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Effect of different packaging materials on postharvest quality of cv. Envie2 strawberry

Authors:
  • DISAFA-Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences - University of Study Torino

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Effect of different packaging materials on postharvest quality of cv. Envie2 strawberry Abstract Strawberry fruits require appropriate storage technology to maintain post harvest quality. In order to improve the shelf-life and to reduce the decrease of qualitative and nutraceutical characteristics the effects of different packaging conditions were observed comparing biobased and polypropylene perforated films. Sample units of 0,250 Kg strawberries cv. Envie2 flowpacked have been stored under two different conditions: in cool room at +2°C for 96 hours (like in an ideal supply chain) and in a cool room at +2°C for 48 h followed by storage at room temperature (+20°C) up to 96 hours from start. Fruits packed with biobased film and stored at +2°C showed the better results to preserve the qualitative traits maintaining the best headspace composition (%) for all the storage time.
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*Corresponding author.
Email: cristiana.peano@unito.it
International Food Research Journal 21(3): 1165-1170 (2014)
Journal homepage: http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my
*
Peano, C., Giuggioli, N. R. and Girgenti,V.
DISAFA, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, Grugliasco (TO) 10095, Piemonte, Italy
Effect of different packaging materials on postharvest quality of cv. Envie2
strawberry
Abstract
Strawberry fruits require appropriate storage technology to maintain post harvest quality.
In order to improve the shelf-life and to reduce the decrease of qualitative and nutraceutical
characteristics the effects of different packaging conditions were observed comparing biobased
and polypropylene perforated lms. Sample units of 0,250 Kg strawberries cv. Envie2
owpacked have been stored under two different conditions: in cool room at +2°C for 96 hours
(like in an ideal supply chain) and in a cool room at +2°C for 48 h followed by storage at room
temperature (+20°C) up to 96 hours from start. Fruits packed with biobased lm and stored at
+2°C showed the better results to preserve the qualitative traits maintaining the best headspace
composition (%) for all the storage time.
Introduction
Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit and it must
be harvested at full maturity to achieve the maximum
quality in relation to avour and color. The fruits
have short shelf life and are highly perishable, with
a high rate of respiration, and suffer relatively high
post-harvest losses due to fungal development,
mechanical injury, physiological deterioration and
water loss (Cordenunsi et al., 2005). In the recent
past, avour and appearance were the most important
attributes of fruits and other fresh vegetables, but
nowadays consumers are more concerned about food
safety and nutritional value. The main characteristics
related to the quality of ripe strawberry fruit are
texture, avour (soluble sugars and organic acids)
and color (anthocyanin content). Change in texture
is a consequence of the natural process of senescence
and also of the atmosphere in which the fruit is stored.
Besides the obvious changes in appearance, mold
contamination can also promote undesirable changes
in texture and contribute to reduced strawberry shelf-
life. The increasing demand for dietary compounds
with antioxidant action has focused interest on
fruits as natural sources of these compounds. In this
respect, strawberry is a good source of ascorbic acid
(AA) and avonoid compounds (Wang et al., 1996).
Since fruits are no longer only ‘attractive foods’’,
more effort should be made to understand the effects
of treatments to increase shelf-life and improve
nutritional value. Several research works have aimed
to nd the best compromise between extended shelf-
life and maintenance of nutritional value. Modied
atmosphere, which can be produced by increasing
CO
2
level while reducing O
2
, has yielded good
results regarding strawberry preservation. Effective
control of fruit decay in fresh Chinese bayberry,
strawberry and blueberry has been obtained by cold
storage in combination with carbon dioxide-enriched
atmospheres (10–20% CO
2
) (Ceponis and Cappelini,
1983; Li and Kader, 1989; Gil et al., 1997; Shen and
Huang, 2003). Besides the control of O
2
and CO
2
levels inside the cool rooms also other methods are
used to extend the shelf life period and among them
the detection of new food packaging techniques is
gaining many importance, following the increasing
interest of the large scale retail trade about the
fruits and vegetables packaging, useful to preserve
products by external contaminations, to facilitate their
handling and overall helpful to retard the senescence
processes. Many studies have been aimed to nd the
best kind of food packaging optimizing the O
2
and
CO
2
concentrations inside the packages to maintain
fruit and vegetable quality for long time (Gomes et
al., 2010). Moreover actually the trend in the food
packaging leads to the development and diffusion of
biobased lms to solve the problem of the packaging
waste that is causing increasing environmental
concerns (Davis and Song, 2006). So the continuous
increasing of pollution of the environment has recently
given rise to demands for new biobased polymers,
mainly for applications related to food packaging and
agriculture (Arvanitoyannis, 1999). It is important
to consider that one of the most important aspects
Keywords
Envie2
Storage
Film packaging
Shelf life
Nutraceutical
characteristics
Quality
Article history
Received: 30 August 2013
Received in revised form:
14 January 2014
Accepted: 15 January 2014
1166
Peano et al./IFRJ 21(3): 1165-1170
of packaging lms is to preserve the qualitative
characteristics of fruit and vegetables during the
storage period. Some studies have compared the effect
of biobased laminates and lms on the quality of
fresh produce (Makino and Hirata, 1997; Del Nobile
et al., 2006) but until now very few informations
are available on the effectiveness of biobased lm
packaging on microbial and physicochemical quality
during storage of vegetables (Koide and Shi, 2007).
The objective of our study was to investigate the
effects of lm packaging and storage temperature on
physical and nutritional status of strawberry fruits
cv.Envie2 harvested at the red ripe stage of maturity
stored for a short time (96 hours).
Materials and Methods
Strawberries cv.Envie2 were manually harvested
at the red ripe stage of maturity from a commercial
orchard (Agrifrutta Soc. Coop. S.R.L. – Italy) at
the end of July. The fruits were selected for color
and size, individually picked in polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) baskets (0,250 Kg) and
immediately transferred to the laboratory under cold
conditions. The baskets were randomly packed using
two different single layer lms (biobased lm and a
polypropylene perforated lm) of 25 microns. The
different packages (treatment), the lm permeability
property and the fruits storage conditions are reported
in Table I. For the owpack equipment, an electronic
horizontal wrapping machine Taurus 800 (Delphin,
Italy) has been used. All fruits were compared with
unpackaged samples (control).
The initial gas composition in the package
headspace was 20.8% O
2
and 0.03% CO
2
. The gases
analysis and weight losses were performed daily
while other quality control were performed after 72
and 96 hours of storage. For each treatment were
used three baskets random (0,750 Kg of strawberry
fruits). Headspace composition were measured with
a portable gas analyzer (PBI Dansensor, Italy) and
expressed as percentages. The same air volume was
maintained in the packages across the trial period,
as the analyzer introduced the same quantity of air
that it removed for the analyses. Calibration was
done by using air (Aday and Caner, 2011). Weight
loss of each basket was measured as percentage of
the initial weight (WL%) using an electronic balance
(SE622, WVR Science Education) with an accuracy
of 10
-2
. The total soluble solids content (TSS) (°Brix)
and titratable acidity (TA) (meq/l) were measured on
juice extracted from a strawberry samples blended at
high speed in a tissue homogeniser using respectively
a digital refractometer (Atago refractometer model
PR-32) and an automatic titrator (Titritino plus 484,
Metrohm, Swiss). Organic acids and ascorbic acid
were determined with a Merck-Hitachi (Tokyo,
Japan.) liquid chromatograph with an L-7455
photodiode detector (DAD) detector, D-7000 system
manager, L7200 autosampler and L-7100 pumps
(Schirra et al., 2008). Simultaneous separation and
determination of organic acids and ascorbic acid were
achieved according to the procedure described by
Yuan and Chen (1999) and by Chinnici et al. (2005)
using a Bio-Rad cation guard column and a Bio-Rad
Aminex HPX-87H Hydrogen form cation exchange
resin-based column (300 mm x 7.8 mm i.d.) at 40°C.
The mobile phase consisted of 0.005 M sulfuric acid
aqueous solution and the samples were isocratically
separated at 0.6 mL/min. Peaks of organic acids
and ascorbic acid were measured at wavelengths of
210 and 245 nm respectively and were identied by
comparing retention times with those of standards
and quantication was carried out using external
standards. Total phenolic content was analyzed
according to the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method
(Singleton and Rossi, 1965) and expressed as gallic
acid equivalent). Antioxidant activity was assessed
using the free radical DPPH, according to Bondet et
al. (1997). The mixture containing 3 mL of a methanol
solution of 0.16 mM DPPH was allowed to react for
15 min in a cuvette. The inhibition percentage of the
absorbance at 515 nm of DPPH solution added with
sample was calculated using the following equation:
Inhibition % = (Abst = 0 – Abst = 15 min)/Abst = 0
x 100. Total anthocyanins content were determined
spectrophotometrically using the pH differential
method (Rapisarda et al., 2000). Color parameters
of juices solution diluted 1/10 with water, were
measured in glass cells of 10 mm path length using
a Varian Cary 50 spectrophotometer equipped with a
Cary Win UV color software. All measurements were
done in triplicate. Three measurements were taken
on each treatment for each qualitative parametre
considered.
All statistics were performed using SPSS for
Windows version 17.0. The data obtainend were
treated with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA),
and the means were separated using the Tuckey test
(P 0.05). It was possible to perform parametric tests
for the percentages because the sample sizes were
identical.
Results and Discussion
The headspace gases concentrations of
strawberries stored in the biobased lm (treatment
A and D) is showed in Table II. The lm is able to
Peano et al./IFRJ 21(3): 1165-1170
1167
create M.A.P. storage condition maintaining along
all the storage time gas values different from the
normal atmosphere composition (20.8% O
2
and
0.03% CO
2
). In correspondence of the temperature
change (72 hours) differences in O
2
% and CO
2
%
composition were observed among treatments A and
D. Particularly the highest CO
2
concentration (15,0%)
was observed for the treatment D and it was due to
the rapid respiration rates of strawberries increased
by the high temperature (+20°C). The biobased lm
at low temperature (+2°C) (treatment A) showed best
property maintaining the CO
2
concentrations under
5%. Robinson et al. (1975) reported that losses of
6% of the initial value of fresh weight in a soft fruit
should be considered the limit for marketability. WL
% values reported in Table III showed as all treatments
didn’t affect this qualitative parameter. All treatments
showed WL % inferior to 1%. Strawberries are
considered mature with approximately 7% of soluble
solids (Kader, 1999). Strawberry cv.Envie2 at harvest
showed TTS values of 5.4°Brix; for all treatments
were observed an increase in the TSS values probably
not due to conversion of starch to sugars, since
strawberries accumulate very little starch, but due to
solubilization of cell wall pectins as showed by the
increases in anthocyanin (Table IV). The highest TSS
values were observed at 72 hours for the B treatment
(6.3°Brix). The TTA was no affected by storage and
no differences were observed between treatments; all
treatments in fact showed WL% values trascurable
(Table III) and this explain the maintenance of TTA
values near to harvest (2.42 meq/l).
Glucose, fructose and sucrose represent the main
soluble metabolites (Makinen and Soderling, 1980).
Few data are available on changes in sugar content
during the ripening of strawberries (Zabetakis and
Holden, 1997). Fructose and glucose were present
in similar concentrations at harvest (7.09 and 6.69
g/100 ml) while sucrose was present at lower level
(3.59 g /100 ml) (Zabetakis and Holden, 1997).
After 72 hours of storage the highest fructose and
glucose content were found in strawberries stored
with the biobased lm both at +2°C (treatment A)
and at +20 °C (treatment D) while for the sucrose
the highest value (3.71 g/100 ml ) was found in fruits
stored at +2 °C with the perforated lm (treatment
B). Like sugars, organic acids are important avour
components and can affect the formation of off
avour and the gelling properties of pectin. The
highest acid citric values were observed at 72 and 96
hours for fruit maintained with the biobased lm at
+2°C (treatment A) and +20°C (treatment D) while
no differences among treatments were found for the
malic acid which maintained values similar to harvest
(0.20 mg/100 ml). Ascorbic acid has long been
considered an important nutritional component of
strawberry fruit (Shin et al., 2007). The mean values
of fresh fruits (136.19 mg/100 ml) decreased in the
time storage for all samples showing at 72 hours
the lowest value for unpackeged fruits stored at low
temperature (treatment C). Stored fruits showed a
total antioxidant capacity (%) lower than fresh fruits
and the high tempertaure (+20°C) affected the values
decreases more than low temperature (+2°C). The
mechanism by which modied atmosphere storage
prevents the increase in total antioxidant activity is
not clear, but changment in atmosphere conditions
might affect the release of bound phytochemicals
that contribute to antioxidant activity. According to
Kalt et al. (1999) the total anthocyanins on fresh
fruits (99.82 mg/100 g) increased with the storage
time for all treatments and the highest values (139.98
and 139.48 mg/100 g) were observed at 72 hours
respectively for the C and E treatments. According
to Holcroft and Kader (1999) the total anthocyanins
increase was lower in fruit stored in M.A.P. (treatment
A and D) at 72 hours of storage. The accumulation
of anthocyanins in strawberries coincides with
the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
and uridine diphosphate glucose: avonoid O
3
-
glucosyltransferase enzymes (Given et al., 1988).
The concentration of total phenolics of strawberry
fruit can be maintained or changed during storage
(Kalt et al., 1999; Ayala-Zavala et al., 2004). In our
study all stored samples showed lower values than
fresh fruits according to Cordenunsi et al. (2005).
Table 1. Different packages and storage conditions of
strawberries cv. Envie2
Treatment
Storage conditions
Film
packaging
O
2
TR
(ASTM F2622-08)
at
23°C and 50% RH
CO
2
TR
(ASTM F2476-05)
at
23°C and 50% RH
A
B
C
D
E
F
+2 °C (24, 48, 72, 96 h)
+2 °C (24, 48, 72, 96 h)e
+2 °C (24, 48, 72, 96 h)
+2 °C (48 h) +20°C ( 7 2 , 9 6 h )
+2 °C (48h) +20°C ( 7 2 , 9 6 h )
+2 °C (48 h) +20°C ( 7 2 , 9 6 h )
Biobased ( fr om s t a rc h c o r n)
P e r f o r a t e d ( P P w i t h 6 m m h o l e s )
Control (unpackaged)
Biobased ( fr om s t a rc h c o r n)
P e r f o r a t e d ( P P w i t h 6 m m h o l e s )
Control (unpackaged)
2000
-
-
2000
-
-
44500
-
-
44500
-
-
Table 2. Headspace composition of strawberries cv.
Envie2 stored with the biobased lm at different
temperature
Gas (%)
Storage time (hours)
24
48
72
96
O
2
19.4
±
0.2
13.7
±
0.1
18.3
±
0.2
17.2
±
0.1
19.0
±
0.1
13.7
±
0.1
1.8
±
0,1
1.0
±
0.1
CO
2
1.8
±
0.0
3.9
±
0.1
4.9
±
0.1
4.5
±
0.2
1.8
±
0.0
3.9
±
0.1
15.0
±
0.1
18.0
±
0.1
Average and S.D. s were calculated for 3 replicates
Table 3. WL (%) of strawberries cv. Envie2 stored with
different lm
Treatment
Storage time (hours)
24
48
72
96
A
0.2±0.00
0.2±0.00
0.3±0.00
0.4±0.00
B
0.5±0.00
0.6±0.10
0.9±0.10
1.1±0.10
C
1.0±0.10
1.6±0.20
2.2±0.40
-
D
1.6±0.10
0.1±0.00
0.1±0.00
0.1±0.00
E
1.7±0.20
0.1±0.00
-
-
F
1.4±0.10
0.5±0.05
-
-
1168
Peano et al./IFRJ 21(3): 1165-1170
Conclusion
Strawberry represents one of the most important
sources of bioactive compounds showing high
antioxidant capacity, together with other berries,
especially blackcurrants (Kevers et al., 2007; Battino
et al., 2009). Several genetic and environmental
factors were reported to affect the production and
accumulation of bioactive compounds in strawberry
(Olsson et al., 2004), and few genotypes were well
characterized for these important features (Tulipani
et al., 2008). In this study, we have studied, with the
same tests, various postharvest parameters than can
inuence the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic
content of strawberry. The precise results revealed the
importance of genetic background for the antioxidant
capacity and for the content of total phenolics (with
up to 3.3-fold variations). Various researchers
indicated that the effect of the genotype on strawberry
antioxidant capacity and phenolic content is stronger
than that of the environmental factors (Capocasa
et al., 2008; Crespo et al., 2010). Moreover, in
this study, storage temperature and packaging
appeared also to be very important, more important
than genotype. Regardless of its environmental or
physiological drivers, point source variation in fruit
phytonutrient contents may be a relevant interest in
health-related studies (Cheplick et al., 2010). It may
impact the nutritional benets to consumers and
affect the quality advantages associated with direct-
marketed fruits. The biobased lm is therefore able to
replace traditional plastic lms, because the quality
parameters are very similar to each other. About the
qualitative fruits characteristics, nutritional, esthetic
and organoleptic quality have been well maintained
by the biobased lm. Moreover, the biobased lm
allowed to achieve modied atmospheres in the packed
trays with values very similar to those suggested by
the literature (10% O
2
e 10% CO
2
Van der Steen et
al., 2001) to store strawberries in the medium period.
Fruits packed with biobaseds lms showed lower
weight losses for a lower water vapor transpiration.
About other qualitative parameters like TSS and the
titratable acidity results of the sample stored with
biobased lms showed good characteristics. These
considerations show the possibility for the biobased
Table 4. Changes in total soluble solids, titratable acidity and total carbohydrates of strawberries cv. Envie2
stored in different conditions
Hours
Treatments
TSS
(°Brix)
TTA
(meq/l)
Fructose
(g/100 ml)
Glucose
(g/100 ml)
Sucrose
(g/100 ml)
0
Harvest
5.4
±
0.10
2.42
±
0.03
7.09
±
0.03
6.69
±
0.10
3.59
±
0.10
72
A
5.5
±
0.10
2.42
±
0.02
6.92
±
0.13
6.57
±
0.15
3.28
±
0.07
B
6.3
±
0.20
2.39
±
0.03
6.88
±
0.13
6.30
±
0.20
3.71
±
0.23
C
5.7
±
0.10
2.37
±
0.03
6.97
±
0.03
5.67
±
0.03
2.60
±
0.09
D
5.1
±
0.10
2.39
±
0.02
7.01
±
0.10
6.35
±
0.07
3.44
±
0.06
E
5.4
±
0.20
2.31
±
0.03
6.84
±
0.05
5.73
±
0.14
1.86
±
0.24
F
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
96
A
6.1
±
0.10
2.36
±
0.03
6.50
±
0.04
5.45
±
0.11
1.60
±
0.13
B
5.8
±
0.20
2.28
±
0.02
6.52
±
0.17
5.75
±
0.17
2.00
±
0.15
C
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
D
5.5
±
0.10
2.41
±
0.01
6.28
±
0.11
5.94
±
0.16
2.61
±
0.08
E
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
F
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
-
±
-
Average and S.D. s were calculated for 3 replicates
Table 5. Organic acids, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins
and total phenolic compounds of strawberries cv. Envie2
stored in different conditions
Variable
Treatment
Stotage time (hours)
72
96
Citric acid
Harvest
2.34±0.02
(g/100 ml)
A
2.25 a
a
2.04 b
B
2.09 c
1.92 c
C
2.03 d
-
D
2.13 b
2.22 a
E
1.93 e
-
F
-
-
Malic acid
Harvest
0.20 ±0.00
(mg/100 ml)
A
0.19 n.s.
0.17 n.s.
B
0.19
0.17
C
0.18
-
D
0.18
0.17
E
0.19
-
F
-
-
Ascorbic acid
Harvest
136.19±0.8
(mg/100 ml)
A
123.47 c
122.57 b
B
132.11 a
127.13 a
C
110.83 d
-
D
126.97 b
121.25 b
E
127.84 b
-
F
-
-
Antioxidants
Harvest
149.36 ± 1.70
(% inhibition)
A
134.56 a
72.75 c
B
137.07 a
82.10 b
C
136.05 a
-
D
91.91 b
87.98 a
E
87.71 c
-
F
-
-
Total anthocyanins
Harvest
99.82 ±1.95
mg/100 g
A
117.16 b
130.33 a
B
119.75 b
124.56 c
C
139.98 a
-
D
119.60 b
126.9 b
E
139.48 a
-
F
-
-
Total phenols
Harvest
549.69±2.87
(g/100 ml)
A
517.00 a
429.40 c
B
504.77 a
481.92 a
C
483.67 bc
-
D
510.57 a
459.23 b
E
464.32c
-
F
-
-
Peano et al./IFRJ 21(3): 1165-1170
1169
lm of replacing the traditional packaging plastic
lms improving the strawberry shelf life.
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... On the other hand, a study carried out by FAO (2017bFAO ( , 2018 showed that the improper use of packaging is the main cause of deterioration of fruits and vegetables since they generate mechanical damage due to compression and abrasion, which, in turn, facilitates the development of pests and diseases. Packaging also plays an important role in moisture losses that deteriorate the appearance of the product and reduces its weight (Hadadinejad et al., 2018;Peano et al., 2014). According to Seglina et al. (2010), proper packaging can prolong the shelf life of fruits, protect these from damage, and prevent secondary contamination. ...
... According to Seglina et al. (2010), proper packaging can prolong the shelf life of fruits, protect these from damage, and prevent secondary contamination. Some studies have quantified the damages due to packaging in some food products (Anyasi et al., 2016;Affognon et al., 2015;Zewter et al., 2012), while others have focused on the effect of packaging on the reduction of product deterioration rate by controlling the physiological processes of fruit respiration and transpiration through the generation of modified and controlled atmospheres (Hadadinejad et al., 2018;Peano et al., 2014). Nonetheless, little has been investigated in the use of packages and its relation to mechanical damage. ...
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Andean blackberry is a fruit recognized by its health benefits associated with its high content of bioactive compounds. However, it is also one of the most perishable fruits because it does not have a protective cuticle, and it shows high respiration and ethylene production rates. Furthermore, it is susceptible to microbiological attacks. During harvest and commercialization, the highest percentage of losses is caused by factors such as the maturity stage, harvest practices and containers, and marketing packages. The current work aims at studying the effect of the package on fruit quality, for which the harvested fruits were placed in clamshells, traditional wooden and plastic crates with a capacity of 7 kg. The quality of the fruit was evaluated by counting in situ, damage by bruising, cuts, deformations, microbiological attacks, missing of the peduncle, and non-uniform pollination. Damage analysis included the evaluation of different regression models considering information criteria and significant parameters (P 0.05). The use of traditional packages led to higher damage from cuts and bruises. Although in clamshells there was a higher probability of finding healthy fruits, a proposal for its redesign is proposed to guarantee a better quality and shelf life of the Andean blackberry fruits.
... The change in external appearance was noticeable due to MAP and natural edible coating treatments (Figure 1a-e). Peano et al. (2014) reported that various edible coatings films are able to create MAP storage condition maintaining along all the storage time gas values different from the normal atmosphere composition (20.8% O2 and 0.03% CO2). The results showed that the external changes in fruits of control and single treatments were observed earlier than the combined treatments under various MAPs. ...
... At the end of the storage period (4 DAS) the maximum reducing sugar (4.27%) was found from without MAP plus aloe vera coated fruits (P 0 T 1 ) followed by 4.13% in LDPPE plus garlic extracts, while the minimum reducing sugar (3.50%) was recorded in LDPPB plus garlic coated fruits (P 2 T 2 ) followed by 3.51% in without MAP plus chitosan coated fruits (P 0 T 3 ). Similar result was also reported by Peano et al. (2014). It was also found the significant influence of MAP and natural edible coatings on non-reducing sugar content of strawberry fruits (Table 4). ...
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Strawberry is a nutritious but highly perishable fruit, which require appropriate technology to maintain postharvest quality. Hence, an experiment was conducted to develop a safe technology for controlling postharvest fungal infection, shelf life extension and quality retention of strawberry using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and natural edible coatings. Two factor experiment comprised three MAP viz. control (without packaging), low-density perforated polyethylene (LDPPE) and low-density perforated plastic box (LDPPB); and four natural edible coatings viz. control (no treatment), aloe vera @ 1%, garlic @ 1:1 and chitosan coating @ 0.2%, was conducted in completely randomized design with 3 replications. MAP and natural edible coatings were significant on all the parameters studied. Results revealed that combined treatment of LDPPB along with edible garlic coatings showed best external appearance among the treatments. The maximum weight loss (38.53%) and TSS content (8.23%) were recorded in without packaging plus control, while the minimum weight loss (21.17%) and TSS content (6.40%) were found with LDPPB plus garlic extract. Maximum disease incidence (90%) and severity (46.33%) was found in control fruits, while minimum disease incidence (30.0%) and severity (6.37%) was recorded in combined treatment of LDPPB and garlic coatings. The shortest shelf life was found from control treatment, whereas the longest shelf life (6.36 days) was obtained from combined treatment of LDPPB and garlic coatings. Therefore , combined treatment of LDPPB along with edible garlic coatings was found to be better in respect of significantly reducing postharvest fungal infection, shelf life prolongation and quality retention of strawberry. © Society of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE) Introduction Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is a very famous and highly appreciated fruit worldwide not only for its unique taste, distinct flavour, deliciousness and attractive colour, but also for its health benefits (Petriccione et al., 2015). The edible portion of the fruit is about 98% and contains various nutritionally important elements such as minerals and vitamins, and a diverse range of anthocyanins, flavo-noids and phenolic acids with biological properties, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities (Ayala-Zavala et al., 2004; Seeram et al., 2006). Strawberry is a highly perishable fruits with a very short shelf life because of high respiration rate (50-100 ml CO2 per kg of fruits per hour at 20 °C) and relatively high postharvest losses (20-50%) due to infection by several pathogens during
... The change in external appearance was noticeable due to MAP and natural edible coating treatments (Figure 1a-e). Peano et al. (2014) reported that various edible coatings films are able to create MAP storage condition maintaining along all the storage time gas values different from the normal atmosphere composition (20.8% O 2 and 0.03% CO 2 ). The results showed that the external changes in fruits of control and single treatments were observed earlier than the combined treatments under various MAPs. ...
... At the end of the storage period (4 DAS) the maximum reducing sugar (4.27%) was found from without MAP plus aloe vera coated fruits (P 0 T 1 ) followed by 4.13% in LDPPE plus garlic extracts, while the minimum reducing sugar (3.50%) was recorded in LDPPB plus garlic coated fruits (P 2 T 2 ) followed by 3.51% in without MAP plus chitosan coated fruits (P 0 T 3 ). Similar result was also reported by Peano et al. (2014). It was also found the significant influence of MAP and natural edible coatings on non-reducing sugar content of strawberry fruits (Table 4). ...
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Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit, which require appropriate technology to maintain postharvest quality. Hence, an experiment was conducted to develop a safe technology for controlling postharvest fungal infection, shelf life extension and quality retention of strawberry using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and natural edible coatings. Two factor experiment comprised three MAP viz. control (without packaging), low-density perforated polyethylene (LDPPE) and low-density perforated plastic box (LDPPB); and four natural edible coatings viz. control (no treatment), aloe vera @ 1%, garlic @ 1:1 and chitosan coating @ 0.2%, was conducted in completely randomized design with 3 replications. MAP and natural edible coatings were significant on all the parameters studied. Results revealed that combined treatment of LDPPB along with edible garlic coatings showed best external appearance among the treatments. The maximum weight loss (38.53%) and TSS content (8.23%) were recorded in without packaging plus control, while the minimum weight loss (21.17%) and TSS content (6.40%) were found with LDPPB plus garlic extract. Maximum disease incidence (90%) and severity (46.33%) was found in control fruits, while minimum disease incidence (30.0%) and severity (6.37%) was recorded in combined treatment of LDPPB and garlic coatings. The shortest shelf life was found from control treatment, whereas the longest shelf life (6.36 days) was obtained from combined treatment of LDPPB and garlic coatings. Therefore, combined treatment of LDPPB along with edible garlic coatings was found to be better in respect of significantly reducing postharvest fungal infection, shelf life prolongation and quality retention of strawberry.
... On the second day of storage, the samples T1, T3, and T6 presented no significant differences (p > 0.05), to the fourth day of storage T2, T3, T4, T6, T7 and T8; T3 and T6 for sixth day and finally in last day the treatments T2, T3, T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Similar results were obtained by Peano and collaborators, who found that TA was not affected by storage and no differences were observed between treatments with starch corn film and polypropylene perforated films [32]. Valenzuela et al. obtained similar results for TA, when using edible coating of quinoa protein-chitosan for refrigerated strawberries [13]. ...
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In this work, nine different types of edible coating based on pectin, cellulose nanocrystals, glycerol, and essential oil of lemongrass were prepared and used to coat strawberries with a film formed directly on the surface of the coated fruit. The effects of the different edible coatings on refrigerated fruits in terms of weight loss, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, and anthocyanin content was evaluated after 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, and 8 days of storage. Application of the edible coatings reduced the weight loss of the coated strawberries and the anthocyanin content. The total soluble solids content of or uncoated fruit increase more markedly than that of coated fruit. In contrast, pH was maintained for both coated and uncoated strawberries. The edible coatings were effective in minimizing of the weight loss, without worsening the physical chemistry attributes. The treatments T5 and T9 presented the best results.
... Strawberries contain a number of bioac- tive compounds, for example, polyphenols (HannuM 2004). However, in addition to being seasonally available, strawberries are easily perishable and are particularly sensitive to transportation (Peano et al. 2014). The- refore, one way to extend their shelf-life is to preserve them in the form of jams -whole or chopped fruits suspended in jelly. ...
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There is a systematic increase in the number of traffic accidents involving both domestic and free-living animals. It was found that the largest number of animals dies in May and at the turn of October and November. It is estimated that only every fourth driver reports a police collision in Poland. In some cases, wounded animals are slaughtered and their meat is used for consumption. In connection with road accidents involving animals, it is crucial for the law enforcement authorities to determine the actual state of affairs in order to assess the proper course of the collision. The paper presents comprehensive legal and veterinary aspects of the discussed issues. The own analysis was also made according to the number of the road incidents in Poland with the participation of animals.
... Thanks to the large amount of research in this area, modified atmosphere packaging is widely used at industrial scale and, subsequently, in supermarkets. As the topic was tackled by many authors (Farber, 1991;Stewart et al., 1999;Nielsen, 2008;Zhuang, et al., 2011;Peano, 2014), this present literature review will display other possible methods used in extending the shelf-life of strawberries. ...
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Being known as highly perishable produce, strawberries became a recurrent fruit in the scientific research, with the aim of improving the shelf-life. As indicated by the literature, the most tested method for extending the shelf-life relies on the use of modified atmosphere packaging and combinations thereof. The positive results of modified atmosphere packaging have been translated into industrial applications and further used in supermarkets. This study however compiles and presents a series of other techniques that are worth the attention in prolonging the post-harvest life of strawberries. The point is to highlight their potential and shortcomings and to rise the interest in these perfectible alternative methods.
... In this study, the assessment of the product shelf life is original, based on modelling one global quality indicator coupled with the determination of willingness to purchase. This global quality indicator relies on the quantification in % of the visual surface deterioration encompassing texture softening, colour change and microorganism development unlike qualitative individual quality parameters assessment that prevails in most works of the literature such as (Briano et al., 2017;Ozkaya et al., 2009;Peano et al., 2014). Visual surface deterioration is the only criteria on which the consumers rely to buy packed strawberries at the distribution step. ...
Article
Abstract Fresh fruit and vegetable’s short shelf life is one of the main obstacle to their consumption leading to considerable food losses and wastes during the post-harvest steps. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is able to significantly increase their shelf life. The objective of this work is to quantify the gain of shelf life obtained under MAP. This was applied for strawberries as model food. Deterioration was assessed to define products’ shelf life. A model of food deterioration, including effects of carbon dioxide and temperature, was developed and validated in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. A Maximal Acceptable Deterioration (Dacc) of 13% was assessed from dedicated analysis of consumer willingness to purchase and deterioration curves measured. An upgraded modelling tool was then developed by coupling models of the literature, for respiration and permeation, and the proposed deterioration model. The upgraded modelling tool was validated at 5, 10 and 20 °C on strawberries and in dynamic temperatures to mimic the post-harvest storage conditions. RMSE values were lower than 2.5% for O2 and CO2 and deterioration curves, in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. A shelf life gain of 0.33 d was obtained with MAP for the proposed temperature profile. Numerical exploration for different time/temperatures storage conditions, enable us to predict a gain of shelf life greater than 1 d, allowing to expect significant benefits in terms of shelf life gain for this product in MAP.
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Guava (Psidium guajava L.) was horticulture commodity, that has easy damaged and fleshy. Lacking of storage facility, limitation of transportation access and risk of high weight loss resulted in castaway fruit and it has shortened shelf life. Packing could help to prevent or less damages. The aims of this research was to evaluate the effect of packing materials on quality and shelf life of guava. This research has been conducted at Postharvest Laboratory, Agronomy and Horticulture Department of Bogor Agricultural University in March 2013. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with one factor, that is materials packing (without packing (control), polypropylene (PP) plastic and wrapping). Data analysis used analysis of variance (anova) at level α = 5%, then Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at level α = 5%. The result showed that using of packing materials increased shelf life length of guava than control treatment. Packing with PP plastic could be recommended because it has best fruit quality, i.e. shelf life until 7 days after treatment and the fruits still qualified to consume.
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Current research aimed to study the influence of lemongrass oil (0.2%)and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)on the storage quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)fruits cv. ‘Florida Fortuna’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Rubygem’ and ‘Sahara’. Strawberry fruits are highly favoured by consumers because of their peerless flavour and health benefits, but are very sensitive to storage conditions and have only 2–5 days without any preservative or cold storage depending on the cultivar. In present research, fruits of four different cultivars of strawberries were exposed to these treatments: (i)immersing in pure water and storing without MAP (control treatment); (ii)immersing in 0.2% lemongrass oil (LO)and storing without MAP; (iii)immersing in pure water and storing with MAP; and (iv)immersing in 0.2% lemongrass oil and storing with MAP. Each treatment contained 6 replicates and each replication consists of 10 fruits. Fruits were stored at 4.0 ± 1.0 °C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days. Results showed that both MAP and lemongrass oil (LO)have significant effect on the weight loss, SSC, TA, fruit firmness, microbial & chemical spoilage and off-odour of strawberry fruits. Evaluation of the all parameters concluded that MAP bags could extend the storage duration of ‘Sahara’ to 18 days with acceptable attributes, ‘Florida Fortuna’ and ‘Rubygem’ to 15 days, and the ‘Camarosa’ to 12 days.
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Anthocyanin concentrations increased in both external and internal tissues of 'Selva' strawberries ( Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) stored in air at 5 °C for 10 days, but the increase was lower in fruit stored in air enriched with 10 or 20 kPa CO 2. Flesh red color was less intense in CO2 storage than in air storage. Activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and UDP glucose : flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) decreased during storage, with decreases being greater in both external and internal tissues of strawberry fruit stored in air + 20 kPa CO 2 than in those kept in air. Activities of both PAL and GT in external tissues of strawberries stored in air + 10 kPa CO 2 were similar to those in fruit stored in air, while enzyme activities in internal tissues more closely resembled those from fruit stored in air + 20 kPa CO 2. Phenolic compounds increased during storage but were not affected by the storage atmosphere. The pH increased and titratable acidity decreased during storage; these effects were enhanced in internal tissues by the CO 2 treatments, and may in turn have influenced anthocyanin expression.
Article
SPEC. COLL. HAS ARCHIVAL COPY; MICRO. ROOM HAS MICROFICHE COPY (1 SHEET). Thesis (M.S.)--U. of Calif., Davis. Typescript. Degree granted in Horticulture.
Conference Paper
Maturity at harvest is the most important factor that determines storage-life and final fruit quality. Immature fruits are more subject to shrivelling and mechanical damage, and are of inferior flavour quality when ripe. Overripe fruits are likely to become soft and mealy with insipid flavour soon after harvest. Fruits picked either too early or too late in their season are more susceptible to postharvest physiological disorders than fruits picked at the proper maturity. All fruits, with a few exceptions (such as pears, avocados, and bananas), reach their best eating quality when allowed to ripen on the plant. However, some fruits are usually picked mature but unripe so that they can withstand the postharvest handling system when shipped long-distance. Most currently used maturity indices are based on a compromise between those indices that would ensure the best eating quality to the consumer and those that provide the needed flexibility in marketing. Fruits can be divided into two groups: I) fruits that are not capable of continuing their ripening process once removed from the plant, and 2) fruits that can be harvested mature and ripened off the plant. Group I includes berries, cherry, citrus fruits, grape, lychee, pineapple, pomegranate, and tamarillo. Group 2 includes apple, apricot, avocado, banana, cherimoya, guava, kiwifruit, mango, nectarine, papaya, passion fruit, pear, peach, persimmon, plum, quince, sapodilla, sapote. Group I fruits produce very small quantities of ethylene and do not respond to ethylene treatment except in terms of degreening (removal of chlorophyll); these should be picked when fully-ripe to ensure good flavour quality. Fruits in Group 2 produce much larger quantities of ethylene in association with their ripening, and exposure to ethylene will result in faster and more uniform ripening.
Article
Anthocyanin accumulation is one measure of ripening in the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit. Neither aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase, nor inhibitors of ethylene action (silver, norbornadiene) affected anthocyanin accumulation in ripening fruit. When the achenes were removed from one half of an unripe fruit there was an accelerated accumulation of anthocyanin and induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase on the de-achened portion of the ripening fruit. These effects of achene removal could be prevented by the application of the synthetic auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to the de-achened surface. The introduction of 1-naphthalene acetic acid into intact unripe strawberry fruit through the peduncle delayed their subsequent ripening, as measured by the accumulation of anthocyanin, loss of chlorophyll and decrease in firmness. These findings suggest that the decline in the concentration of auxin in the achenes as strawberry fruit mature modulates the rate of fruit ripening.
Article
The quality of strawberries and raspberries, packaged in different consumer-sized systems was assessed. The following consumer-sized packaging systems for strawberries and raspberries are compared: (1) the conventional method of packaging in a macro-perforated high-barrier film (AIR), (2) low O2 modified atmosphere (i.e. 3–5 kPa O2 and 5–10 kPa CO2-balance N2), (3) high O2 modified atmosphere (HOA, i.e. >70 kPa O2-balance N2): HOA in a high-barrier film and (4) HOA in a MA film with an adjusted film permeability. The high O2 atmosphere in the MA film reached steady-state after 5 days at about 3 kPa O2 and 5 kPa CO2. The O2 content in the high-barrier film package remained above 21 kPa O2 during the first 5 days of storage, but then decreased to anaerobic conditions, resulting in off-flavors and odors. To avoid an accumulation of ethylene inside the high-barrier package, an ethylene adsorbing monolayer was added. Shelf life of strawberries and raspberries given the AIR treatment was limited by growth of moulds, rather than by sensory unacceptance. On the other hand, sensory properties limited the shelf life of the fruit packaged under MA. The initial high O2 atmospheres retarded the growth of moulds. However, when O2 was depleted and CO2 had accumulated in the barrier film, sensory quality (odor, taste and firmness) declined. In the MA film, the inhibitory effect on mould growth was maintained, due to the initial high O2 levels.
Article
Use of a biodegradable laminate of a chitosan-cellulose and polycaprolactone as a film for modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fresh produce was tested. The temperature dependence of O2, CO2 and N2 gas permeability coefficients for the biodegradable laminate was examined. The coefficients increased linearly with increasing temperature in the range 10–25 °C. The coefficients were validated by experiments on MAP with shredded lettuce and shredded cabbage. MAP systems with head lettuce, cut broccoli, whole broccoli, tomatoes, sweet corn and blueberries were designed using the gas permeability coefficients. The gas composition in each biodegradable package including the fresh produce was simulated to be close to the optimal composition. The biodegradable laminate was found suitable as a packaging material for storage of fresh produce.