that, there is
high rate of involvement of women in agricultural
production in the study area; though the output does
not justify this. This study shows the picture of how
the women in Egbedore Local Government Area of
Osun State engage in agricultural production;
variables such as household size, marital status, and
taboo were shown to have significant effect on
women participation perception. Also, this study
pointed out that, the role of some personal and socio-
economic variables as well as assets such as social
capital, landed-property, cash, as well as savings is
central in determining the women participation in
agricultural production; therefore, the Null
hypothesis is hereby rejected.
Recommendations
1. There is need for mass enlightenment
programme on the need for active participation
in agricultural production irrespective of
educational status.
2. Government should encourage efficient and
sustainable use of the existing cultivable land, by
further investing in agricultural research and
extension, with a view to increase the
agricultural output as well as the corresponding
income for households especially for those
investing in commercial agriculture. By so
doing, extension visits will afford the farmers the
opportunity to have access to subsidized inputs
and this will boost their level of participation in
agricultural production.
3. Because of the respondents’ involvement in
social organizations which primarily focuses on
thrift and credit activities; there is need for
adequate training on money management so that
credit facilities obtained can be properly
channelled to agricultural production and other
useful purposes for which it is meant.
REFERENCES
Anne, B.W and Mary, V.G, 1998: ‘Women in
Agriculture’. Paper presented at the Second
International Conference on Women in
Agriculture organized by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, held in
Washington DC, U.S.A.
Charles, A. and Willem Z. 2008: Participation in
Agricultural Extension, The World Bank
participation sourcebook, Appendix II,
Working Paper Summaries.
Damisa, M.A, Samndi, J.R, and Yohanna, M. 2007:
‘Women Participation in Agricultural
Production: A probit analysis’, Journal of
Applied sciences, Vol. 7 (3) pp. 412-414
Damisa, M.A, and Yohanna M. 2007: ‘Role of rural
women in farm management decision
making process: Ordered probit
analysis’,World Journal of Agricultural
sciences; Vol. 3 (4), p. 543, IDOSI
publication.
Fabiyi, E.F, Danladi, B.B., Akande K.E, and
Mahmood Y, 2007: ‘Role of Women in
Agricultural Development and their
constraints’, Pakistan journal of Nutrition;
Vol. 6 (6) pp. 676-678


 
    
! "   
' "
 
Lawanson, O.I. 2008: Female labour force
participation in Nigeria:‘Determinants and
Trends’, Oxford Business and Economic
Conference Program, Oxford, United
Kingdom. June 22-24, 2008.
Nigeria: “Women in Agriculture, World Bank
participation sourcebook”, The World Bank
group.
Oni, O.A, Oladele, O.I, Oyewole, I.K. 2005:
‘Analysis of factors influencing loan default
among poultry farmers in Ogun state: probit
analysis’, Journal of Central European
Agriculture, Vol. 6 (4) p. 620
Sharon, B.H. 2008: Rural Women and Food
Security’ FAO Participation in Panel
Discussion on the occasion of the
International Day of Rural Women held in
New York; 15th October, 2008.
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Participation in Agricultural Extension, The World Bank participation sourcebook, Appendix II, Working Paper Summaries
  • A Charles
  • Z Willem
Charles, A. and Willem Z. 2008: Participation in Agricultural Extension, The World Bank participation sourcebook, Appendix II, Working Paper Summaries.
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