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Íñigo, E. 1999. Los buitres mexicanos. CONABIO. Biodiversitas 22:1-8
... Un microorganismo que pase por los ácidos del tracto digestivo del aura tiene muy pocas probabilidades de sobrevivir y llegar nuevamente al ambiente. [16][17] Al anteponer las creencias empíricas sobre si el aura representa o no un serio peligro para la salud animal y eventualmente la humana y los resultados de nuestras investigaciones, inferimos que esas creencias son erróneas y, que por el contrario, el aura es un animal beneficioso. ...
... A continuación se ofrecen los resultados de algunas evaluaciones biométricas así como otros datos de interés observados por los autores y otros investigadores. [5,[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] . ...
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Con el objetivo de esclarecer el papel epizoodémico del Catharthes aura Lin. (aura) y el fundamento de su resistencia frente a los microorganismos y toxinas que ingiere, se realizó una investigación en 53 ejemplares, que comprendió la infección artificial de 12 animales con B. abortus, M. bovis, S. aureus y S. typhimurium y, en animales no inoculados, bacteriología, parasitología, serología (brucelosis y leptospirosis), electroforesis del suero, hematología y medición del pH de órganos del tracto digestivo. En las auras infectadas por vía oral solamente se recuperó el microorganismo en una en que se aisló M. bovis de un exudado bucal; por vía intramuscular, un animal infectado con S. aureus presentó lesiones en el punto de inoculación y otro con S. typhimurium, alteraciones macroscópicas compatibles con salmonelosis. La bacteriología general fue negativa en el 72,5% de los animales siendo el germen mas frecuentemente aislado E. coli b hemolítica (12,5%). Las pruebas serológicas fueron negativas. En los proventrículos se encontraron parásitos parecidos a los tetrámeros de las aves (7,5%) y en los intestinos ooquistes de Coccidia sp. (19,4%). No se detectaron hemoparásitos en sangre ni ectoparásitos en las plumas. Según la electroforesis del suero, las fracciones alfa 1 y beta no se delimitaron nítidamente y corrieron muy unidas a la albúmina la primera y a la gamma la segunda. El pH del aparato digestivo resultó más ácido a medida que el muestreo se alejó del pico, presentando el mayor grado de acidez el estómago muscular rudimentario (2,9). El aura posee un formidable poder destructivo de los microorganismos que ingiere por lo que no representa un gran peligro epizoodémico, por el contrario, contribuye a eliminar desperdicios que pueden ser focos de enfermedades. Al parecer su resistencia es independiente de la constitución globulínica del suero y la acidez del estómago muscular rudimentario constituye su principal defensa antimicrobiana. In order to clarify the epizoodemic role of Catharthes aura Lin. (turkey vulture) and the basis of its resistance against microorganisms and toxins it ingests, a study was made with 53 subjects. This included the artificial infection of 12 the birds with B. abortus, M. bovis, S. aureus and S. typhimurium, and non-inoculated birds were studied by bacteriology, parasitology, serology (brucellosis and leptospirosis), serum electrophoresis, hematology and pH measuring of the organs in the digestive tract. In the birds only infected orally, the microorganism was recovered in the case of one which M. bovis was isolated from oral fluids; intramuscularly, a bird infected with S. aureus exhibited lesions at the point of inoculation, and another one with S. typhimurium, macroscopic alterations compatible with salmonelosis. The general bacteriology was negative in 72.5% of the birds; the most frequently isolated germ was hemolytic E. coli (12.5%). The serology tests were negative. In the proventricles, parasites were found similar to avian tetrameters (7.5%), and Coccidia sp. oocysts (19.4%) in the intestines. No hemoparasites were detected in the blood, nor ectoparasites in the feathers. According to the serum electrophoresis, the fractions alpha 1 and beta are not distinctly defined: the first runs very close to the albumen, the second one to the gamma. The digestive tract pH was found to be more acidic the further from the beak the testing went. The greatest level of acidity was found in the rudimentary muscular stomach (2.9). The turkey vulture has a formidable destructive capacity of the microorganisms it ingests, so it does not pose a serious epizoodemic threat, but on the contrary, it helps eliminate refuse that could be sources of illness. Apparently, its resistance is independent from the globulinic character of its serum, and the acidity of the rudimentary muscular stomach constitutes its main antimicrobial defense.
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The continual rise of anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems has been associated with an increasing incidence of emerging diseases. The largest amount of data on emerging diseases relates to bacterial and viral pathogens and there is a lack in parasites, especially from wildlife. Monitoring wildlife parasitic diseases should be considered a priority, especially in high biodiversity regions with strong anthropogenic impacts, like Mexico, where the wildlife/livestock/human interface is associated with increased risk of diseases transmission. Mexico belongs to the top ten megadiverse countries and is located between two biogeographic regions. This situation makes Mexico a favourable region for the spillover of animal pathogens to humans causing pandemics, such as the recently caused by influenza virus AH1N1. The current state of knowledge of Mexican wildlife parasites is scarce and focuses mainly in Neotropical fauna. Moreover, the knowledge is also heterogeneous for different parasitic groups, especially concerning their pathological effects and epidemiology. The goal of the current revision is to compile information on Mexican wildlife parasites and detect knowledge gaps in order to stimulate research on pending epidemiological, public health, ecological and pathological areas, and to encourage the creation of more specialized groups from the perspective of the One health concept.
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