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Citrus Peel Wastes as Functional Materials for Cosmeceuticals

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Abstract

The suitability of CPWs, by-products of the juice industry, was investigated as a source for the production of cosmeceuticals. Four kinds of CPWs, CW, CWE, CWER, and CWEA, were examined for their antioxidant potentials in terms of DPPH radical-scavenging ability for anti-wrinkle applications, inhibition of tyrosinase or melanin production for whitening products, and anti-inflammatory effects to treat various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and acne as well as for anti-bacterial activity against acne-inducing pathogens. Of the four extracts, CWER was the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor ( value: ), and CWEA () showed good antioxidative effects. CWE and CWEA samples had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the melanin production. The cytotoxic effects of the four CPWs were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Most extracts exhibited low cytotoxicity at . These results suggest CPWs are attractive candidates for topical applications on the human skin.

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... Soxhlet extraction method (Kim et al. 2008) was applied in hesperidin extraction process: dried fresh and fermented peel powder as tested samples. 2.0 g of each sample was weighed and transferred in extractor and from which hesperidin was extracted by 75% ethanol solution with the material-to-liquid ratio of 1:35 (w/v) under 85 °C for 2.5 h. ...
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Mandarin peel is a by-product from mandarin canning industry containing multiple functional substances with useful properties such as antibacterial and antioxidant activities. To evaluate the effect of bioprocessing, fresh mandarin peels were fermented by Rhizopus stolonifer JP13 for 4 days and then the peels’ antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were tested. The flavonoiuds, hesperidin and VC contents in dry peels were also determined. The data showed that the fermented mandarin peels had promoted antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, and Candida albicans. An increased scavenging effect on free radicals, with 73.0% of·OH scavenging activities were obtained when compared with fresh mandarin peels. We also observed a significant increase on content of flavonoid (334%) and hesperindin (253.7%), a reduced scavenging effect on O2⁻ free radicals (13.94%), and a decrease content of VC (13.7%). The presaging of mandarin peels by Rhizopus stolonifer JP13 strain will promote the functional activities of mandarin peels and accelerate the process of manufacture Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium.
... The disposal of byproducts from C. unshiu, with annual yields of more than 60,000 tons from juice factories, creates a major problem on Jeju Island in the Korea Strait between Japan and South Korea. Handling, transportation, and disposal of this waste are costly, and the value of recycled materials is often sufficient to cover operating costs (2,3). However, citrus byproducts potentially present a rich source of natural flavonoids, owing to the large amount of peels produced that contain high concentrations of narirutin, naringenin, hesperidin, and nobiletin (4)(5)(6). ...
Article
Citrus unshiu is an economically important fruit on Jeju Island, Korea, but byproducts are a major source of agricultural waste. The aim of this study is to examine changes in phytochemical, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of four C. unshiu byproducts: citrus flesh byproduct (CFB), fermented citrus flesh byproduct (FCFB), citrus peel byproduct (CPB), and fermented citrus peel byproduct (FCPB). Fermented citrus byproducts (FCFB and FCPB) exhibited greater inhibition effect on radical scavenging abilities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhtdrazyl, 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid)-diammonium salt, and superoxide anion compared with those of CFB and CPB. Total polyphenol contents of FCFB and FCPB were significantly increased compared to those of CFB and CPB. Significant bioconversion of the flavonoid glucosides into corresponding bioactive aglycones during citrus byproduct fermentation was observed. Fermented citrus byproducts exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli suggesting that FCFB and FCPB are potent antioxidant and antibacterial sources due to the remarkable contents of bioactive compounds in them.
... Citrus processing generates high quantity of agricultural waste, and most of it is in the form of press-cakes, that are pricy to dispose due to the costs for handling and transport. In order to give value to this waste, an investigation was carried out into the anti-melanogenic effects of ethanol extracts of the press cakes of Citrus unshiu, which were mainly grown in Jeju Island in Korea and the fruit peel was extensively used in the traditional medicine as digestive or to treat severe and atopic dermatitis [10,11]. ...
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In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.
... However, the citrus-press cakes are one of the major problem of agricultural waste, with annual yields of more than 60 000 tonnes in Jeju Island alone from juice factories. This waste involves substantial costs for handling and transport to disposal location and the prices of recycled materials are often not high enough to cover operating costs [14,15] . Because of the London Dumping Convention, it will also become impossible to dump the waste into the ocean. ...
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To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.
... tyrosinase Mushroom-derived tyrosinase was used as the source of the enzyme for the entire study. Tyrosinase activity was determined as described previously with minor modifications 9 . Briefl y, each sample was assayed for tyrosinase inhibition by measuring its effect on tyrosinase activity using a 96-well reader Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc, Winooski, VT . ...
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Melanogenesis is a well-known physiological response of human skin that may occur because of exposure to ultraviolet light, for genetic reasons, or due to other causes. In our efforts to find new skin lightening agents, palmitoleic acid was investigated for its ability to inhibit melanogenesis. In this study, palmitoleic acid's effect on melanin formation was assessed. Results indicated that palmitoleic acid was shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. To clarify the target of palmitoleic acid action in melanogenesis, we performed Western blotting for tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which are key melanogenic enzymes. Palmitoleic acid inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. However, it did not inhibit TRP-1 expression. In order to assess its usefulness in future cosmetic product applications, the cytotoxic effects of the palmitoleic acid were also determined by colourimetric MTT assays using human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Palmitoleic acid exhibited no cytotoxicity at 500 muM in a human cell line. Therefore, this study suggests that palmitoleic acid is a candidate anti-melanogenic agent, and it might be effective in hyperpigmentation disorders.
... These plant-material wastes may contain high levels of biological compounds that can adversely affect the environment. However, these biological compounds may also show many beneficial activities in humans, including antioxidant, antityrosinase, and antiinflammatory activities [1,2]. A. koreanum is an economically important fruit of Jeju Island. ...
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... A variety of herbs and plants have traditionally been used in oriental folk medicine to treat skin diseases (9,10). The extracts of many plants exhibit significant biological activities, including anti-inflammatory activities (11)(12)(13). Four Oenothera species, O. biennis, O. laciniata, O. lamarckiana, and O. odorata, are found in Korea. ...
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Because tyrosinase catalyzes melanin synthesis, tyrosinase inhibitors are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health, which means antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. We examined 25 traditional Chinese herbal medicines that might be useful for skin-whitening and skin health. Extracts (100microg/mL) were tested for cytotoxicity on human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn); 12 exhibited low cytotoxicity. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging activities were further assessed. Phenolic contents were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Four herbs, Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, and Morus alba, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase (IC(50) values 24.9, 95.6, 83.9, and 78.3microg/mL, respectively). Melanin inhibition was not dose-dependent. Sophora japonica (IC(50): 14.46microg/mL, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 1.95microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) and Spatholobus suberectus (IC(50): 10.51microg/mL, DPPH; 4.36microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) showed good antioxidative activities and high phenolic contents (255 and 189mg of gallic acid/g extract, respectively). Among active anti-tyrosinase extracts, Sophora japonica and Spatholobus suberectus were especially potent in HEMn cells in terms of free radical scavenging effects and high phenolic contents, making them the strongest candidates for cosmetic application found in the current study.
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An overview of agents causing hypopigmentation in human skin is presented. The review is organized to put forward groups of biological and chemical agents. Their mechanisms of action cover (i) tyrosinase inhibition, maturation and enhancement of its degradation; (ii) Mitf inhibition; (iii) downregulation of MC1R activity; (iv) interference with melanosome maturation and transfer; (v) melanocyte loss, desquamation and chemical peeling. Tyrosinase inhibition is the most common approach to achieve skin hypopigmentation as this enzyme catalyses the rate-limiting step of pigmentation. Despite the large number of tyrosinase inhibitors in vitro, only a few are able to induce effects in clinical trials. The gap between in-vitro and in-vivo studies suggests that innovative strategies are needed for validating their efficacy and safety. Successful treatments need the combination of two or more agents acting on different mechanisms to achieve a synergistic effect. In addition to tyrosinase inhibition, other parameters related to cytotoxicity, solubility, cutaneous absorption, penetration and stability of the agents should be considered. The screening test system is also very important as keratinocytes play an active role in modulating melanogenesis within melanocytes. Mammalian skin or at least keratinocytes/melanocytes co-cultures should be preferred rather than pure melanocyte cultures or soluble tyrosinase.
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To develop effective skin-lightening agents, we tested medicinal herbal extracts for their melanogenic-inhibitory activities. We isolated a sesquiterpenoid compound from the extract of Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba using the bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified it as selina-4(14),7(11)-dien-8-one (compound 1) with spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 dramatically reduced melanin synthesis of melan-a cells without any apparent cytotoxicity. Compound 1 did not inhibit cell-free tyrosinase activity but decreased tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. These effects were attributed to reduced expression of melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2). These results suggest that compound 1 may be an effective skin-lightening agent that regulates expression of melanogenic enzymes.
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Post-treatment with nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone), which was purified from the fruit peel of Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, at concentration 6-50 microM significantly suppressed NF-kappaB transcriptional activation, NO and PGE(2) production, and iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Nobiletin inhibited neither LPS-induced phosphorylation/degradation of inhibitory kappaB-alpha nor LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. However, it interrupted the DNA-binding activity of activated NF-kappaB. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also known to regulate the activation of NF-kappaB, we tested the effect of nobiletin on LPS-induced ROS generation. Nobiletin significantly inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that nobiletin may exert an anti-inflammatory effect through the interruption of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity and the suppression of ROS generation.
In vitro Screening of Jeju Medicinal Plants for Cosmeceutical Materials
  • Ss Kim
  • Cg Hyun
  • J Lee
  • Jh Lim
  • Jy Kim
  • D Park
  • Ss Kim
  • Cg Hyun
  • J Lee
  • Jh Lim
  • Jy Kim
  • D Park
Hypopigmenting agents: an updated review on biological, chemical and clinical aspects
  • F Solano
  • S Briganti
  • M Picardo
  • G Ghanem