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... /fpubh. . aggressive, and repetitive behavior perpetrated by a more powerful individual against someone more vulnerable through the use of technology such as the internet, social media, and cellular phones (3). Because of the concealed characteristic of cyberbullying, in which individuals believe they can hide their identity and attack others without responsibility, it has become so common that we can't ignore it (2). ...
... Because of the concealed characteristic of cyberbullying, in which individuals believe they can hide their identity and attack others without responsibility, it has become so common that we can't ignore it (2). Considering the psychological characteristics of adolescents, when they lack sufficient personal resources or experience to deal with various psychological stressors, they are easily influenced by the internet (3). Many studies have confirmed the negative impact of these cyberbullying behaviors on middle school students (4), especially on the victims (5,6). ...
... Previous studies on cyberbullying have focused on individual factors (3,4), and underestimated the school factor. However, the individual characteristics of adolescents and the school environment both influence cyberbullying behavior at different levels (20). ...
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As an extension of traditional bullying behavior, cyberbullying behavior emerges with the increasing popularity of the internet, and seriously affects the health of middle school students. However, just a few studies have explored the impact of the school factor on cyberbullying and its underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the potential mediator (i.e., self-esteem) and potential moderator (i.e., emotional intelligence) of the relationships between alienation from school and cyberbullying. Five hundred and seventy five Chinese middle school students participated in the study (45.74% male) and completed self-report questionnaires regarding alienation from school, cyberbullying, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between alienation from school and cyberbullying. Mediation analysis indicated that alienation from school positively predicts individual cyberbullying, and self-esteem partly mediated the association. Meanwhile, emotional intelligence moderated the pathway from alienation from school to cyberbullying. Specifically, the effect of high alienation from school on cyberbullying was weaker for middle school students who reported high emotional intelligence. The findings of this study expose the influence of the school factor and individual factors on cyberbullying, which has potential preventive and intervention value for youth cyberbullying.
... Adolescents who experience either traditional or cyberbullying victimization are vulnerable to psychosocial adjustment and psychological health issues (Forero et al., 1999;Garnefski & Kraaij, 2014;Ş ahin, 2012). In particular, low self-esteem has been observed in adolescents who experienced bullying victimization (Cénat et al., 2014;Rigby & Slee, 1993). ...
... Despite the "virtual" nature of cyberbullying victimization, adolescents have indicated that it can have as much-if not more-negative impact as traditional bullying victimization does (Smith et al., 2008). Adverse outcomes that are associated with cyberbullying victimization in adolescents are consistent with those for traditional bullying victimization (Bonanno & Hymel, 2013;Cénat et al., 2014;Gámez-Guadix et al., 2013;Rose & Tynes, 2015;Ş ahin, 2012). ...
... Adolescents who experience bullying victimization struggle with psychosocial adjustment and psychological health, including low self-esteem (e.g., Cénat et al., 2014). The pervasive and harmful influence of bullying victimization calls for research efforts that identify factors that mitigate this negative impact. ...
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Introduction Bullying victimization is detrimental to psychosocial wellbeing in adolescents. It is paramount that factors that mitigate the harmful effects of bullying victimization be identified. Time perspective may be a potential mechanism. Thus, we examined the moderating effect of time perspective on the associations between traditional and cyberbullying victimization (being bullied in person and on electronic media) and self-esteem in adolescents. Time perspective refers to feelings and thoughts about the past, present, and future. We examined time feelings (positive and negative feelings about the time periods), time frequency (frequency of thoughts about the time periods), and time relation (the perceived relationship among the time periods). Methods Two cross-sectional survey studies were conducted. Study 1 examined traditional bullying victimization in 721 American adolescents (Mage = 15.84, SD = 1.20; 57% female). Study 2 examined cyberbullying victimization in 190 American adolescents (Mage = 15.83, SD = 1.28; 59% female). Results Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that time perspective dimensions moderated the associations between high levels of traditional and cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem in adolescents who (a) had strong positive and weak negative feelings about the present and future (time feelings); (b) thought a little about the past (time frequency); or (c) perceived all time periods as interrelated (time relation). Conclusions Time perspective dimensions (feelings, frequency, and relation) moderated the associations between traditional and cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem in adolescents. Findings have implications for bullying victimization prevention efforts. Findings also demonstrate the multidimensional and multi-temporal qualities of time perspective.
... Past research has shown that, in childhood, practically any kind of victimization is likely to have a negative impact on self-esteem [17]. Studies exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and self-esteem, in general, shows that the victims have lower levels of self-esteem than people who are not involved in cyberbullying situations [18][19][20][21][22][23]. The findings confirm the deterioration of the self-esteem and self-confidence of students who are the target of continued cyberbullying by their classmates. ...
... Therefore, Hypothesis 1 is partially confirmed, because, although we confirmed that cybervictims have low self-esteem, cyberaggressors also show low self-esteem, and we hypothesized a medium-high level. These results point in the same direction as other studies finding low self-esteem in cybervictims [18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. In addition, the results ratify research showing that cyberaggressors have lower levels of self-esteem than people who are not involved in cyberbullying [18,[21][22][23]. ...
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Background: Family relationships and self-esteem are relevant variables into the understanding of cyberbullying. However, little is known about the mediating role of self-esteem in the connections between cyberbullying and parenting. The study had two goals: (1) to analyze the relation between being a cybervictim and/or cyberaggressor and self-esteem, parents' acceptance/coercion, and parenting styles and (2) to explore whether self-esteem is a mediator in the relationship between parents' acceptance/coercion and being a cybervictim/cyberaggressor. Method: The sample comprises 3026 Spanish adolescents (51.5% girls and 48.5% boys) aged 12-18 years (Mage = 14.39; SD = 1.69). The study has a cross-sectional design, retrospective ex-post with multiple measurements. Results: (1) cybervictims and cyberaggressors have low self-esteem, and their parents have a low level of involvement/acceptance and a high level of coercion/imposition towards their sons/daughters, (2) participants whose parents were authoritarian obtained significantly lower scores in self-esteem and higher scores in cybervictimization/cyberaggression, whereas those whose parents were indulgent obtained significantly higher scores in self-esteem and lower scores in cybervictimization/cyberaggression, and (3) it was found a mediation of self-esteem in the relationship between the involvement/acceptance of both parents and being a cybervictim, as well as between the father's coercion/imposition and being a cyberaggressor. Conclusion: An adequate level of self-esteem, high parental acceptance/involvement, and a reasonably low level of coercion/discipline as the parenting style can have very positive effects on the prevention of cyberbullying.
... Dyson et al. (2016) reportaron que la promoción de las autolesiones y el comportamiento autodestructivo son algunos de los efectos negativos de las redes sociales. Se ha evidenciado que las adolescentes son quienes experimentan mayor número de incidentes de ciberacoso, en comparación con los varones; además, muestran mayor angustia psicológica y baja autoestima (Cénat et al., 2014). ...
... Según lo anterior, tanto varones y mujeres adolescentes presentan conductas asociadas al phubbing ocasionadas por la disrupción de la comunicación, la adicción al teléfono móvil y, probablemente, gracias al uso de aplicaciones instaladas en estos dispositivos. Este comportamiento los volvería, a ambos géneros, propensos a sufrir ciberacoso (Twenge et al., 2017), comportamientos autodestructivos (Dyson et al., 2016), angustia y baja autoestima (Cénat et al., 2014), insatisfacción familiar y conflictos con los padres (Li et al., 2014), problemas de soledad (Bhardwaj & Ashok, 2015), ansiedad (Hawi & Samaha, 2017), depresión (Twenge et al., 2017;Davey et al., 2018;Bai et al., 2020), ideas suicidas (Twenge et al., 2017), problemas de atención (Xie et al., 2018) y de salud física (Xie et al., 2018;Dennen et al., 2020). Adicionalmente, se reportó que, de las dos dimensiones del phubbing, la obsesión por el teléfono móvil obtuvo mayor puntaje, coincidiendo con T'ng et al. (2018) y Davey et al. (2020). ...
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La interacción social es pieza fundamental en el desarrollo del ser humano; sin embargo, los teléfonos inteligentes y el internet vienen cambiando la forma cómo los adolescentes interactúan con sus pares y familias. Es por ello, que en el contexto del aislamiento social por Covid-19, es importante conocer la relación entre el phubbing, el clima familiar y la autoestima de los adolescentes. La investigación tuvo un enfoque cuantitativo, correlacional, no experimental y participaron 322 adolescentes de la ciudad de Lima, Perú. El phubbing se relaciona negativamente con la autoestima (-.47) y con el clima familiar (-.48). Se evidenció una correlación positiva y grande entre la autoestima y el clima familiar (.51); además, no se encontró diferencias significativas según género, edad, tipo de escuela o modalidad de estudio. El phubbing y la autoestima presentaron resultados diversos según el tipo de familia. Finalmente, se observó que la cantidad de horas de conexión al móvil se relaciona negativamente con la autoestima y el clima familiar, pero de manera positiva con el phubbing. En conclusión, las conductas asociadas al phubbing se relacionan negativamente con el clima familiar y con la autoestima; convirtiendo al phubbing en un peligro para el desarrollo de los adolescentes.
... Studies have shown that the effects of cyberbullying on victims result not only in emotional anguish, but also contribute to their vulnerable psychological distress, thus leading to the growth of mental depression, social anxiety, lower self-esteem, suicide, etc. (Nicole, 2007;Aricak, 2011;Bashir & Bhat, 2016). Additionally, research has also shown that being a victim of cyberbullying can negatively impact the physical, social, and cognitive functioning, development, and well-being (Cénat et al., 2014) of the youth which can hamper their personality in adulthood. ...
... Numerous research which focused on self-esteem and cyberbullying found that individuals who experienced cyberbullying tend to have lower self-esteem and other related negative effects in life (O'Brien & Moules, 2013;Chang et al., 2013;Cénat et al., 2014). ...
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Internet has become a vital part of our modern-day society and in recent years, most youths are drawn to social media platforms (like Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter and Facebook). However, cyberbullying has gone rampant in tandem, affecting and scarring both the victim and perpetrator, leading to serious psychological issues such as depression, social anxiety, lower self-esteem and in some extreme cases, suicide. The current research aims to find out the positive orientation effect on aversive peer experiences such as cyber aggression and cyber victimisation among adolescents. This research hypothesized that 1) there is a significant relationship between positive orientation, peer experience relationship, cyber aggression and cyber victimisation, 2) there is a significant impact of positive orientation on cyber aggression and victimisation, 3) there is a significant difference between male and female adolescents in cyber aggression and victimisation. A sample of 338 university students in Malaysia, aged 19 to 25 years, was selected using the convenient sampling technique. The instruments use for data collection included cyber-peer experience questionnaire, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, satisfaction with life scale and positivity scale. The collected data were analysed using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) and T-test. The multiple regression analysis was also used to relate the predictors of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism to the occurrence of cyber aggression and victimisation among adolescents. The findings reveal that there is a negative correlation between self-esteem and cyber aggression as well as optimism with cyber aggression and cyber victimisation. Findings from the multiple regression analysis indicate that both self-esteem and optimism were significant predictors on cyber aggression and cyber victimisation. Further, the T-test results reveal that there is a significant difference between male and female adolescents on cyber aggression, and no significant difference in terms of cyber victimisation.
... Menurut Cenat et., al [14] mangsa didapati berkecenderungan mengalami risiko kesan-kesan psikologi serta cenderung untuk lemah penghargaan kendiri. Elipe, Mota-Merchan, Ortega-Ruiz, & Casas [15] menegaskan tidak terkecuali mangsa buli siber juga didapati berhadapan dengan pelbagai kesan dan implikasi negatif dari aspek pencapaian akademik, integrasi sosial, penghargaan kendiri, bunuh diri dan beberapa kesan psikologi seperti kemurungan, kebimbangan dan tekanan yang. ...
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Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti pengaruh buli siber, kemurungan, kebimbangan dan tekanan terhadap pencapaian akademik murid. Kajian kualitatif ini meneroka implikasi buli siber ke atas lima orang murid mangsa buli siber dan telah dikenal pasti mempunyai tahap kemurungan, kebimbangan dan tekanan yang sangat tinggi melalui ujian soal selidik. Dapatan yang diperolehi melalui analasis tema menunjukkan antara implikasi yang dihadapi seperti tekanan perasaan, mudah tersinggung, bertindak keterlaluan, kesedihan, menyalahkan diri, merasa tidak dihargai, kecewa dan putus harapan, keinginan membunuh diri, malu, gangguan perasaan, bimbang dan takut, memendam perasaan, kurang yakin diri, kemarahan, hilang semangat dan implikasi akademik seperti tidak fokus dan ponteng sekolah. Kesimpulanya, buli siber membawa implikasi kemurungan, kebimbangan dan tekanan dari aspek emosi, psikologi dan fizikal. Penemuan daripada kajian ini dapat digunakan oleh pihak pemegang taruh khususnya dalam bidang pendidikan bagi merangka plan tindakan pemulihan ke atas mangsa buli siber. Implications of Cyber Bullying, Depression, Anxiety and Stress on Student Academic Achievement Abstract: This study aims to identify the influence of cyber bullying, depression, anxiety and stress on student academic achievement. This qualitative study explored the implications of cyberbullying on five students who were victims of cyberbullying and were identified as having very high levels of depression, anxiety and stress through a questionnaire test. Findings obtained through theme analysis show among the implications faced such as emotional stress, irritability, overacting, sadness, self-blame, feeling unappreciated, disappointed and hopeless, suicidal desire, shame, emotional disturbance, worry and fear, harboring feelings, lack of self-confidence, anger, loss of enthusiasm and academic implications such as lack of focus and skipping school. In conclusion, cyber bullying has implications for depression, anxiety and stress from emotional, psychological and physical aspects. The findings from this study can be used by stakeholders, especially in the field of education, to formulate a recovery action plan for victims of cyber bullying. Keywords: Anxiety, Cyberbullying, Depression, Stress.
... Numerous studies have shown that cyberbullying leads to an increase in individual distress. For instance, a study by Cénat on a sample of 8194 adolescents in Quebec found that cyberbullying significantly predicted distress levels, even more significantly than the effect of offline bullying [64]; a study by Bauman and Newman obtained similar results, and also verified that the experience of cyberbullying exacerbates individual distress [65]. Therefore, this study concluded that there is a positive correlation between PCVE and distress. ...
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Recently, the number of active users of social media platforms is declining, posing a challenge to the sustainability of interest in social media and related industries. Therefore, it is of great significance to examine the environmental and psychological factors that influence the continuous use of social media. Until recently, little research has examined this topic from the perspective of the relationship between previous cyberbullying victimization experiences (PCVE) and the continuous use of social media (CUOSM), not to mention the psychological mechanisms that lead to this relationship. In addition, there are paradoxes in existing studies: one side believes that PCVE causes users to become addicted to using social media, while the other side argues that PCVE drives users to escape from using social media. In order to respond to this controversy and clarify the relationship between PCVE and CUOSM, this study introduces two psychological variables, namely “social media rumination (SMR)” and “distress”, in order to construct a chain mediation model. Researchers surveyed 692 people who had experienced social media cyberbullying, and analyzed the data through SPSS and Mplus. The findings were as follows: 1. There is an inverted U-shaped curve relationship between PCVE and CUOSM. Specifically, the relationship initially exhibits a positive correlation (the period named fight), which then becomes negative (the period named flight). 2. When PCVE and CUOSM are positively correlated, SMR is the main factor that contributes to an increase in CUOSM. 3. When PCVE and CUOSM are negatively correlated, distress is the major factor that causes a decline in CUOSM. This study provides an explanation for the controversy in previous research, expands the scope of social media research, and provides a practical reference for social media platforms to enhance their existing users’ continuous use.
... Another study found that low self-esteem is also associated with selfvictimization and racial-cultural victimization [23]. In addition to traditional bullying, cyberbullying victimization contributes to predicting low self-esteem and psychological distress over and above other experiences of bullying in schools or other settings [24]. This finding is consistent with that of a study in China that discovered that adolescents with psychosocial problems were more likely to experience bullying victimization. ...
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Background. Bullying is a major school problem. Victims of bullying often experience low self-esteem, whereas social skills are positively associated with the level of self-esteem. This research examined whether the victim’s condition impacted their social skills and self-esteem. Methods. International school students in Thailand aged 13 to 18 years old completed the Olweus bullying questionnaire, social capital questionnaire (SC), social skills questionnaire (SS), adolescent discrimination index (ADDI), and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES). Moderation analyses and visual presentations were carried out using IBM SPSS ver. 22 and PROCESS, ver. 4.0. Results. A total of 102 students participated (63% female). The mean age of the participants was 16.57 (SD = 1.42). The number of victims was 16 (15.7%), the mean (SD) for the SC, SS, ADDI, and RSES was 7.82 (2.37), 44.45 (9.40), 12.33 (9.82), and 27.85 (5.31), respectively. As predicted, those with high social skills reported greater self-esteem when they had never been bullied. The moderation effect was significant: B = 0.458, standard error = 0.203, 95% CI = −0.836 to −0.054. Additionally, the ADDI and SC were found to predict self-esteem. Conclusions. The significant moderation effect suggests the importance of identifying the victim’s condition when the association between social skills and self-esteem is not observed (as expected) among school adolescents. A longitudinal study to confirm the causal relationship should be encouraged. Further research on providing appropriate interventions along with social skill training for the victim group is warranted.
... Other studies still have found bullies to have high levels of self-esteem (e.g., Salmivalli, Kaukiainen, Kaistaniemi, & Lagerspetz, 1999) or have found no association between self-esteem and bullying (Olweus, 1993;Pearce &Thompson, 1998). Research focusing on cyberbullying and cybervictimization has yielded similar controversial results (Cénat et al., 2014;Kowalski & Limber, 2013;Palermiti et al., 2017;Patchin & Hinduja, 2010). ...
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Although previous studies seemed to recognize negative associations between self-esteem and bullying/cyberbullying and victimization/cybervictimization behaviours, the findings are controversial. The current study tried to shed light on this issue by using a person-oriented approach among Italian adolescents. Participants included 936 students aged 13-16 years. Different domains of self-esteem and bullying/cyberbullying and victimization/cybervictimization behaviour during the previous 2-3 months were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. The results suggested four self-esteem profiles, i.e., school/family-oriented, consistently high, self-derogation, and body/peer-oriented. Students in the consistently high self-esteem profile seemed to be more protected against bullying/cyberbullying and victimization/cybervictimization behaviours compared to those in the self-derogation profile. The findings showed that among adolescents there is a degree of heterogeneity in the self-esteem domain associated with different levels of bullying/cyberbullying and victimization/cybervictimization behaviour. This suggests that different domains of self-esteem and their interdependencies play a crucial role during adolescence, with consequences also in terms of diverse patterns of active and passive aggressive behaviour.
... Due to this, many users feel unsafe and are afraid to utilize OSM's benefits. Therefore, it is evident that if the misuse of OSM is not controlled in a timely and effective manner, it may eventually lead to severe social problems [1]. ...
Article
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Online social media (OSM) is an integral part of human life these days. Significantly, the young generation spends most of their time on social media in an active and passive state. The exponential growth of OSM has created an atmosphere of increased cybercrime. Although OSM provides a platform to connect people with similar thoughts and interests, it also exposes vulnerable users to mischievous elements in cyberspace. Social media connects and generates a massive amount of human activity-related data. However, the misuse of OSM introduces a novel way of expressing aggression and violence that exclusively happens online. In this research paper, we briefly discuss the background of Cyberbullying and the various machine and deep learning-based models incorporated to deal with it effectively. We also highlight the main challenges in designing a cyberbullying prediction model and address them.
... The scale has good internal consistency among Canadian samples, with an α coefficient of .80 and among racialized individuals (coefficient alphas vary between .86 and .87; Cénat et al., 2014;. The Cronbach α in our sample was .92. ...
Article
Objectives: Black Canadians report experiencing various forms of racial discrimination disproportionately. This study aimed to: (a) examine the association between everyday racial discrimination and self-esteem; (b) test the mediating role of internalized racism and social support in the association between racial discrimination and self-esteem, and (c) test the moderating role of gender and age in this same relationship. Method: A total of 860 participants (76.60% female) aged 15-40 (Mage = 24.96, SD = 6.31) completed questionnaires assessing racial discrimination, self-esteem, internalized racism, and social support. Descriptive and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Results: A total of 65.33% of participants were categorized as endorsing low self-esteem, with no significant difference between males and females (66.67% and 62.20%, respectively; χ² = 1.56, p = .47). Participants aged 25-40 exhibited a higher prevalence of low self-esteem compared to those aged 15-24 (89.91% and 58.54%, respectively, χ² = 37.31, p < .001). The results showed a progressive increase in the prevalence of low self-esteem commensurate with increasing levels of reported racial discrimination. Internalized racism (β = -.09, SE = .01, p < .001) and social support (β = .10, SE = .01, p < .001) mediated the association between everyday racial discrimination and self-esteem; whereas gender moderated the latter association (β = .17, SE = .04, p < .001; being a woman). Conclusions: Results indicate a strong association between racial discrimination and low self-esteem. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of self-esteem problems among Black individuals in Canada. They also have important relevance for the development of educational and clinical programs for prevention and intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... The growing literature on bullying recognizes the peer relationship problems which is often manifested in bullying behaviour and are associated with low self-esteem. On a similar line, recent research on cyberbullying has stated that victims of cyberbullying display lower self-esteem (Cenat, et al. 2014;Chang et al. 2013). In the metaanalysis of the antecedent of cyberbullying, one was low self-esteem. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the linkage between cyberbullying and depression. Using the multi-mediation routes this study also explores the cyberbullying-depression relationship via helplessness and self-esteem. This study is a multi-mediation model with a sample size of 340 respondents. The study draws cross-sectional data from respondents from diverse industry backgrounds ranging from information technology, education, banking, and retail. Partial least square (PLS-SEM) was used for the analysis. Using the cognitive theory of depression, results showed that cyberbullying is positively related to depression. Also, the study found that helplessness and self-esteem mediate the linkage between cyberbullying and depression. The study is unique as perhaps for the first time the multi mediation mechanism has been studied in the relationship of cyberbullying and depression. Drawing from helplessness/ hopelessness theory, the study has conceptualized and tested cyberbullying as a stressor that triggers various adverse cognitions which have been tested in multi-mediational route. The study highlights several issues emerging with the increased use of the internet and the severe abusive behaviour in form of cyberbullying. There is a need for organizations and managers to have specific actions to reduce the tendency of helplessness and low self-esteem due to cyberbullying to control adverse cognition of depression among employees.
... Similarly, victims of cyberbullying experience lower self-esteem, life satisfaction, and perceived support (Fisher et al., 2016;Kowalski et al., 2014). Studies also revealed that cyberbullying victimization is significantly associated with loneliness or social isolation, negative self-cognition (Cole et al., 2017), negative social www.scholarhub.ui.ac.id/hubsasia comparison (Feinstein et al., 2013), low self-esteem (Extremera et al., 2018), hopelessness (Bonanno & Hymel, 2013), maladaptive emotion regulation (Feinstein et al., 2013), sleeping difficulties (Sourander et al., 2010), distress (Cenat et al., 2015), anxiety (Fahy et al., 2016), self-harm, suicidal ideation (John et al., 2018), and depression (Almenayes, 2017). ...
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Victimization via cyberbullying has become a significant mental health concern particularly among adolescents at risk of depression and other mental health issues. As the COVID-19 outbreak forced everyone to stay at home and participate in their educational, recreational, and entertainment activities online, this study investigated the relation between cyberbullying victimization and depressive symptoms among 612 college students in Tamilnadu, India. We hypothesized that experiences of cyberbullying victimization would predict depressive symptoms among the participants. Adolescents aged 18 to 19 from colleges in Tamilnadu completed an online survey composed of the Cybervictimization Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYVIC) and the Beck’s Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Results showed a significant positive relation between cyberbullying victimization and depression (r = 0.80, p < .001). Regression analysis revealed that cyberbullying victimization is a statistically significant predictor of depressive symptoms (r2 = 0.65). Likewise, impersonation (r = 0.70), written–verbal cyber victimization (r = 0.73), visual teasing/happy slapping (r = 0.69), and online exclusion (r = 0.67) contributed to the significant positive association between the variables. These findings can serve as a foundation for intervention programs to alleviate depressive symptoms by addressing cyberbullying experiences and conducting further research on the negative effects of cyberbullying victimization among adolescents.
... Unregulated engagement in digital platforms such as social media, along with consumption of videos and digital messaging, can have dire emotional and psychological consequences for youth. Youth are particularly vulnerable to adverse experiences in the online environment due to a lack of knowledge regarding the function and possible consequences of sharing information or consuming messaging via digital devices (Cenat et al., 2014). For example, the amount of time teens spend engaged in social media is significantly correlated with alcohol use four years later; this data suggests that repeated exposure to images of role models and peers consuming alcohol causes a "social norming" process to occur that normalizes problematic alcohol consumption (Boers, Afzali, & Conrod, 2020). ...
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This digital citizenship research study includes the implementation of innovative interventions with "multiply marginalized" youth (Cyrus, 2017) participants (ages 10-18) in a therapeutic youth mentorship program at a university in the Rocky Mountain region. The project expanded upon experiential activities currently employed by the program, with the primary aim of enhancing youths' knowledge and awareness of digital use habits and skills to participate in safe self-regulated online engagement. Youth completed a pre-test and post-test with each of the four digital citizenship activities. These surveys assessed changes in the youth participants' understanding of the learning objectives addressed during each activity. Pre and post-test results reflected an increase in youths' understanding of the factors that contribute to digital wellness and knowledge of what constitutes user data and how to secure digital devices. At the completion of the program, youth also answered questions from the Youth Participant Survey (National Research Center, 2013) regarding their satisfaction with programming, and perceived changes in academic success, cultural competency, lifestyle, life skills and life choices, core values, sense of self, higher education readiness, and workforce skills. Results from the Youth Participant Survey (National Research Center, 2013) reflect a positive shift in cultural awareness, life choices, core values, sense of self, and workforce skills. The results of this study highlight the many ways that the program positively impacts the growth and resiliency of youth participants. In a post-Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) world, the ability to navigate technology is critical to one's ability to persist in professional and social settings (Livari, Sharma, & Venta-Olkkonen, 2020). Digital resiliency is key to young people's ability to persist in online environments (Przybylski et al., 2014). Youths' increased digital skills, knowledge, and awareness over the course of this study confirm that digital citizenship is an area of intervention well suited to youth mentorship programming.
... Authors of previous studies have linked bullying with adverse psychological effects such as depression, low selfesteem (Didden et al., 2009;Kowalski & Limber, 2013) and anxiety , with cyber-bullying being associated with behavioural, mental health (Holfeld & Mishna, 2019;Kowalski et al., 2014), and self-esteem (Cenat et al., 2014;Perren et al., 2010) problems. Depression is associated with cybervictimization in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (Wright, 2017) and excessive social media use is associated with low self-esteem (Kalpidou et al., 2011;Mehdizadeh, 2010), even though some studies have reported the exact opposite in typically developed adolescents (Valkenburg et al., 2005). ...
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Social media can lead to rejection, cyber-bullying victimisation, and cyber-aggression, and these experiences are not fully understood as experienced by autistic adults. To investigate this, 78 autistic adults completed self-report measures of social media use, cyber-bullying victimisation, cyber-aggression, and self-esteem. High levels of social media use were found to be associated with an increased risk of cyber-victimisation; whereas self-esteem was positively correlated with feelings of belonging to an online community and negatively correlated with feelings of being ignored on social network sites and chat rooms. Future studies are needed to further investigate the experience of cyber-bullying victimisation of autistic adults.
... Low self-esteem in adolescence has been found to predict negative consequences such as poor physical and mental health during adulthood [34]. Studies have found a negative relationship between cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem [35][36][37]. Interventions that aim to increase self-esteem are therefore important. Most of the studies that aim at increasing self-esteem use physical exercise as the intervention [38]. ...
Article
Background Adolescents exposed to negative online events are at high risk to develop mental health problems. Little is known about what is effective for treatment in this group. NettOpp is a new mobile app for adolescents who have been exposed to cyberbullying or negative online experiences in Norway. Objective The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the content of the intervention and about a randomized controlled trial that will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of NettOpp. This protocol is written in accordance with the Spirit 2013 Checklist. Methods An effectiveness study with a follow-up examination after 3 months will be conducted to evaluate the mobile app. Adolescents will be recruited through schools and will be randomly assigned to the intervention (NettOpp) group and a waiting-list control group. The adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) will respond to self-report questionnaires on the internet. Primary outcomes will be changes in mental health assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the WHO-Five Well-being Index, and the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen. Results Recruitment will start in January 2022. The results from this study will be available in 2023. Conclusions There are few published evaluation studies on app-based interventions. This project and its publications will contribute new knowledge to the field. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04176666; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04176666 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/31789
... Cyberbullies victimize others around them due to lower selfesteem levels [17]. The relationship between self-esteem and attitude towards cyberbullying also shows the negative relationship between cyberbullying and a higher self-esteem level [96]. It can be inferred from the literature that individuals with lower self-esteem are more likely to be engaged in cyberbullying behavior with the technological help of anonymity [97]. ...
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Higher education requires access to Information and communication technologies (ICT's). This exposure and access to ICT, coupled with the excessive usage of social media, has augmented the problem of cyberbullying among university students. Previous studies have investigated cyberbullying among school students while overlooking university students, who are actually more engaged in cyberbullying perpetration. In view of the gravity of the situation and its impact on the wellbeing of the university students, this study aims to understand the role of personal and psychological factors dragging Malaysian undergraduate students of public and private universities towards cyberbullying behaviour. In order to develop the framework, the study has utilized the 'Theory of planned behavior' and 'Social Cognitive Theory'. The study is based on a quantitative research approach and employs a self-administered survey to collect data. The data has been analyzed through the Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) technique using SmartPLS. The results reveal that individual factors including cyberbullying awareness and personality traits are not associated with Malaysian undergraduate students' cyberbullying behaviour. However, psychological factors, including self-esteem, internalizing behavior, and antisocial behavior, play an instrumental role in developing Malaysian undergraduate students' cyberbullying attitude. The study also confirms that subjective norms assert a powerful positive impact on cyberbullying attitude of Malaysian undergraduates. Lastly, the study aims to contribute to the research on cyberbullying behavior by offering a conceptual validated model that predicts Malaysian university students' cyberbullying behavior. This study also found that social media usage plays moderating role between cyberbullying intention and cyberbullying behavior. Parents, universities, and governments will benefit from this study by understanding factors to be considered when making a policy to reduce cyberbullying among university students. INDEX TERMS Cyberbullying, personal factors, psychological factors, higher education, university students , theory of planned behaviour and socio-cognitive theory.
... Both offline and cyber victims have been found to display lower levels of selfesteem [22,[37][38][39], with particularly low self-esteem among cyber victims [40]. Students with low self-esteem have been described to signal insecurity, which in turn might lead perpetrators to choose them as their victims [2,3]. ...
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Self-esteem has been identified as a predictor of bullying perpetration and victimization, which, in turn, may lead to school adjustment problems. However, findings regarding the direction and strength of these associations have been inconclusive. This study aimed to resolve this by differentiating between offline and cyber contexts and various self-esteem domains. An online sample of 459 adolescents retrospectively completed measures of self-esteem domains and offline/cyber perpetration and victimization, and a subsample of 194 adolescents also completed measures of loneliness and school adjustment. A mediation analysis of bullying-related variables on the effect of self-esteem domains on school adjustment indicated that offline victimization was the only significant mediator. Positive indirect effects were found for social and emotional self-esteem, and negative indirect effects were found for school performance-related self-esteem. Furthermore, person-oriented analyses examined differences in bullying-related roles regarding self-esteem domains, loneliness, and school adjustment. Victim groups showed lower self-esteem in many domains, but cyber victims showed higher body-related self-esteem. Bullies showed lower school performance-related but higher social self-esteem. Both bullies and victims showed lower school adjustment and more loneliness. Implications for theory and practice are discussed, as the findings are relevant for teachers and could be used to develop and deploy more effective anti-bullying programs.
... Namun, tentu saja dengan adanya standarisasi tentang berbagai hal temasuk kecantikan, penyebaran informasi yang terus menerus di web akan menjadi salah satu faktor pemicu yang menyebabkan terjadinya shaming secara langsung ataupun tidak langsung kepada teman yang dianggap tidak memenuhi standar kecantikan. Di sisi lain, internet seakan menjadi salah satu platform yang dijadikan oleh pelaku bullying dalam dunia maya lebih agresif lagi melakukan body shaming (Cénat et al., 2014). Hal ini yang akan menyebabkan terhambatnya pembentukan self-esteem yang positif pada remaja. ...
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p> Abstract: The existence of a standardized appearance or ideal body, both for men and for women, often triggers body shaming for people who do not comply with these standards. This study aims to investigate the effect of body shaming on students' self-esteem This research uses a quantitative method using survey questionnare. Population of this study were 242 students of SMPN 2 Datuk Lima Puluh, with 60 sample of students. The instruments given were a questionnaire of body shaming and self-esteem. Then the data were analyzed using simple linear regression. The results of the calculations in data analysis indicates that each addition of one unit of body shaming score will be followed by a reduction in the score of the level of self-esteem. Furthermore, the results of the correlation coefficient showed that there is an effect of Body Shaming on Self-Esteem of Junior High School. Abstrak: Adanya standarisasi penampilan tubuh yang ideal, baik bagi laki-laki maupun perempuan seringkali memicu terjadinya body shaming pada orang-orang yang tidak sesuai dengan standarisasi tersebut. Penelitian ini menguji Pengaruh Body Shaming terhadap Self-Esteem Siswa SMP. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode survei. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah 242 siswa SMPN 2 Datuk Lima Puluh dengan sampel 60 siswa. Instrumen yang diberikan adalah angket body shaming dan self-esteem . Hasil analisas data s menggunakan regresi linier sederhana. menunjukkan bahwa setiap penambahan satu satuan skor body shaming akan diikuti oleh pengurangan skor tingkat self-esteem . Selanjutnya hasil koefisien korelasi menunjukkan data bahwa rhitung>rtabel (0,455>0,254). Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada pengaruh Body Shaming terhadap Self-Esteem Siswa SMP Negeri 2 Datuk Lima Puluh Tahun Ajaran 2020/2021.
... Though technology has resulted in uncountable benefits in our lives, the adverse impact of technology on human life in the form of cyberbullying is a harsh reality. There are severe consequences of cyberbullying, which vary from psychological disorders to suicides (Cénat et al. 2014;Goldman 2010;Schneider et al. 2012). Cyberbullying is harmful for every segment of individuals, but it is particularly critical for students as they are mostly young and become and easy victims of bullying on the internet (W. ...
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Recent research reveals that the social media usage has been rapidly increased in higher education. Yet we know a little about the consequences of social media use among students. The current study is an attempt to understand how and when the use of social media by the students is related to their academic engagement and creativity. We collected the primary data from 267 graduate and undergraduate students enrolled at different universities situated in the Hefei city of the Anhui province of China. Findings reveal that social media use by the students is positively related to their creativity and academic engagement through intrinsic motivation while cyberbullying plays a boundary condition role on these relationships such that the direct and indirect relationships are weak when cyberbullying is higher. Important practical and theoretical implications as well as limitations and directions for future research have been discussed.
... As a result, adolescents may engage in anti-social behaviours such as smoking and consuming alcohol and have a possibility of participating in criminal behaviour in the future [65]. Moreover, bullying involvement has also been found to negatively impact student's academic performance and excellence [46], in addition to their self-esteem [66]. ...
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Adolescents involved in bullying can be at risk of developing behavioural problems, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. In view of this, a quantitative research design using a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bullying and associated individual, peer, family and school factors. The study involved 4469 Malaysian public-school students who made up the response rate of 89.4%. The students were selected using a randomized multilevel sampling method. The study found that 79.1% of student respondents were involved in bullying as perpetrators (14.4%), victims (16.3%), or bully–victims (48.4%). In a multivariate analysis, the individual domain showed a significant association between students’ bullying involvement and age (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.12–1.70), gender (OR = 1.73; 95% CI 1.47–0.91), ethnicity (OR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.47–0.91), duration of time spent on social media during the weekends (OR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.09–1.87) and psychological distress level (OR = 2.55; 95% CI 1.94–3.34). In the peer domain, the significantly associated factors were the number of peers (OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.56–0.86) and frequency of quarrels or fights with peers (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.24–3.26). Among the items in the school domain, the significantly associated factors were students being mischievous in classrooms (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.06–2.06), student’s affection towards their teachers (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.06–2.20), frequency of appraisal from teachers (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.16–1.94), frequency of friends being helpful in classrooms (OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.09–3.38) and frequency of deliberately skipping class (OR = 2.91; 95% CI 2.90–1.72). As a conclusion, the study revealed high levels and widespread bullying involvement among students in Malaysia. As such, timely bullying preventions and interventions are essential, especially in terms of enhancing their mental health capacity, which substantially influences the reduction in the prevalence rates of bullying involvement among students in Malaysia.
... En un estudio realizado en la Comunidad Autónoma de La Rioja en la que participaron Jóvenes de 14 a 20 años informa que el 31.4% de participantes declararon haber sufrido ciberacoso (López-Hernáez, 2015). Además, en una encuesta realizada en Quebec en donde participaron 8.194 jóvenes de 14 a 20 años refiere que el 24,9 % fueron víctimas de cyberbullying (Cénat et al., 2014). Por su parte Hinduja & Patchin (2012) quienes realizaron un análisis de 35 artículos científicos relacionados al ciberacoso muestran que la tasa promedio informada fue de 24,4% y que 22 de las 35 investigaciones reportan tasas de victimización que van entre el 6% y 30%. ...
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En la presente investigación se analiza la relación entre el ciberacoso y la intencionalidad suicida en una muestra de adolescentes de 12 a 17 años de Ecuador. Se parte de una investigación no experimental, con enfoque cuantitativo de alcance descriptivo y corte transversal. Se aplican el Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CBQ) y su complemento para medir victimización (CBQ-V) la escala de suicidabilidad de Okasha, y la Escala de Malestar Subjetivo de Kessler en su versión de 6 ítems (K-6) a 449 adolescentes de entre 12 y 17 años. Los datos muestran que existe relación entre la victimización y la intencionalidad suicida. Palabras clave ─ Ciberacoso, intencionalidad suicida, perpetración, victimización. Abstract: In this research, the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal intent is analyzed in a sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from Ecuador. The research is a non-experimental investigation, with a quantitative approach of descriptive scope and cross section. The Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CBQ) and its complement to measure victimization (CBQ-V) are applied the Okasha suicide scale, the Suicidal Risk Assessment Scale (ERS) and the Kessler Subjective Distress Scale in its 6-item version (K-6) to 449 adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. The data show that there is a relationship between victimization and suicidal intent.
... Prior studies indicated that cyberbullying's indirect effect on suicidal ideation through psychological adjustment was actually more massive than cyberbullying's direct effect [18]. Moreover, a study from Canada indicated that the cyberbullying victimization experience predicted psychological distress and low self-esteem over other bullying forms in schools [19]. Meanwhile, cyberbullying perpetration is not only correlated with psychological difficulties and lower quality of life [20] but is also associated with external problematic behaviors over time [21]. ...
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Cyberbullying and its consequences is a little-investigated public health issue. We investigated the correlations between cyberbullying involvement, either being a victim or being a preparator, and psychological distress among a group of Chinese adolescents. A representative sample of 4978 students from Jiangsu province covering all types of pre-college schools was surveyed using a stratified sampling method. Both being a victim and being a perpetrator correlated with higher degrees of psychological distress, and the former’s effect is stronger. Family cohesion and school cohesion are protective factors of psychological distress, but only family cohesion plays a moderating effect between cyberbullying involvement and distress. Moreover, the positive correlations between cyberbullying involvement and psychological distress become non-significant when the interactions are included in regression models. Last but not least, female students and students in a higher grade or students with worse academic performance have higher degrees of distress. Our study reveals that, instead of school cohesion, family cohesion is more important to mitigate the psychological impact of cyberbullying involvement and eventually heal the trauma.
... Research on the association between CB and self-esteem revealed that both victims and perpetrators of CB have significantly lower self-esteem than those who have little or no experience with CB (Cénat et al., 2014;Patchin & Hinduja, 2010). However, other studies (Robson & Witenberg, 2013) found no association between self-esteem and CB. ...
... Some studies suggest that males are higher than females to engage in cyberbullying and traditional bullying (Huang & Chou, 2010;Twardowska-Staszek et al., 2018). While other studies have indicated that females are higher than males (Cénat et al., 2014). Whereas many studies do not report any gender differences at all (Calvete et al., 2010;Dembo et al., 2019) Self-esteem has a substantial impact on cognition, motivation, empathy, and behavior, also a good indicator of mental health. ...
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Purpose: bullying among students with disabilities, especially hearing impairment adolescents is a neglected problem in most Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cyberbullying and traditional bullying and their relationship to self‐esteem in adolescent students in southern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Three questionnaires (cyberbullying, traditional bullying, and self‐esteem) were used to assess the studied parameters. They were distributed to 81 students with hearing impairment (10th and 12th grade), (M = 18.64, SD = 1.06). Main Findings: Findings indicated that 56.4% were exposed to traditional victimization, 52.9% bullied others at school, 44.6% were not exposed to victimization, while 47.1% had not participated. Concerning cyberbullying, 90.5% were not exposed to cyber-victimization, and 94.2% had not participated in cyber-bullying. Males were more exposed to traditional and cyber-victimization than females; besides, they were significantly higher in self-esteem than females. We found a statistically significant correlation between traditional victimization and traditional bully. We also found a statistically significant correlation between self-esteem and both traditional victimization and bully, while no significant correlation between self-esteem and cyber-bully/victims. Novelty/Originality of this study: Additional studies are needed to compare the traditional bullying and cyberbullying, and its relationship to psychological variables among Saudi children with disability and typically developing peers. Moreover, there is an urgent need for evolving prevention and intervention programs to overcome bullying and its negative effects among individual and society.
... Cyberbullying is one area of concern. One-fifth to one-quarter of children experience cyberbullying (Cénat et al. 2014), and the victims of cyberbullying acknowledged that they were likely to bully others (Chapin and Coleman 2017). These studies, and others like them, suggest that cyberbullying is any activity that perpetuates the bully-victim cycle in which children who experience bullying in turn adopt that same negative behavior and use it in other peer interactions (Haynie et al. 2001). ...
Article
This scoping review of research explores which disciplines have studied social media as it relates to education and, more broadly, use by students of high school and college age. The sample explores 10 years of research (2009–2018). A search of Web of Science yielded 580 relevant peer-reviewed articles published through the end of 2018, with 260 (44.8%) of these articles focused on education. Research in this area has been on a steady upward trajectory since 2009, the first year when relevant social media articles appeared. About half of this research was conducted in North American settings, and quantitative surveys were the most popular data collection method. Findings show that within education, the dominant themes of research on social media were use as a teaching and learning tool; adoption, use, and beliefs; digital literacy; effects of use; and identity. Outside of education, the dominant themes were negative behaviors, health issues, identity development and expression, digital citizenship, and social relationships. This review shows several areas where education researchers and practitioners would benefit from attending to research conducted outside of our discipline. Although the field of educational research sufficiently addresses issues like teacher professional development and pedagogical uses of social media, the larger issues that affect our students and, in turn, the school context are being explored in other disciplines.
... Studies on cyberbullying have found that cyberbullying causes emotions of anger, sadness, vengeance and hostility (Beran and Li, 2005;Katzer, Fetchenhauer and Belschak, 2009;Palmer and Thakordas, 2005;Ybarra and Mitchell, 2007;Yaman and Peker, 2012;Arıcak, 2009;Usta, 2013;Özbay, 2013;Yaman and Peker,2012;Peker, 2015a), low self-esteem and sense of helplessness (Cenat et al., 2014;Ayas 2016;Hinduja and Patchin, 2008;Yaman and Peker, 2012), psychological problems such as depression, eating disorders and anxiety (Hawker and Boulton, 2000;Gamez-Guadix, Orue, Smith and Calvete, 2013;Raskauskas and Stoltz, 2007;Ybarra and Mitchell, 2007;Beran and Li, 2005;Juvonen and Gross,2008;Dalmaz, 2014;Özel, 2013), disappointment and loneliness (Raskauskas and Stoltz, 2007;Özer, 2014), decreasing school achievement (Nishina, Juvonen and Witkow, 2005;Schwartz, Gorman, Nakamoto and Toblin, 2005;Raskauskas, Rubiano, Offen and Wayland, 2015;Li, 2007;Willard, 2007;Juvonen and Gross, 2008;Eroğlu, 2011;Beran and Li, 2005;Dalmaç Polat and Bayraktar, 2016), school absence (Kirby, 2008;Beran and Li, 2005;Mitchell, Ybarra and Finkelhor, 2007 ), problems in peer relationships (Wolak et al, 2007;Bayar 2010;Pekşen Süslü, 2016), and suicidal thoughts (Gini and Espelage, 2014;Bauman, Toomey and Walker, 2013;Hinduja and Patchin, 2009) among victims. In the literature, there are studies concluding that cyberbullying, which has an impact on individual in various domains, has been increasing nowadays. ...
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Bullying is classified as physical bullying that involves hitting, pushing and hindering; verbal bullying that involves insulting, giving names, embarrassing; and emotional bullying that involves excluding from group, backbiting and breaking the friendship. Cyberbullying is another aspect of bullying. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale of cyberbullying behaviors for adolescents. Items in the trial form of the scale were written a literature review by the researchers. Trial form of scale consisted of 25 items. The pilot study for the scale was conducted for 231 students attending from high schools in Zonguldak province. An explanatory factor analysis was performed for the construct validity of the scale. A four-factor construct was obtained in the results of analysis. These factors were named as "dis-turbing via cyber", "cyber harassment", "vengeance", "spoofing". These four factors explained 66.235% of total variance. The Cronbach Alpha coefficients of these factors were varied between 0.58 and 0.91.
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The explosive growth and online media usage have transformed the communication landscape globally. Social media platforms have become a thriving ground for online exploitation and Cyberbullying, a high priority challenge in many countries (Gottschalk, 2022). Our study aims to provide a bibliometric overview of Cyberbullying research between 2010 and 2021, including a new analysis through the lens of sustainable development and the impact of COVID-19. We introduce altmetrics to assess the social media attention of publications. Analysis of 7045 publications, of which 1149 publications are directly aligned to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and 123 publications related to COVID-19 are presented. Science mapping of countries and journals, prolific authors, and institutions, along with gender-related contributions, are captured in this study. Computers in Human Behavior is the most prolific journal in terms of publications and citations. The top three SDG are SDG16 peace, justice, and strong institutions, SDG4 Quality education, and SDG3 Good health and well-being. Within each SDG, we find focussed studies on the themes relating to psychological impact, prior exposure to violence, inequality and gender biases, lack of awareness and need for education, and social support and their implications for sustainable development. Further, studies on COVID-19 impact revealed a definitive increase in occurrences of Cyberbullying stemming from concurrent infodemics and confinement-induced digital addiction. Asian countries contributed to over 20% of the studies during the pandemic. We offer suggestions for future studies on shifting focus on populous developing economies, longitudinal studies of interventions, and a critical need to enhance technologies for auto-detection in multilingual contexts.
Article
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a chronic disease in which physical and mental disorders are common among these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Lazarus multimodal approach intervention on psychological distress, working memory, and anxiety in patients with MS. Methods: A quasi-experimental research method with pre-test, post-test, and follow-up and a control group was used in this study. The statistical population of the study included the patients who were members of the "MS Patient Support Society" in Tehran who had been referred to this center during January and March 2017. The sample consisted of 32 people selected by the convenience sampling method from the members of the MS community. The data were obtained through the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10), the Wechsler’s Working Memory Index, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The experimental group underwent the Lazarus multimodal approach in ten 90-minute sessions of two sessions per week for one and a half months. The control group received no intervention. The follow-up was performed three months after the post-test. The repeated measurement method and SPSS 22 were used to analyze the data. Results: The findings showed that the Lazarus multimodal approach had a significant effect on decreasing anxiety (P<0.001), psychological distress (P<0.001), and increasing working memory (P<0.001). Conclusion: It can be concluded that Lazarus’ multimodal approach was effective on anxiety, psychological distress, and working memory and can be employed to reduce psychological problems in patients with MS.
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Introduction: The use of social media tools is increasing day by day. In addition to its positive use, social media tools are also used in the virtual environment to harm others. This harmful use is noted as cyber-bullying. Determining the factors affecting cyber-bullying is of great importance in terms of contributing to intervention studies. This study aims to examine the moderate role of positivity and sensitivity towards cyber-bullying between cyber-victimization and cyber-bullying. Methods: The study was carried out with 342 university students, who approved voluntary participation in the process. The students who voluntarily participated in the research were 239 females (69.9%) and 103 males (30.1%), who were between 18 and 28 years old. In the data collection process, the revised cyber-bullying inventory, positivity scale, and personal information forms were used. In this research process, the moderating role of positivity and sensitivity (M) in the relationship between cyber-victimization (X) and cyber-bullying (Y) was investigated. Results: As a result of the research, it was found that 35% of the participants were exposed to cyber-bullying and 1.4% were engaging in cyber-bullying. It was also found that there was a moderate positive relationship between cyber-victimization and cyber-bullying. In addition, the results showed that there is a negative relationship between positivity and sensitivity to cyber-bullying and cyber-victimization, and cyber-bullying. As a result of the analysis, it was observed that positivity and sensitivity affected the relationship between cyber-victimization and cyber-bullying. The results indicate that a decrease in positivity and sensitivity results in cyber-bullying behaviour, whereas an increase in positivity and sensitivity decreases cyber-bullying behavior. Discussion: The concept of positivity can be said to enable individuals exposed to cyber-bullying to create alternative emotions and create alternative strategies for the problem they are experiencing. In addition, the high level of positivity of the individual experiencing cyber-victimization can be thought to help develop and maintain friendship relations by improving their psychological resources. As a result, it can be stated that the probability of cyber-bullying decreases. In another result of the research, it has been revealed that the sensitivity between exposure to cyber-bullying and cyber-bullying has a moderating effect on cyber-bullying. When the sensitivity to cyber-bullying is low, it is observed that the effect of cyber-victimization on cyber-bullying is further increased. When there is a high sensitivity to cyberbullying, the impact of cyber-victimization on cyber-bullying is increasing very little and this effect is observed to be less powerful. Limitations: The current study has also some limitations. First, the study was carried out as a cross-sectional study. A longitudinal study can be conducted to obtain more detailed results about the moderating effect. Second, positivity was used as an indicator of well-being. Therefore, it is essential to be careful while generalizing the results; different scales related to psychological well-being can be used. Third, the current study just used scales to evaluate the students’ self-report; for this reason, the choice of mixed research approaches can offer a wide perspective by taking the opinions of different individuals such as friends and parents of individuals. Conclusions: The findings provide evidence for reducing cyberbullying. In addition, the results provide useful information in the preparation of cyberbullying intervention programs.
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Introduction: In the information society, the stimulus threshold for learners has changed, which requires a novel education strategy. Today, it is no longer what attracts students’ attention that it was 20 years ago. In addition to the rapid development of ICT, public education cannot go either. We believe that advanced teacher digital competence can be one of the keys of finding common ground with students and doing effective teaching work. Methods: In our research we examine the level of digital competence of public education teachers before the pandemic and during the 2nd wave in Hungary (2020 autumn). We examine the development of digital competence, student performance, and the effectiveness of education outside the classroom in the spring period based on teacher experience. Data from the completed forms were evaluated by using basic statistical indicators. Results: According to the data received, the pandemic revealed serious shortcomings in the level of development of the digital competence of both teachers and students. However, it also opened the way for catching up on both sides. Teachers were already better prepared during the second wave, so they were able to solve education more efficiently. Regional development differences and a lack of digital tools have widened the gap between students. Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed these shortcomings in education. For here the process of teaching had to be placed in digital space from one moment to the next. Limitations: The research shows data valid only for Hungary. Conclusions: Expected result is the demonstrable development of competences.
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A kutatás egyetemi hallgatók (N = 251) körében vizsgálta a cyberbullying és a kiégés jelenségét, továbbá ezek kapcsolatát az önértékeléssel és a tanulmányi motivációval. A résztvevők – 18 és 47 év közötti, nappali, levelező és esti tagozatos hallgatók – egy online kérdőívcsomagot töltöttek ki. Az eredmények alapján egyetemi közegben alkalmanként bevonódott internetes zaklatásba a kitöltők 8,9%-a. A korábbi kutatásokkal összhangban az áldozati és a zaklatói szerep között összefüggés van, nemi különbség csak a zaklatói alskálán mutatkozott. A cyberbullying és a kiégés között pozitív együttjárást találtunk. A hallgatói kiégés súlyosabb tünetei a kitöltők 14,4%-át érintik, az eredmények alapján a teljes skálán nem volt szignifikáns nemi különbség, míg az érzelmi kimerülés alskálán a nők, a hatékonyságcsökkenés alskálán a férfiak értek el magasabb pontszámot. Az eredmények alátámasztják az alacsony önértékelés kapcsolatát a cyberbullyinggal és a kiégés-szindrómával egyaránt. A kiégést együttesen bejósló tényezők az alacsony önértékelés, az intrinzik motiváció hiánya és az amotiváció, az utóbbi önmagában is előrejelző lehet.
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Background Studies examining both victimization and perpetration of dating violence among both women and men are virtually non-existent in Haiti. This study aimed to document the prevalence and factors associated with victimization and perpetration of dating violence (DV) among adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years in Haiti. Participants and setting A total of 3586 participants (47.6% women; mean age = 19.37; SD = 2.71) were sampled in the 10 geographical departments according to residence areas (urban/rural), age group (15–19/20–24 years old), and gender (men/women). Method Participants completed questionnaires assessing DV victimization and perpetration, witnessing interparental violence, parental violence, violence acceptance, social desirability, and self-esteem. Results Overall, 1538 participants (56% women) were in a romantic relationship in the past year. Results showed that men were more likely to experience both psychological (49.4% of women and 57% of men, X² = 8.17, p = .004), and physical violence (11.1% of women and 18.8% of men, X² = 8.13, p = .004). There were marginally significant differences for sexual violence between gender for adolescents aged 15 to 19 (26.5% of girls and 20.5% of boys, X² = 3.25, p = .07), and not for young adults (21.8% of women and 24.0% of men, X² = 0.49, p = .48). No significant difference was observed for any forms of DV perpetration. DV perpetration was positively associated with victimization (b = 0.5, p = .002), however victimization was not associated with perpetration. Results also showed different associations between violence perpetration and victimization, gender, social desirability, acceptance of violence, parental violence, and witnessing interparental violence. Conclusions This study highlights avenues for prevention and intervention that must begin at an early age, engage teachers, train peer-educators, promote healthy, non-violent and egalitarian romantic relationships.
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A growing body of evidence acknowledges that cyberbullying is a public mental health issue that extends to college settings. Current literature highlights the need to conduct further research on gender differences in mental health indicators proposed by cyberbullying theoretical models in young adulthood. This study examines the specific link between victimization, gender, and self-esteem through the General Aggression Model for cyber victimization. We surveyed 796 Portuguese college students (381 females, 415 males; age range: 18–25) with the Cyberbullying Questionnaire–Victimization and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Over half of our sample reported victimization experiences at a given point in their lives. Male and female young adults do not differ in their involvement as victims of cyberbullying. College cyber victims reported less self-esteem than non-involved students. Only self-esteem emerged as a significant predictor of cyber victimization. Current findings deepen our knowledge of the negative impact cyberbullying has on the mental health of college students and offer empirical support to the development of prevention and intervention strategies focusing on the psychological maladjustment of young adults regardless of their gender.
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In longitudinal studies of pornography use, selective loss of participants who may be more vulnerable to the effects of pornography than their peers is a serious concern. To explore the potential for such selective dropout, we used data from two independent large-scale panel studies of adolescents’ pornography use. Of the three types of attrition—early attrition, later attrition, and gaps in participation—only the first was substantially higher among more vulnerable adolescents, compared with other participants. Panel type (online vs. classroom-based) moderated only the association between vulnerability and participation gaps, which was significant in the classroom-based but not the online panel. Overall, this study’s findings point to the importance of delaying selective dropout by developing a comprehensive plan of action, for which we offer some guidelines.
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The prevalence and correlates of different forms of racial discrimination among Black Canadians are unknown. This article aims to examine the prevalence of different forms of racial discrimination (daily, major and microaggressions) and their association with self-esteem and satisfaction with life among Black Canadians. A convenience sample of 845 Black Canadians aged 15–40 was recruited. We assessed frequencies of everyday and major racial discrimination, and racial microaggressions against Black Canadians and their association with self-esteem and satisfaction with life, controlling for gender, age, job status, education, and matrimonial status. At least 4 out of 10 participants declared having being victims of everyday racial discrimination at least once per week. Between 46.3% and 64.2% of participants declared having been victims of major racial discrimination in various situations including education, job hiring, job dismissal, health services, housing, bank and loans, and police encounters. Significant gender differences were observed for everyday and major racial discrimination with higher frequencies among female participants. A total of 50.2% to 93.8% of participants declared having been victims of at least one episode of racial microaggressions. Results showed a significant negative association between racial discrimination and satisfaction with life ( b = –0.26, p = .003), and self-esteem ( b = –0.23, p = .009). This study highlights the need to stop colorblind policies in different sectors in Canada, and for a public commitment to combat racism at the municipal, provincial and federal levels. Implications are discussed for prevention, research and public health.
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Different types of violence have been present in Mexico but there have been few studies that have analyzed their relationship with mental health in adolescents, especially in cities with high rates of social violence. It is important to compare different violence types and their relationship with mental health since not all relationships are the same. It appears that social violence has a stronger relationship with mental health, and for this reason it receives more attention, but other types of violence have a stronger relationship and do not receive as much attention. Chihuahua has been one of the most violent states in Mexico, and Juarez has been the most violent city in the world in 2009 and 2010. The purpose of the study is to compare the relationship of different types of violence (social, cyberbullying, partner violence, and child abuse and neglect) with mental health indicators (depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and paranoid thoughts). There were 526 high school students, from the cities of Juarez ( n = 282) and Chihuahua ( n = 244). The mean age was 16.5 ( SD = 1.4) years and 50.6% reported being males. The relationships among the variables were analyzed using Pearson’s correlations and multiple linear regressions. Both cities that have experienced social violence like carjacking, kidnapping, and sexual assault, but they have very small or no relationships with mental health indicators. Other types of violence have stronger correlations. Our findings suggest that interventions should not focus only in preventing and dealing with social violence, but that other types of violence must also be addressed in adolescents.
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Objective:The percentage of victims of cyberbullying among college students seems to increase. However, research on the mechanisms by which cyberbullying victimization (CV) suffer from depression is scarce. This study has purpose to figure out the mediating role of self-esteem (SE) as well as the moderating role of approach coping strategies in the association between CV and depression among Vietnamese college students. Methods: A total of 606 Vietnamese university students completed the Self-Esteem Scale, The Self-Report Coping Scale, The cyberbullying victimization scale, DASS 21. Results:The results indicated that SE partially mediated the relation between CV and depression among Vietnamese college students as well as approach coping strategies moderated the involvement between CV and depression among Vietnamese college students. Conclusions: Our findings can help psychological service providers identify the methods by which cyberbullying sufferers related to depression and provide interventions to reduce depression for cyberbullying victims.
Thesis
Les transformations du monde du travail, dues à la mondialisation, se font principalement au profit de l’efficacité et l’efficience des entreprises. Ces changements, touchant aussi l’organisation du travail, ne sont pas sans effets sur la santé des travailleurs. Cette étude traite principalement de l’effet des horaires atypiques sur la santé mentale des travailleurs. Elle a pour objectifs 1) d’étudier l’association entre l’horaire atypique et les problèmes de santé mentale chez les travailleurs ; 2) d’explorer l’effet du conflit travail-famille, des demandes psychologiques et de l’autorité décisionnelle sur la santé mentale des travailleurs. Cette étude est basée sur un échantillon de 2 162 participants de l’enquête SALVEO, qui est une des plus importantes études réalisées sur la santé mentale et le travail au Canada. Préalablement, des analyses descriptives ont été effectués afin de dresser le portrait de la population à l’étude et de comparer la prévalence des problèmes de santé mentale chez les travailleurs. Afin de tester les hypothèses, des analyses de corrélation bivariée et de régression logistique ont été réalisées. Les résultats nous ont montré que les horaires atypiques n’ont pas d’association directe sur la santé mentale des travailleurs. Cependant, l’horaire atypique est associé à des problèmes de santé mentale. Le conflit travail-famille et les demandes psychologiques tendent à augmenter le risque de développer des problèmes de santé mentale, et inversement pour l’autorité décisionnelle. The changes in the world of work due to globalization are mainly for the benefit of the effectiveness and efficiency of enterprises. These changes, which also affect the work organization, are not without effects on the health of workers. This thesis focuses on the effect of non-standard work schedules on the mental health of workers. Its objectives are 1) to study the association between non-standard schedules and mental health problems among workers; and 2) to explore the effect of work-family conflict, psychological demands, and decision latitude on workers' mental health. This study is based on a sample of 2,162 participants from the SALVEO survey, which is one of the most important mental health studies conducted in Canada. Preliminary, descriptive analyses were conducted in order to draw up a portrait of the study population and compare the prevalence of mental health problems among workers. In order to refute or confirm the hypotheses put forward, bivariate correlation and logistic regression analyses were carried out. All analyses were performed using version 25 of the SPSS software. The results showed us that non-standard schedules have no direct effect on the mental health of workers. However, people working non-standard schedules are at greater risk of developing mental health problems compared to those working standard schedules. Work-family conflict and psychological demands tend to increase the risk of developing mental health problems, while decision-making latitude has the opposite effect.
Chapter
With the advancement of communication tools, the incident of cyberbullying has become a social issue (Edwina, 2014). Anouk et al. (2014) have developed a Cyclic Process Model with the aims to examine the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying behavior pertaining to the process how victims become cyberbullies. It examines the interplay between peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to antisocial media content and cyberbullying behaviour among the adolescents (Anouk et al., 2014). However, this model does not provide sufficient understanding to what extent the reactive aggression and friendship quality affect the transformation of cyberbullying behaviour from the stage of peer victimization. In addition, there are relatively few investigators who have examined the impacts of reactive aggression and friendship quality to cyberbullying behaviour. The purpose of this research would like to investigate the relationships among the peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to social media content, reactive aggression, friendship quality and cyberbullying behaviour. A quantitative research was conducted among the addressed within the age group of 18 to 22 years old that have experienced certain extent of cyberbullying. A total of 520 questionnaires were distributed via judgmental sampling technique. The finding of this research concluded that peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to antisocial media content and reactive aggression are the key determinants of cyberbullying behavior. Two mediation effects were discovered in which exposure to antisocial media content mediates the relationship between anger/frustration and cyberbullying behavior as well as reactive aggression mediates the relationship between peer victimization and cyberbullying behavior. However, the study did not support the role of friendship quality in moderating the relationship between anger/frustration and cyberbullying behavior.
Chapter
With the advancement of communication tools, the incident of cyberbullying has become a social issue (Edwina, 2014). Anouk et al. (2014) have developed a Cyclic Process Model with the aims to examine the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying behavior pertaining to the process how victims become cyberbullies. It examines the interplay between peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to antisocial media content and cyberbullying behaviour among the adolescents (Anouk et al., 2014). However, this model does not provide sufficient understanding to what extent the reactive aggression and friendship quality affect the transformation of cyberbullying behaviour from the stage of peer victimization. In addition, there are relatively few investigators who have examined the impacts of reactive aggression and friendship quality to cyberbullying behaviour. The purpose of this research would like to investigate the relationships among the peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to social media content, reactive aggression, friendship quality and cyberbullying behaviour. A quantitative research was conducted among the addressed within the age group of 18 to 22 years old that have experienced certain extent of cyberbullying. A total of 520 questionnaires were distributed via judgmental sampling technique. The finding of this research concluded that peer victimization, anger/frustration, exposure to antisocial media content and reactive aggression are the key determinants of cyberbullying behavior. Two mediation effects were discovered in which exposure to antisocial media content mediates the relationship between anger/frustration and cyberbullying behavior as well as reactive aggression mediates the relationship between peer victimization and cyberbullying behavior. However, the study did not support the role of friendship quality in moderating the relationship between anger/frustration and cyberbullying behavior.
Chapter
Decades of research have shown the range of negative outcomes associated with bullying and cyberbullying, and it is a topic that has received national attention from media, educators, parents, researchers, and legislators. Today, many youth have experienced some type of involvement in cyberbullying whether through perpetration, being victimized, and/or being a bystander (e.g., assistant, defender, outsider). Although limited, the goal of this chapter is to review existing literature examining youth with disabilities involved in cyberbullying and/or cybervictimization. Preliminary research suggests that as with traditional bullying, youth with disabilities may be at greater risk for involvement in events of cyberbullying and/or cybervictimization, which the authors conclude is a problematic finding. This chapter will provide an overview of both individual and environmental risks for involvement in cyberbullying and cybervictimization among adolescents with disabilities. Furthermore, both psychological and behavioral outcomes for involvement of adolescents with disabilities in cyberbullying and cybervictimization will be reviewed. Lastly, settings for cyberbullying behaviors and suggestions for prevention and intervention will be discussed.
Thesis
This dissertation aimed to investigate the differences between trolling and cyberbullying and then examine trolling behaviors from Self-Determination Theory perspective. With the rise of the Internet use, online trolling and cyberbullying emerged as a new form of online harassment and become widespread. However, differences between trolling and cyberbullying are vague in the literature. Moreover, previous research revealed diverse motivations for trolling without a theoretical framework. Before the main data collection, qualitative interviews were performed with self-confessed tolls (8 female) to obtain deeper understanding about the nature of trolling. After the qualitative interviews, 809 university students were participated in Study 1. To investigate the differences between trolling and cyberbullying, dark-triad, self-esteem, and need for recognition were assessed and only need for recognition scores varied significantly. Moreover, regression analyses showed that relational aggression, rather than overt aggression moderated the associations between trolling/cyberbullying and dark triad/need for recognition. In Study 2, propositions of self-determination theory, basic needs satisfaction and aspirations, were utilized to predict trolling behaviors. Six hundred and ninety-five university students were participated in the study. Mainly, gender moderated the association between relatedness need satisfaction and trolling. In the current dissertation, the results demonstrated that the robust association between dark triad and online antisocial behaviors has been shown once again. In addition, motivations behind trolling behaviors were explored with a theory-based approach. Future research should continue to examine understudied trolling behaviors to increase the knowledge about the construct. Implications and future directions were discussed.
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The Internet is at the heart of our children’s and adolescents’ way of life. Although it opens up many positive perspectives in terms of access to information, knowledge, and communication, it also presents risks and potential negative experiences that can have severe consequences at the individual level. In this paper, we are interested in studying the link between cybervictimization, psychological well-being, and social competence. More specifically, we want to study how children and adolescents’ anxiety, impulsivity, self-esteem, and deviant behaviors may be related to cybervictimization. We collected data from 1019 children and young people in France aged 9–17 in the context of the EU Kids online survey. Sampling was performed building a random-probability nationally representative sample of households with children using the Internet. Participants completed a questionnaire online by computer-assisted self-interviewing (CASI). Structural equation model reveals that (1) cybervictimization is related to lower well-being, such as anxiety and low self-esteem, as well as lower social competence, such as impulsivity and deviant behaviors, and that (2) all dimensions of (non)well-being and social (in)competence are related to each other. Findings are discussed in the light of Agnew general strain theory and previous research findings on the consequences of cybervictimization.
Presentation
Si les transformations du monde du travail, dues à la mondialisation, sont au profit de l’efficacité et l’efficience des entreprises, ces changements, touchant aussi l’organisation du travail, ne sont pas sans effets sur la santé des travailleurs. Cette présentation traite de l’effet des horaires atypiques sur la santé mentale des travailleurs, considérant l’effet médiateur des conflits travail-famille et l’effet modérateur des demandes psychologiques et de la latitude décisionnelle dans cette relation. Cette étude est basée sur un échantillon de 2 136 participants (48,6 % de femmes), avec une moyenne d’âge de 40,81 (ET = 10,92) de l’enquête SALVEO. Cette enquête est la plus importante étude réalisée sur la santé mentale au travail au Québec (63 établissements). Les résultats révèlent que les horaires atypiques impactent négativement la santé mentale des travailleurs. Ils montrent également que les personnes ayant un conflit travail-famille sont plus à risque de développer des problèmes de santé mentale. Ces mêmes résultats indiquent que les demandes psychologues tendent à augmenter le risque de développer des problèmes de santé mentale alors que la latitude décisionnelle agit contrairement en diminuant ce risque. Les conclusions de cette étude montrent l’importance des travaux de recherche futurs et la nécessité de l’implantation de programmes de sensibilisation sur les problématiques liées à la santé mentale des travailleurs, dans une perspective de justice sociale.
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The aims of this study were to examine reciprocal longitudinal associations between exposure to workplace bullying and symptoms of psychological distress and to investigate how self-labeled victimization from bullying explains the effects of bullying on health. Logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying and psychological distress in a representative cohort sample of 1775 Norwegian employees. The time-lag between baseline and follow-up was two years. Exposure to bullying behavior was measured with the revised version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Perceived victimization from bullying was measured by a single self-labeling question. Psychological distress was measured with the 25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist. All variables were measured at both baseline and follow-up. After adjustment for psychological distress at baseline, exposure to bullying behavior [odds ratio (OR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-2.62) was found to predict subsequent psychological distress. This effect of bullying behaviors disappeared when victimization from bullying (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17-5.22) was entered into the regression. Both psychological distress (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.64-3.80) and victimization (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.42-4.81) at baseline were associated with increased risks of being a target of bullying behaviors at follow-up. Psychological distress (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.39-4.52) and bullying behaviors (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.39-4.52) at follow-up were associated with victimization. The mutual relationship between bullying and psychological distress indicates a vicious circle where bullying and distress reinforce their own negative effects. This highlights the importance of early interventions to stop workplace bullying and provide treatment options to employees with psychological distress.
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In this study, a questionnaire (Cyberbullying Questionnaire, CBQ) was developed to assess the prevalence of numerous modalities of cyberbullying (CB) in adolescents. The association of CB with the use of other forms of violence, exposure to violence, acceptance and rejection by peers was also examined. In the study, participants were 1431 adolescents, aged between 12 and17years (726 girls and 682 boys). The adolescents responded to the CBQ, measures of reactive and proactive aggression, exposure to violence, justification of the use of violence, and perceived social support of peers. Sociometric measures were also used to assess the use of direct and relational aggression and the degree of acceptance and rejection by peers. The results revealed excellent psychometric properties for the CBQ. Of the adolescents, 44.1% responded affirmatively to at least one act of CB. Boys used CB to greater extent than girls. Lastly, CB was significantly associated with the use of proactive aggression, justification of violence, exposure to violence, and less perceived social support of friends.
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Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. In the fall of 2008, 20,406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health.
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A 10-question screening scale of psychological distress and a six-question short-form scale embedded within the 10-question scale were developed for the redesigned US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Initial pilot questions were administered in a US national mail survey (N = 1401). A reduced set of questions was subsequently administered in a US national telephone survey (N = 1574). The 10-question and six-question scales, which we refer to as the K10 and K6, were constructed from the reduced set of questions based on Item Response Theory models. The scales were subsequently validated in a two-stage clinical reappraisal survey (N = 1000 telephone screening interviews in the first stage followed by N = 153 face-to-face clinical interviews in the second stage that oversampled first-stage respondents who screened positive for emotional problems) in a local convenience sample. The second-stage sample was administered the screening scales along with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The K6 was subsequently included in the 1997 (N = 36116) and 1998 (N = 32440) US National Health Interview Survey, while the K10 was included in the 1997 (N = 10641) Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Both the K10 and K6 have good precision in the 90th-99th percentile range of the population distribution (standard errors of standardized scores in the range 0.20-0.25) as well as consistent psychometric properties across major sociodemographic subsamples. The scales strongly discriminate between community cases and non-cases of DSM-IV/SCID disorders, with areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.87-0.88 for disorders having Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores of 0-70 and 0.95-0.96 for disorders having GAF scores of 0-50. The brevity, strong psychometric properties, and ability to discriminate DSM-IV cases from non-cases make the K10 and K6 attractive for use in general-purpose health surveys. The scales are already being used in annual government health surveys in the US and Canada as well as in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Routine inclusion of either the K10 or K6 in clinical studies would create an important, and heretofore missing, crosswalk between community and clinical epidemiology.
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As access to technology is increasing in children and adolescents, there are growing concerns over the dangers of cyber bullying. It remains unclear what cyber bullying looks like among young Canadian children and how common these experiences are. In this study, we examine the psychometric properties of a measure of cyber bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. We also examine the frequency of these behaviors and experiences among fifth- and sixth-grade Canadian children at the beginning (n = 714) and end (n = 638) of a school year. Children’s cyber bullying behaviors and victimization experiences were relatively stable across the school year and were highest for sixth-grade students who reported greater access to and use of technology. Cyber bullying behaviors representing joking around were endorsed more frequently than aggressive types of behaviors (i.e., spreading rumours or posting embarrassing pictures online). Implications for school-based prevention efforts are discussed.
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As debate continues over the definition of cyberbullying, an important endeavor is identifying aggression–prevention efforts likely to impact reasons for cyberbullying and the broader phenomenon of cyber aggression. No empirical research has examined whether there are useful prevention-related distinctions between perpetrators of cyberbullying vs. perpetrators of brief cyber aggression. Using an online survey, this study explored perpetrators’ beliefs, emotions, and behaviors related to 72 brief vs. 128 extended episodes of cyber aggression. The most pronounced difference was that more extended-episode perpetrators reported having been hurt by something that happened in cyberspace. One pronounced similarity was that if there had been a news story about the perpetrator doing it, 79% or more of both groups said they would not have felt proud; whereas 63% or more said they would have felt ashamed. Among both groups, 76% or more did not agree with the assertion that there should be no offline consequence for online behavior. The findings support prevention efforts intended to do the following: encourage respect and empathy, facilitate adaptive communication and decision-making skills, promote socially appropriate ways of coping with anger and conflict, and increase knowledge and application of relevant rules and laws.
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This research examines the validity of self-concept interpretations of scores from a new instrument for use with university-aged respondents. The Self Description Questionnaire III (SDQ III) was designed to measure 13 factors of self-concept, and these dimensions were identified with conventional and confirmatory factor analyses. In two different studies, the reliabilities of the 13 factors were high (median alpha = 0.89) and correlations among the factors were low (median r = 0.09). Correlations among a wide variety of validity criteria and the multiple dimensions of self-concept measured by the SDQ III formed a logical and theoretically consistent pattern of relationships. Academic achievement measures in language and mathematics were substantially correlated with self-concepts in the same areas but not with other self-concept factors. Ratings by significant others for all 13 SDQ HI scales were substantially correlated with the measures of corresponding self-concepts, but were not substantially correlated with the measures of noncorresponding self-concepts. These findings offer strong support for the construct validity of both self-concept and interpretations based upon the SDQ III.
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Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age provides the most current and essential information on the nature and prevalence of this epidemic. Examining the latest research, the authors have utilized vital studies involving over 3,500 middle school students, online research projects and the use of social network sites, and data from focus groups of victims and perpetrators and their parents. Written in an accessible style, this volume provides educators, parents, psychologists, and policy-makers with critical prevention techniques and strategies for effectively addressing electronic bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch version of the Kessler-10 (K10) as well as an extended version (EK10) in screening for depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care. Data are from 1607 participants (18 through 65 years, 68.8% female) of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), recruited from 65 general practitioners. Participants completed the K10, extended with five additional questions focusing on core anxiety symptoms, and were evaluated with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI lifetime version 2.1) to assess DSM-IV disorders (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia). Reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of the Dutch K10 was 0.94. Based on Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for the K10 for any depressive and/or anxiety disorder was found to be 0.87. The extended questions on the EK10 significantly improved the detection of anxiety disorders in particular. With a cut-off point of 20, the K10 reached a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.81 for any depressive and/or anxiety disorder. For the EK10, a cut-off point of 20 and/or at least one positive answer on the additional questions provided a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.75 for detecting any depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The Dutch version of the K10 is appropriate for screening depressive disorders in primary care, while the EK10 is preferred in screening for both depressive and anxiety disorders.
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This study examined the association between past experience of victimization (PEV), perceived risk of victimization (PRV), and nonspecific psychological distress (NSPD). Repeated measures-analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on 186 seventh grade middle school students from an urban university-research-affiliated school. Results indicated that gender, PEV, and PRV significantly predicted NSPD. There were no gender differences in either the total number of past experience of victimization or depressive and/or anxious feelings reported. However, the types of victimization experienced as well as perceived risk of victimization appeared to be gender-related in that boys were significantly higher than girls on past experience of physical aggression and property aggression but significantly lower than girls on past experience of emotional aggression and perceived risk of victimization. In gender-specific analyses, PRV mediated the effects of PEV on NSPD for girls but not boys. The reasons for these findings, as well as implications for social policies and future directions, are discussed.
Cyberbullying: Bullying in the Digital Age Self description questionnaire III: the construct validity of multidimensional self‐concept ratings by late adolescents
  • R M Kowalski
  • S Limber
  • S P Limber
  • P W Agatston
  • Ma Malden
  • H W Marsh
  • O Neill
Kowalski, R.M., Limber, S., Limber, S.P., Agatston, P.W., 2012. Cyberbullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. John Wiley & Sons, Malden, MA. Marsh, H.W., O'Neill, R., 1984. Self description questionnaire III: the construct validity of multidimensional self‐concept ratings by late adolescents. J. Educ. Meas. 21, 153–174.