Article

Growth and Foliar Constituents of Mulberry ($M_5$) Cultivated under Organic Based Nutrient Management

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Abstract

A field experiment to evaluate the effect of application of different organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of leaf was studied during 2004-05 has showed that, the application of 10 kg each of Azospirillum brasilense and Aspergillus awamori+20% each of recommended N through compost+green manure (Glyricidia maculata)+castor cake+vermicompost+Urea and remaining P and K through fertilizers () has recorded significantly higher leaf yield (250 g/ plant and 34.70 tonnes/ha/yr, respectively) with improvement in growth characters as compared to control. Leaf quality status was also improved in terms of N (3.19%), P (1.97%), K (1.28%), total soluble protein (8.39 mg/ml), total soluble sugars (14.40 mg/ml), secondary nutrients viz., Ca (3.00%), Mg (0.60%), S (0.35%) and micronutrients viz., Cu (0.410 ppm), Mn (0.454 ppm) and Zn (0.112 ppm) contents. The mulberry grown with 20 tonnes of compost+300:120:120 Kg of NPK/ha/year through fertilizer ranked second for growth and foliar constituents.

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... The continuous production of mulberry for a long time results in gradual reduction of leaf yield and quality. (Rashmi et al., 2009). The highly intensive mulberry cropping system causes depletion of nutrients in soil and excess usage of inorganic fertilizers as well as pesticides results in deleterious effect on soil health . ...
... High sugar content in mulberry was possibly due to the application of organic fertilizers along with bio fertilizers. These findings are in close conformity with some earlier findings in mulberry variety M5 (Rashmi 2009).This study revealed that the mulch plots treated with organic manures and bio fertilizers provided the desired leaf yield as compared to unmulched plots treated with recommended fertilizers doses. The higher yield attributes of mulberry may be due to continuous availability of bio and organic fertilizers nutrients throughout the crop growth period under ideal soil moisture regimes. ...
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Application of the organic substrates and use of bio-mulching materials are effective in retaining soil moisture content, reducing soil erosion, and suppressing weed growth and thereby improving the soil health. A field experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in lateritic soil (with pH 5.2 and organic carbon 0.42%) under rain fed condition of Nayagram block, West Midnapur, West Bengal, India to develop a sustainable organic farming management practice along with the effective uses of mulches and its impact on the yield attributes and quality of leaf in mulberry. The objective was to assess the influence of mulch materials especially sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and combined application of organics and biofertilizers (Azotobacter chroococcum) in regulating soil moisture and major nutrients to enhance the production and quality of mulberry leaves under water stress condition. Analysis of three crop data revealed that that the poultry manure in combination with biofertilizer and the reduced doses of inorganic fertilizers applied in mulch plots have a significant effect on growth, leaf yield and quality of mulberry plants. However, the effect of using recommended rate of inorganic fertilizers was the same as that of using 50% of the recommended rate of inorganic nitrogen and 60% of the recommended rate of phosphorus.
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The biochemical contents of mulberry leaf play a vital role in the field of moriculture and sericulture. Qualitative and quantitative production of silk depends upon the quality of mulberry leaves consumed by silkworm. The present study deals with the effect of micronutrients on the biochemical contents of the mulberry leaves. Field experiments were conducted with 12 treatments including a control (T0 to T11). Each treatment replicated thrice was supplemented with the desired quantity of micronutrients, viz., zinc, copper and iron in the form of their respective sulphates, either in single or in combination. The biochemical contents of the mulberry leaves viz., leaf moisture, leaf moisture retention, chlorophyll, carbohydrate, protein, amino acid and nitrogen were analysed. At the 45th and 60th day of mulberry leaf pruning, maximum leaf moisture content was recorded in T8 (CuSO4 10Kg/ha + ZnSO4 10Kg/ha + FeSO4 20Kg/ha) which increased by 10.30% and 12.39% over control, and maximum leaf moisture retention percentage in T8 which increased by 29.32% and 11.02% over control respectively. Maximum chlorophyll ‘a’, ‘b’ and total chlorophyll content was recorded in T8, T7 (CuSO4 5Kg/ha + ZnSO4 5Kg/ha + FeSO4 10Kg/ha) and T8 with an increase of 18.42%, 48.71% and 21.87% over control, respectively at the 45th day of pruning, and in T8, T8 and T9 (CuSO4 15Kg/ha + ZnSO4 15Kg/ha + FeSO4 30Kg/ha) with an increase of 29.05%, 18.52% and 26.25% over control, respectively at the 60th day of pruning. Maximum carbohydrate and protein content were noted in T10 (CuSO4 20Kg/ha + ZnSO4 20Kg/ha + FeSO4 40Kg/ha) and T9 with an increase of 22.25% and 60.56%, respectively over control at the 45th day of pruning and in T9 and T8 with an increase of 24.99% and 70.69% over control at the 60th day of pruning, respectively. Free amino acid and nitrogen content was observed maximum in T8 and T9 with an increase of 112.76% and 30.81% over control at the 45th day of pruning; and in T4 (CuSO4 5Kg/ha + ZnSO4 5Kg/ha) and T10 with an increase of 123.21% and 11.93% over control at the 60th day of pruning, respectively. The findings of the present study emphasized that supplementation of micronutrients was found to enhance the biochemical contents of the mulberry leaves.
... who reported the amount of SOC in soils of India is relatively low ranging from 0.1 to 1% and typically, < 0.5%.[22] and[23] reported similar results. Status of the available K in the soils of Harda, Hundia, Khirkiya, Rahatgaon, Sirrali and Timarani blocks varied from 198.24 to 863.52, 172.48 to 885.92, 161.28 to 841.12, 176.96 to 846.72, 287.84 to 857.92 and 244.16 to 885.00 05% medium and 19.47% adequate in soils of Harda district. ...
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GPS based three hundred and three surface soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from dominant cropping system and analyzed for different soil characteristics in laboratory using standard procedures. The results were statistically interpreted that the N, P, K, and S were found to be deficient in 56.77, 31.68, 6.6 and 52.48 percent soil samples, respectively. Geo-statistical results revealed that the exponential model was found best fit for available N, P, K, and S. Spatial distribution maps showed that soil pH, EC, organic carbon, calcium carbonate, N, P, K, and S spatially varied and were deficient in Hundia, Timarani, Khirkiya and Sirrali. These maps will be helpful for farmer's to decide the quantity of fertilizer to be added to soil to improve fertility status for sustainable crop production and environmental protection. Original Research Article Subhash et al.; AIR, 11(5): 1-13, 2017; Article no.AIR.35391 2
... Therefore, feeding silkworms with quality mulberry leaves is imperative for successful cocoon production (Vijaya et al., 2009). Being perennial, continuous harvest of foliage will result in gradual reduction of yield and quality in mulberry (Rashmi et al., 2009).Though synthetic chemicals viz., fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, growth promoters and other inputs escalate plant productivity, they do adversely affect the mulberry ecosystem. Hence adopting eco-friendly agricultural practices is imminent for a sustainable sericulture inthe current global scenario. ...
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A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of sea plant extract sprayed on mulberry plant at different interval of time and the treated leaves were fed to the silkworm Bombyx mori which were infected with BmNPV. It was found that foliar application of sea plant extract, LBS 13 @ 1.5 ml/l on 45th day after pruning enhanced the leaf yield per plant by 308.81 g, average plant height by 150.42 cm, number of shoots (14.32) and leaves per plant (400 leaves) compared with control. When the treated leaves were fed to the BmNPV infected silkworms, LBS13 @ 1.5 ml/lrecorded highest larval weight (3.33 g/ larvae) with larval duration (7.67 days), least larval mortality (3.33 %) and disease incidence (11.33 %) when compared to control. The study evidenced that application of sea plant extract of Kappaphycus sp. has improved the growth attributes of mulberry, which inturn had a direct positive impact on development of B. mori.
... Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a perennial and high biomass producing plant, continues to grow throughout the year in tropics. Continuous production of mulberry for a long time results in gradual reduction in leaf yield and quality (Rashmi et al., 2009). In India, mulberry is cultivated in 282,244 ha (Dutta, 2014) in different agro climatic conditions varying from temperate to tropical. ...
... who reported the amount of SOC in soils of India is relatively low ranging from 0.1 to 1% and typically, < 0.5%.[22] and[23] reported similar results. Status of the available K in the soils of Harda, Hundia, Khirkiya, Rahatgaon, Sirrali and Timarani blocks varied from 198.24 to 863.52, 172.48 to 885.92, 161.28 to 841.12, 176.96 to 846.72, 287.84 to 857.92 and 244.16 to 885.00 05% medium and 19.47% adequate in soils of Harda district. ...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
GPS based three hundred and three surface soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from dominant cropping system and analyzed for different soil characteristics in laboratory using standard procedures. The results were statistically interpreted that the N, P, K, and S were found to be deficient in 56.77, 31.68, 6.6 and 52.48 percent soil samples, respectively. Geo-statistical results revealed that the exponential model was found best fit for available N, P, K, and S. Spatial distribution maps showed that soil pH, EC, organic carbon, calcium carbonate, N, P, K, and S spatially varied and were deficient in Hundia, Timarani, Khirkiya and Sirrali. These maps will be helpful for farmer’s to decide the quantity of fertilizer to be added to soil to improve fertility status for sustainable crop production and environmental protection.
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The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management practices on the different parameter of Arjun leaf the primary host plant of Antheraea mylitta D. Eleven different combination with three replication were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design at the field of Research Extension Centre, Kapistha. The obtained results showed that morphological, Physiological and Biochemical parameter of Arjun leaf showed significant difference. The Arjun leaf length was recorded highest in K11 (17cm) was on par with K9 (17cm). Highest leaf breadth was recorded in K10 (6.2cm) was applied with 75%RDF+Poultry manure+ AB+PSB. Leaf weight was recorded highest in K7 (2.84g), lowest in K1(1.21g). Number of leaves was recorded highest in K6 (1816) over the control. The leaf yield was recorded highest in K11 (3735). Leaves dry matter production was highest in K8 (469.56g) over the control. Relative water content was highest in K5 (87.3%). The initial Electrical Conductivity was recorded highest in K9 (0.037dSm-1) and after 10 min EC was found to highest in K9 (0.111dSm-1). The Chlorophyll ’a’ was recorded highest in K9 (3.39), Chl’b’(2.36)and total chlorophyll in K9(5.75) was recorded highest. The result were found significant due to effect of INM practices which provided the nutrients element needed by plants.
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The availability of nutrient content from different organic manures is reviewed. The results of a study conducted at the Karnataka State Sericulture Research and Development Institute in Bangalore are presented. The aim was to assess the rate of depletion of soil fertility and the sustainability of leaf yields. It is concluded that FYM may have to be applied at shorter intervals to get optimum leaf yield and quality.
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Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins (l), a number of modified analytical pro- cedures ut.ilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum (2-G), in antigen-antibody precipitates (7-9), and in insulin (10). Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sen- sitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard t.o effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of react- ants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering subst.ances. Procedures are described for measuring pro- tein in solution or after precipitation wit,h acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 y of protein.
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