The Effects of Foot Reflexology on Self-Esteem and Vitality of the Elderly Women

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Purpose: This study was done to verify the effects of foot reflexology on the self-esteem and vitality of elders. Method: A non- equivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used. Research instruments to measure self-esteem and vitality were used in this study. The participants were elderly women hospitalized in a hospital in Okcheon County, Chungbuk Province, Korea. The 18 patients in the experimental group performed 40 minutes of foot reflexology per time for a total of 12 times over two weeks, and the 18 patients in the control group received regular care only. Before and after the experiment, both groups were tested for self-esteem and vitality. Frequencies, percentages, -test, t-test and Mann-Whitney U test with the SPSS/WIN 10.0 program were used to analyze the collected data. Results: Vitality of the elderly women patients improved significantly in the experimental group. However self-esteem did not increase significantly. Conclusion: Foot reflexology is effective as a nursing intervention in improving the health of elders.

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hand massage on depression, self-esteem and vitality in elderly patients in convalescent hospitals. Methods: This study employed a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were 24 elderly patients in the experimental group and 25 in a control group in a convalescent hospital located in G city. Data were collected using a questionnaire that relied on the geriatric depression scale (short form) by Sheikh and Yesavage; the self-esteem scale by Rosenberg; and the vitality scale used by Johnson and revised by Oh. The experimental group were treated with a general hand massage using only carrier oil on both hands for 10 minutes a day for seven days. The control group was given no treatment. The collected data were analyzed using t-test, x^2-test, and Fisher`s exact test with SPSS Win Version 18.0. Results: The results are as follows: The experimental group showed a significant improvement in depression, self-esteem and vitality than the control group. Conclusion: The results showed that hand massage was an effective intervention program for depression, self-esteem and vitality of elderly patients in convalescent hospitals.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aroma therapy and foot reflex massage on stress, depression, and sleep pattern of institutionalized elderly. The design of this study was non-equivalent control group pre-posttest design. The data were collected from February 24 to April 9 of 2005. Fifty-one elderly were divided into two groups, 26 institutionalized elderly for the experimental group and 25 institutionalized elderly for the control group. The experimental group underwent aromatherapy and foot reflex massage two days per week(40 minutes per session} over five weeks period. Stress(subjective stress and serum cortisol level), depression, and sleep pattern were assessed in both groups before and after intervention. Five weeks after intervention were spended, the experimental group was again assessed. Five weeks without intervention were spended, the control group was again assessed. The data were analyzed by the statistical program SPSS WIN 12. The results of this study were as follows; Stress of the experimental group with the intervention was significantly lower than that of the control group. Depression of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Sleep pattern of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. In conclusion, the aroma therapy and foot reflex massage program had positive effect on Institutionalized elderly's on stress(subjective stress and serum cortisol level), depression, and sleep pattern.
The purpose of this study was to identify the Effect of Hand Reflexology on Saeng-chi of physiologic, emotional & motivational responses and Immunity in ESRD patients who received hemodialysis in two general hospital from June to September. 2001 A two group quasi-experimental research with pre and post test design was used. The number of participants in the experimental group was 23, and in the control group, 20 The Hand Reflexology Intervention was developed by the researcher based on hand reflexology by Carter & Weber and Chi-massage by Chia. The Hand Reflexology was applied to both hands for 10 minutes per day. and 5 days by 5 times. To evaluate the effects of the program, Pre and Post evaluations were done. In the physiologic response, the PR was decreased at the 1st times post treatment and at the 5th. In addition BP was decreased at the 1st time, but not the 5th. After 5 treatments, there were significant increase in Hb and significant decreases in the BUN and Cr. levels in the experimental group. In the emotional and motivational responses, there were significant increases in vigor, mood, uplifts and self care agency scores in the experimental group, but there was no significant difference in the Rosenberg's self esteem score. In the experimental group, significantly increased CD4, and h/s ratios were found, also NK cells were significantly decreased, and there was a decrease in the CD8. However, no significant differences between groups were observed. There were significant increases in CD32, CD33, CD34 in the experimental group. The self care agency score correlated negatively with the CD8. From the above results, Hand Reflexology is shown to be an effective mind-body nursing intervention for enhancing Saeng-chi responses and affecting some of the immune responses. However, Immune cell activation and differentiation with hand reflexology will be achieved with future study.
Purpose: This study was done to investigate the effect of foot reflexology on vital signs, general fatigue, mood and foot fatigue in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Method: Data were collected from a convenience sample of 11 patients who were admitted at S and E University Hospital. Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), pulse rate(PR), general fatigue, mood status, and foot fatigue between pre and post foot reflexology were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test and Friedman test at 0.05 level of significance. Results: There were significant differences in the SBP(p= .009), DBP(p=.014), PR(p=.015), general fatigue (p=.015) mood status(p=.007), and foot fatigue(p= .007) between pre and post foot reflexology. Conclusion: Foot reflexology can improve vital signs, general/foot fatigue and mood status, therefore we recommend to use foot reflexology as an effective nursing intervention in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
The purpose of this work was to identify what effect reflexology has on foot pain and quality of life (QoL) in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using an observational case report, a 6-week course of reflexology treatments were given to a patient who has RA. Perceived pain and QoL were assessed using two validated outcome measures: the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire and the Foot Pain Disability Questionnaire (FPDQ). The RAQoL scores demonstrated no significant change throughout the duration of the investigation, suggesting that the patient's QoL did not change during or at the end of the 6-week course of reflexology. Scores from the FPDQ indicated reflexology was associated with a reduction in foot pain described by the subject. The clinical implications are that reflexology may be a valuable addition in the management of foot pain for participants with RA. However, it is impossible to generalize from a observational case report and further work is recommended.
To propose a model for predicting success with cognitive-behavioral interventions in cancer pain management. Practice guidelines are useful, however nurses currently have little theoretic or empiric basis for choosing one particular strategy over another. Moreover, nurses have no way of knowing if a particular intervention is likely to work. The model indicates characteristics of a person in relation to interventions including skill and ability, outcome expectancies, perceived credibility, history of use, preferred coping style, and pain outcomes. The model was developed using sources identified through a literature search of relevant topics in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Psychlit (1996-1997), as well as through clinical experience. Continued empiric testing of the model is necessary to confirm proposed relationships and to assess accuracy of the model's predictions with various cognitive-behavioral interventions. With this testing, the model can help nurses select appropriate interventions for individual patients.
Research suggests that clients need to be made aware of the relationship between thinking and emotional and behavioural reactions at the start of the therapeutic work. This paper looks at the clinical processes of educating the client about this relationship in a seven-step ABC model. Rationales for each of the seven steps are given. The model illustrates the process of generating alternative beliefs in relation to a negative event and shows consequences of holding helpful and unhelpful beliefs.
Holistic Nursing Principles Related to Massage Therapy and Reflexology The nurse who performs massage therapy and reflexology is aware of the following: • practice self-awareness • be aware of intention to touch and permission to touch • practice 4-H (healing hearts, healing hands) awareness • offer touch to colleagues, family, friends, and clients daily • receive touch daily • be mindful of body-mind-spirit assessment outcomes • be observant of precaution awareness • be aware that massage or reflexology is client driven • practice massage and reflexology in any setting, with or without oils • be sensitive to changes in the body, mind, and spirit, and guide accordingly • practice listening and understanding from the heart to facilitate healing in self and others Information about massage therapy and reflexology has been shared for the purpose of creating awareness about healing modalities and encouraging the use of basic techniques that have been outlined. These basic techniques are used for self-care and for the care of others, in which intention to touch is understood by the heart and expressed by the hands. Creating touching moments in the work setting, where the compassionate nurse takes time to center and extend hands to a fellow nurse by massaging the shoulders and neck, is encouraged. Assessing areas of sensitivity on the hands or feet and applying pressure to these areas is a simple gesture used to release stress and tension and is offered to self, colleagues, or client. It is difficult to refute the power of a healing hand fueled of the understanding of a loving heart. The evolution of massage therapy and reflexology over time certainly has shifted the education and training of the massage therapist and reflexologist. Nurses have evolved to a position of successfully completing additional education and training in massage therapy or reflexology and work as nurse massage therapists and reflexologists within nursing. Although basic information about massage therapy and reflexology is shown here to encourage the use of these healing modalities in almost any setting, proficiency in massage therapy or reflexology requires additional education and training to meet the standards of practice outlined by their respective governing authorities (The National Association of Nurse Massage Therapists and the International Institute of Reflexology). Nurses are encouraged to explore their interests and intentions, and if necessary, to seek additional education and training in their areas of interest.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of foot reflexology on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The research was a quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent pre-post design and was conducted from Jan. 26, to Mar. 20, 2004. The subjects consisted of 34 patients with 18 in the experimental group and 16 in control group. A pretest and 2 posttests were conducted to measure nausea, vomiting and fatigue. For the experimental group, foot reflexology, which was consisted of 4 phases for 40 minutes, was given by a researcher and 4 research assistants. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA using the SPSS WIN 10.0 program. There was a statistically significant decrease in nausea, and vomiting in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. In addition, there was a statistically significant decrease in fatigue in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. Foot reflexology was effective on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in this study. Therefore, foot reflexology can be usefully utilized as a nursing intervention in the field of cancer nursing for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
To compare the effects of partner-delivered foot reflexology and usual care plus attention on patients' perceived pain and anxiety. The experimental pretest/post-test design included patient-partner dyads randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Four hospitals in the southeastern United States. 42 experimental and 44 control subjects comprised 86 dyads of patients with metastatic cancer and their partners, representing 16 different types of cancer; 23% of patients had lung cancer, followed by breast, colorectal, and head and neck cancer and lymphoma. The subjects had a mean age of 58.3 years, 51% were female, 66% had a high school education or less, and 58% were Caucasian, 40% were African American, and 1% were Filipino. The intervention included a 15- to 30-minute teaching session on foot reflexology to the partner by a certified reflexologist, an optional 15- to 30-minute foot reflexology session for the partner, and a 30-minute, partner-delivered foot reflexology intervention for the patient. The control group received a 30-minute reading session from their partners. Pain and anxiety. Following the initial partner-delivered foot reflexology, patients experienced a significant decrease in pain intensity and anxiety. A nurse reflexologist taught partners how to perform reflexology on patients with metastatic cancer pain in the hospital, resulting in an immediate decrease in pain intensity and anxiety; minimal changes were seen in the control group, who received usual care plus attention. Hospitals could have qualified professionals offer reflexology as a complementary therapy and teach interested partners the modality.
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