Article

Comparison of Hepatic Detoxification activity and reducing Serum Alcohol concentration of Hovenia dulsis $T_{HUNB}$ and Alnus japonica Steud.

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Abstract

It was found that the level of alcohol concentration in both mouse and human sera can be significantly decreased up to 42% by oral administration of the mixtures of the extracts of Hovenia dulcis THUNB and Alnus japonica Steud. A single treatment of extract from Hovenia dulcis reduced the serum alcohol concentration to 32%, compared to 13% in treating the extract of Alnus japonica. Similar patterns were observed in enhancing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutathion-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver. The inhibition of cathepsin activity was also greatly reduced by administrating the mixture of both extracts : however, the extract of Alnus japonica did not affect the acitivity of cathepsin. It was concluded that the mixture of both extracts had synergic effect on reducing serum alcohol concentration and improving the detoxification process due to alcohol administration in the liver.

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... The peduncles contain high levels of sugar, while leaves of H. dulcis contain several dammarane-types of sweetness inhibitors [3]. In East Asia, H. dulcis has long been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and detoxification after alcoholic poisoning [4]. In ancient Chinese medicine, its fruit and peduncle were used as a febrifuge and administered to treat parasitic infections [5]. ...
... Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, free radical scavenging and enhancement of ethanol catabolism have been reported. cohol concentration in the blood [4,10,11]. In addition, several patent applications have been filed based on different pharmaceutical applications of H. dulcis, in particular those related to treatment of acute alcohol poisoning [12][13][14][15]. ...
... inhibition of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and benzo[a]pyrene-induced mutagenicity [70] anticancer chloroform fraction from MeOH extract HepG2 and HT29 cells inhibition of growing cells [70] concentrations in blood [4,6,[9][10][11][16][17][18]. In a detailed study, the effect of a hot water extract from H. dulcis on alcohol concentration in mice blood has been evaluated [4]. ...
Article
Hovenia dulcis Thunb., known as Japanese raisin tree, is commonly found in East Asia. It has a long history as a food supplement and traditional medicine in Japan, China and Korea, but is little known and used in Western countries so far. This minireview summarizes traditional uses and current knowledge on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of H. duclcis and covers, in particular, literature from specialized Asian journals that are not readily accessible. Extracts from H. dulcis accelerate detoxification of ethanol, and possess hepatoprotective, antioxidative, antimicrobial and antidiabetic properties. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, free radical scavenging and enhancement of ethanol catabolism have been reported.
... Alcohol is closely related to human life, and drinking alcohol causes many negative effects on our society and economic growth [1]. Heavy alcohol drinking is associated with many social problems and consequently many studies have focused on addressing alcoholism and relieving hangover [16]. ...
... ADH/ALDH activities ADH activity was measured by using an ethanol quantification assay kit (Megazyme, Ireland) following manufacturer's instructions. Briefly, distilled water 1 mL, buffer (pH 9.0) plus sodium azide (0.02% w/v) 0.1 mL, NAD + solution 0.1 mL, and 20% ethanol 10 µL were mixed, and then GB and SGB extracts (1,2,4,8,16 µL/mL of 10 Brix samples) were added separately. Solutions were incubated for 2 min at room temperature, and absorbance (A1) was measured at 340 nm. ...
Article
The present study was performed to evaluate the hangover relieving effect of germinated buckwheat (GB) and Sanghwang mushroom mycelium cultured in GB (SGB). Both GB and SGB showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and significantly increased (p < 0.001) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities; up to 140% increase at concentrations of 16 µL/mL. Locomotor activity test results from alcohol-SGB and alcohol-GB groups showed improved motor activities over that of the alcohol-water group at 90 min post-administration. Both alcohol-GB and alcohol-SGB groups had significantly reduced (p < 0.001) alcohol (40.02 ± 33.38 µg/mL, 66.01 ± 22.04 µg/mL, respectively) and aldehyde (5.72 ± 0.47 µg/mL, 6.72 ± 1.70 µg/mL, respectively) concentrations in blood compared to those in the alcohol-water group (199.75 ± 33.83 µg/mL, 50.43 ± 13.88 µg/mL, respectively) at 90 min post-administration. Based on cDNA microarray analysis, expressions of ALDH genes ALDH1a7 and ALDH18a1 and cytochrome P450 (CY450) gene CYP4a30b were upregulated in the alcohol-GB and alcohol-SGB groups compared to levels in the control group. Overall, the results suggest that both GB and SGB have hangover relieving effects by reducing blood acetaldehyde levels. The molecular mechanisms may involve ALDH activation and upregulated expression of alcohol metabolism-related genes such as ALDH and CYP450.
... The roots, seeds, bark, leaves and peduncles of H. dulcis are used in traditional Japanese, Chinese and Korean medicine to quench thirst, strengthen the stomach, alleviate alcoholic intoxication, promote digestion and provide antifebrile therapy. [18] According to recent studies, extracts of the seeds and fruits of H. dulcis have an effect on ethanol-induced muscle relaxation, attenuate acute liver toxicity and show antilipid peroxidation and antitumour activity. [19,20] A previous study shows that H. dulcis extract has inhibitory effects on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice, [21] antiinflammatory actions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses [22] ; however, its effect on AD has not been investigated. ...
... immunostimulatory activity. [18][19][20] It is reported that H. dulcis extract inhibits the allergy-mediated activity of IgE-triggered mast cells and reduces passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. [21] An allergic reaction is a hypersensitivity disorder mediated via immunological mechanisms; thus, an allergic response can lead to tissue damage, AD, eczema, anaphylactic shock and asthma. ...
Article
Objectives: Here, we hypothesized that Hovenia dulcis branch extract (HDB) and its active constituents ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions by modulating the T helper Th1/Th2 balance in NC/Nga mice and TNF-α- and IFN-γ-induced production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) in HaCaT cells. Methods: HaCaT cells were stimulated by TNF-α/IFN-γ in the presence of HDB and its constituents. TARC and MDC were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. For the in-vivo study, oral feeding of HDB was performed for 5 weeks with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) treatment every other day. The efficacy of HDB on parameters of DNCB-induced AD was evaluated morphologically, physiologically and immunologically. Key findings: In-vitro studies showed that HDB and its constituents suppressed TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced production of TARC and MDC in HaCaT cells by inhibiting MAPK signalling. In-vivo studies showed that HDB regulated immunoglobulin (Ig) E and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) levels in serum and the expression of mRNA for Th1- and Th2-related mediators in skin lesions. Histopathological analyses revealed reduced epidermal thickness and reduced infiltration of skin lesions by inflammatory cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that HDB inhibits AD-like skin diseases by regulating Th1 and Th2 responses in NC/Nga mice and in HaCaT cells.
... Recently, social diversification and economic growth have caused people to drink alcoholic beverages more often than in the past, which may increase the incidence of alcoholism and hangovers (1). Worldwide, people over 15 years of age consumed 6.1 liters of alcohol on average in 2013 (WHO, 2014). ...
Article
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The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (P<0.05). At 3 h after alcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations.
... The rats were acclimatized for the first week. Commercial product Dawn808 (Glami co., Gangwon, Korea) [10] was used as a positive control [11]. The animals were randomly divided into the following five groups: Normal, Control (ethanol 4 g/kg, oral administration), L-CA (ethanol 4 g/kg + CA 103 mg/kg, oral administration), H-CA (ethanol 4 g/kg + CA 309 mg/kg, oral administration), PC (Positive control, ethanol 4 g/kg + Dawn808 12 ml/kg, oral administration). ...
Article
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Abstract Excessive alcohol consumption induces acute intoxication and various hepatic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of the CureZyme-ACE (CA), Acetobacter Pasteurianus (AP)-derived product, in acute intoxication rats. The ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of serum were lower in rats treated with CA than those who only treated ethanol. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase also recovered faster in the CA group than only-ethanol group. The transaminase levels (AST, ALT) in the CA group were significantly lower than only-ethanol group. In addition, Hepatic histological analyses and stomach wall were demonstrated that the CA-treated group recovered faster than only-ethanol group. With regard to most characteristics, we found that CA had dose-dependent effects. At high concentrations of CA, there were no differences in the tested parameters compared to those of normal rats. These findings indicate that CA reduces the serum alcohol concentration and some of the hepatic damage caused by alcohol intoxication.
... This species has a long history as a food supplement and the main edible parts are the peduncles (Hyun et al. 2010). In East Asia, H. dulcis has been used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and detoxification after alcoholic poisoning (An et al. 1999;Lim et al. 2016). Recent pharmaceutical studies have shown that the extracts of the fruits, seeds, and branches of H. dulcis attenuate acute liver toxicity and atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions and exert antitumor, anti-lipid peroxidation, antisteatotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiallergic activities (Lim et al. 2015;2016;Choi et al. 2017;Yang et al. 2019). ...
Article
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The first complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Hovenia dulcis was reported in this study. The H. dulcis cp genome was 161,636 bp long with two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,574 bp, the large single-copy (LSC) region of 89,574 bp, and the small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,914 bp. The cp genome of this species contained 113 genes, including 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 transfer RNA genes. The overall GC content was 36.6%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete cp genomes within the Rhamnaceae family suggests that H. dulcis is closer to the genus of Ziziphus.
... Plants used for medicinal purposes are generally designated as medici-nal plants (MPs). MPs are of special importance, taking into account their role in health protection as preventive and supportive therapy for numerous diseases and disorders (Hase et al. 1997;An et al. 1999;Yoon et al. 2001;Gadelha et al. 2005;Tian et al. 2005). Our selected MP extracts (MPEs), Lycium chinese Mill, Lycium fruit, Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau, and Hovenia dulcis, are known for containing high amounts of phenolic compounds, such as hydroxylated cinnamic acids, including, caffeic acid (3, 4-dihydroxycinnamic acid), chlorogenic acid (its quinic acid ester), and caftaric acid (its tartaric acid ester), and flavonols, such as quercetin and rutin (Funayama et al. 1980;Li et al. 1990;Kim et al. 1998;Yoshikawa et al. 1998;Cho et al. 2000). ...
Article
This study was to develop a gelatin jelly containing 0.5% medicinal plant extracts (MPEs). We investigated the effects of the MPEs on the antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of gelatin jelly. The antioxidant activity of the Lycium chinense Mill fruit and Hovenia dulcis fruit extracts were significantly higher than those of other extracts (P < 0.05). The sweetness, lightness and hue angle of gelatin jellies containing MPEs were lower than those of the control jelly, whereas the pH, redness and yellowness were higher than those of the control (P < 0.05). Among the gelatin jellies, the gelatin jelly with Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau had the highest values of breaking force, deformation and gel strength as well as the color and taste scores of sensory characteristics. Taken together, MPEs would appear to have a positive effect on the jelly quality in terms of most of the physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation.Practical ApplicationMedicinal plant extracts have a high phenolics content and antioxidant activities. These extracts might have potential functionality and application in manufacturing processed gelatin jellies.
... Recently, societal diversication and economic growth have caused people to drink more than in the past, increasing the incidences of alcoholism and hangovers. 1 Worldwide, persons more than 15 years of age consumed 6.13 liters of alcohol on average in 2005 (WHO, 2011). Drinking cost ranged between 1.3% and 3.3% of GDP in high-income countries and two middle-income countries in 2007. 2 Chronic, excessive alcohol consumption can cause many diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, neuropsychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, cirrhosis of the liver, unintentional injuries, and others. ...
Article
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Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover.
... 헛개나무의 씨와 열매에는 (+)-ampelopsin, laricetrin, myricetin, (+)-gallocatechin 등의 flavonoid류, hovenitin I, II, III 등의 flavonol류, frangulanine 등 alkaloid류 [11][12] , hovenidulciosides A1, A2, B1, B2 등 [13][14] 의 triterpene glycoside류 성분이 보고되어 있으며 약리작용으 로는 항산화 [15][16][17][18][19] , 아질산염 소거 19) , 알코올 분해 6,[19][20] , 항암 [21][22] , 항돌연변이 22) , 지질개선 22) , 항당뇨 15,23) , 간보호 6,[11][12]14,[24][25][26][27][28][29] 등이 보고되어 있다. ...
Article
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Hovenia dulcis extract on acute and chronic liver injuries induced by alcohol and in mice and rats. Methods : In acute alcohol-induced liver injury, mice were administered Hovenia dulcis extracts (60 and 200 mg/kg) orally before and after alcohol administration. In chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, mice were administered alcohol containing liquid diet for 4 weeks. The mice were administered H. dulcis extracts (60 and 200 mg/kg) mixed with the liquid diet. In acute -induced liver injury, rats received a single dose of (2 mL/kg in olive oil, intraperitoneally). Rats were administered H. dulcis extracts (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) before and after administrations. After the ends of the administrations, the serum levels of AST and ALT were measured using chemical analyzer, and -GTP levels were measured using spectrophotometer. Results : In acute alcohol-induced liver injury, H. dulcis extracts treated group showed significant reduction in ALT levels compared to those of control group. In chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, it inhibited weight-loss compared to normal group and showed significant reduction in AST, ALT and -GTP levels compared to control group. In acute -induced liver injury, it also showed significant reduction in AST, ALT levels compared to control group. Conclusions : The results show that H. dulcis extract has hepatoprotective effect in acute and chronic alcohol-induced liver injury and acute -induced liver injury. These findings suggest that H. dulcis could be a potent hepatoprotective agent.
... , 赤陽皮 추출물이 헛개나무 추출물 혼합으로 알코올 분해능과 간의 해독 증진 및 숙취 해소 작용이 있다고 보고하 고 있다 10) . 그리고 梅實 에탄올 추출물이 알코올 투여로 상승 된 GSH-Px, ALT, AST를 감소시켜 알코올에 의한 지방간 또는 간세포 손상에 대해 회복작용을 보였고 11) , 甘草 물 추출 물이 알코올 섭취 억제효과 및 금단증상 억제효과를 나타내었 다는 보고가 있다 12) . ...
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Objectives : In this study, we evaluated the effect of Chungganhaeju-hwan(CGHJH) on hydrogen peroxide()-induced and ethanol(EtOH)-induced neuronal damage in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Methods:We carried out the anti-oxidant effects of CGHJH against hydrogen peroxide()-induced toxicity in HT22 and PC12 cells using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide. Then, to investigate the protective effect on CGHJH against EtOH-induced memory impairment and hippocampal cell damage in male ICR mice, we performed novel object recognition test(NORT), and analysed the brain tissues after immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Results:CGHJH showed protective effect from -induced cell toxicity at doses of /mL in both HT22 and PC12 cells. CGHJH had also recovery effect from EtOH-induced memory impairment in ICR mice from NORT and it protected hippocampal cells against EtOH toxicity in the result of cresyl violet and NeuN immunoreactivity. Conclusion : These results demonstrate that CGHJH has protective effect in neuronal cells against and EtOH toxicities and this effect could be a main role of recovery effect on EtOH-induced memory loss.
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Alcohol metabolizing activity of fermented sea tangle juice (FSYJ) using Lactobacillilus brevis BJ20 were evaluated by measuring relative alcohol dehydrogenease (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities. According to the results of MTI assay. the fermented sea tangle juice by Lactobacillilus brevis BJ20 appeared safe in the cytotocxity. The relative ADH activity of FSTJ showed 124% at 10 mg/mL, which increased with increasing concentration. The relative ALDH activity showed, however, insignificant difference (P>0.05) between concentrations of FSTJ up to 50 mg/mL. These results suggested that fermented sea tangle juice by L. brevis BJ20 could be used as a potential material for metabolizing alcohol.
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This study was conducted to examine effects of plant growth regulators and light resources on the formation of multiple shoot and plant regeneration of Hovenia dulcis var. koreana Nakai. Stem and shoot tip were cultured on MS medium or WPM supplemented with various plant growth regulators. At the single treatment, the highest shoot formation was obtained when stem explants were cultured on WPM supplemented with kinetin . MS medium containing NAA 0.1 and TDZ gave the best results for shoot induction rate and shoot growth in combination treatments. Of the BAP and kinetin tested, BAP on WPM was found to be more effective for shoot growth from shoot tip. Under white fluorescent light treatment, shoot growth was much higher than blue, red LED treatments. Root induction from in vitro growth of plantlet was the best on WPM supplemented with IBA. The results suggest that selection of plant growth regulators and light resources could be important factor to achieve an efficient in vitro growth.
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This study was performed to observe the effect of hot-water extracts from garlic and 13 kinds of medicinal plants composites (GMP) on hyperlipidemia and hepatoprotective activity in rats administered with alcohol. Male Sprague-Dawly rats were fed an AIN-93 diet (Normal), a normal diet plus ethanol (control, 10 ml of 40% ethanoljkgjday), a control diet plus 0.5% garlic and 1.0% medicinal plants composites extracts (GMP-I), and a control diet plus 1.0% garlic and medicinal plants composites extracts (GMP-II) for 7 days. Blood glucose was higher than the control, but it was markedly decreased in the GMP-II group. Elevation total lipids, cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids in serum were markedly decreased in rats fed with GMP-I. GMP-II also inhibited the increase of lipid content in serum. Activities of GOT, GPT, -GTP and ALP in serum elevated by alcohol were significantly inhibited in the GMP group. TBARS content of serum was significantly decreased in GMP groups administered with garlic and medicinal plant extracts. Extracts of garlic and medicinal plants play an important role in recovering liver function in rats from alcohol induced damage.
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Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae) is a hardy tree native to Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, and is also grown in parts of Asia and has been used in traditional medicine to treat liver toxicity, stomach disorders, and inflammation. This study investigated the anti-allergy potential of an extract of the branches of H. dulcis (HDB) using antigen-stimulated mast cell-like cell line rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3, and a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mouse model. Degranulation assay, reverse transcription PCR, Enzyme-lined immunosorbent assays, western blot analyses, and PCA were performed to measure allergic responses and proinflammatory mediators in antigen-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells and PCA mouse model. In antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells, HDB inhibited secretion of β-hexosaminidase (indicating inhibition of degranulation) and histamine release; decreased expression and production of the inflammatory mediators, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2, and cytokines interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and suppressed activation of nuclear factor κB, a transcription factor involved in the response to cytokines. HDB attenuated phosphorylation of the mast cell downstream effectors Lyn, Syk, phospholipase Cγ, protein kinase C μ, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38. In IgE-sensitized mice, HDB inhibited mast cell-dependent PCA. Furthermore, HDB contained pinosylvin and possessed significant anti-allergic activities. These results suggest that HDB would be of value in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases.
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This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves extract on liver damage in benzo(α)pyrene (B(α)P)-treated mice. Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves methanol extract was intraperitoneally injected once daily for 5 successive days, followed by treatment with B(α)p. The elevated activities of serum aminotransferase and hepatic cytochrome P450 by B(α)p were decreased by pretreatment with Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves extract. Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves extract also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde content and depletion of glutathione content induced by B(α)P. In addition, the increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase after B(α)P-treatment were decreased. On the other hand, glutathione S-transferase activity was increased by pretreatment with Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves extract. These results suggest that Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves extract have a protective effect on liver damage by B(α)P through the mechanisms of decreasing lipid peroxide and activities of free radical generating enzymes.
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The effect of Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves on the mutagenicity in salmonella assay and inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells were studied. On antimutagenicity as evaluated by Ames test, the extract and fractions of Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves had no effect on the mutagenicity by themselves. However, methanol extract and fractions from Hovenia dulcis Thumb showed strong inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by N-methyl-N#-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). Among the solvent fractions of methanol extract, the hexane, chloroform and butanol fraction exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against MNNG and B(a)P induced mutagenesis than water fraction. For anticancer effects, Hovenia dulcis Thumb loaves extract and fractions against cancer cell lines including HepG2 and HT29 were investigated. The methanol extract, the hexane fraction and the chloroform fraction of Hovenia dulcis Thumb leaves inhibited growth of cancer cells but they had no effect on the cytotoxicity of normal human liver cells under the same conditions.
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An efficient plant regeneration protocol for shoot organogenesis from Hovenia dulcis callus cultures was established. Induction of organogenic callus was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.65μM kinetin and 4.5μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Further differentiation of organogenic callus into primordia, shoot-like structures, and plantlets was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 0.23μM gibberellic acid (GA3) and 0.46μM kinetin. Numerous abnormal shoots developed upon transfer of callus to MS medium containing cytokinins, and these failed to grow further into whole plantlets. However, transfer of ‘abnormal’ shoots to a fresh MS medium lacking cytokinins resulted in growth of normal shoots. Elongated shoots subsequently were rooted in basal MS medium, and whole plantlets were established in a soil mix. Analysis of regenerated plants using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) confirmed the genetic stability of these regenerant plantlets.
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Hovenia dulcis Thunb, a food supplement and traditional medicine used in East Asia, has been demonstrated to exhibit hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, neuroprotective, and anti-oxidant activities. To evaluate the anti-oxidant activities of H.dulcis in STZ-induced diabetic mice, the different extracting solvents were employed to compare the antioxidant activity by the classical Fenton’s reagent, the concentrations of SOD, MDA, and iNOS in the serum were determined. The results showed that the ethanol (70%) exhibited the most effective antioxidant activity and dose-dependently upregulation of SOD and downregulation of MDA and iNOS significantly in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These indicated that H.dulcis displayed remarkable anti-diabetic activity.
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A method based on HPLC and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer was developed to control the quality of Semen Hoveniae. Firstly, the chromatographic fingerprint was established in combination with the chemometrics methods such as similarity analysis, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis to discover the qualitative markers. Then, an HPLC-MS method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in Semen Hoveniae. Moreover, the content of dihydromyricetin and dihydroquercetin in Semen Hoveniae were determined by HPLC. As a result, 9 common peaks were assigned in the fingerprints and the similarity of the 13 batch samples varied from 0.425 to 0.993, indicating an obviously different quality. Dihydromyricetin and dihydroquercetin were the main qualitative markers to differ the quality of Semen Hoveniae. Meanwhile, a total of 21 chemical compounds were characterized by HPLC-MS and six of them were identified by comparing with information of reference standards. Finally, the content of dihydromyricetin and dihydroquercetin in 13 batch samples varied from 0.824 mg·g-1 to 7.499 mg·g-1 and from 0.05941 mg·g-1 to 4.258 mg·g-1 was determined, respectively. In conclusion, the methods developed here will provide sufficient qualitative and quantitative information for the quality control of Semen Hoveniae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
This study investigates the effects of a hangover beverage (MIX) that contains minerals (highly-salty mineral water, HSMW) and several medicinal plant extracts, on antioxidant and alcohol-metabolizing enzymes in alcohol administered Sprague-Dawley rats. HSMW is pumped from below the sedimentary rock layer of Dadaepo, Busan, South Korea, which is 1,050 m below the land surface; it tastes salty, like sea water. In terms of medicinal plant extracts, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Rubus coreanus and Cornus officinalis were measured as being significantly higher than those in Curcuma longa. The results suggest that treatment with MIX significantly increases superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and DPPH radical scavenging activity. In the 10% HSMW-, for MIX- and company product (CP)-treated groups, the concentration of blood alcohol was significantly reduced 1~5 hr after alcohol loading, compared to that in the control group. In hepatic alcohol-metabolizing enzyme activities, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was found to be higher in the MIX- and CP-treated groups than in controls, whereas acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was significantly higher in the CP-treated groups than other groups. This study concludes, therefore, that MIX (HSMW) minerals, like as Zn, Ca, Mg, Mn, and others stimulate alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, while the antioxidants of plant extracts prevent the damage otherwise incurred by alcohol toxicity. These results suggest that the hangover beverage (MIX) alleviates alcohol hangover symptoms by stimulating activities related to hepatic alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant effects.
Article
We evaluated the in vitro cytoprotective effects of Hoveniae Semen cum Fructus (HSCF) extracts against oxidative stress-mediated cell damage using HepG2 cells. Cytotoxic effects of HSCF extracts were observed in HepG2 cells, and the 50% inhibitory concentration was determined. Cytoprotective effects of sublethal doses of HSCF extracts were evaluated using a tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced cellular damage model. We also assessed whether NFE2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was transactivated by HSCF extracts. The antioxidant capacity of HSCF extracts was evaluated with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and the expression of the antioxidant genes glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1), and NAD (P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1). HSCF extracts up to 1,000 μg/mL showed no cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells. Indeed, 300 and 1,000 μg/mL of HSCF extracts significantly protected HepG2 cells from oxidative stress-mediated cell death by tBHP. As a molecular mechanism, HSCF extracts at 1,000 μg/mL significantly increased Nrf2 transactivation and induced expression of its target genes (GCLC, HO1, NQO1). Furthermore, 1,000 μg/mL of HSCF extracts enhanced SOD activity. Although treatment with 300 and 1,000 μg/mL of HSCF extracts tended to slightly increase CAT activity, the increases were not statistically significant. These findings provide direct evident that HSCF extracts have favorable hepatoprotective effects against oxidative stress through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene induction.
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Excessive alcohol consumption is the cause of several diseases and thus is of a major concern for society. Worldwide alcohol consumption has increased by many folds over the past decades. This urgently calls for intervention and relapse counteract measures. Modern pharmacological solutions induce complete alcohol self-restraint and prevent relapse, but they have many side effects. Natural products are most promising as they cause fewer adverse effects. Here we discuss in detail the medicinal plants used in various traditional/folklore medicine systems for targeting alcohol abuse. We also comprehensively describe preclinical and clinical studies done on some of these plants along with the possible mechanisms of action.
Article
Objective To investigate the enhancement of alcohol metabolism by two ginseng berry (GB) extracts and their two types of mixed herbal beverages through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Two GB extract solutions and their two herbal beverages were evaluated as enhancers of alcohol metabolism in normal human embryonic liver cells (CL-48 cell line) through assays of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Cytotoxicity was also assessed in the same cell line using an MTT assay. Effects on alcohol metabolism were also observed in vivo through measurement of serum alcohol, acetaldehyde, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in alcohol treated rats. Blood samples were serially collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hrs after a single ethanol (EtOH) treatment. A single treatment with the test samples was administered orally 30 minutes after EtOH treatment. Results GB extract solutions effectively elevated the ADH and ALDH activity observed in vitro, while no treatment- related cytotoxic effects were found with test samples t concentrations up to 100 mg/mL. Significantly lower (p<0.01 or p<0.05) serum alcohol and acetaldehyde content was observed in samples from treated rats than in those from control rats (EtOH only) 1 or 2 hrs after EtOH treatment. In addition, noticeable decreases were observed in serum AST and ALT levels in treated samples 8 hrs after EtOH administration. HM40, an herbal mixture containing GB extract (40 mg/75 mL of ginsenoside Re), showed betters enhancement of alcohol metabolism through ADH/ALDH activation, as well as related hepatoprotective effects. Results GB extracts effectively enhanced alcohol metabolism without cytotoxicity while also providing possible hepatoprotective effects that could serve as a functional ingredient in anti-hangover alternative therapies. These extracts are expected to be more effective when made into herbal mixture beverages.
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Over the last few decade Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs of choice for treating numerous inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. The NSAIDs produces anti-inflammatory activity via inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzyme, responsible for the conversation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Likewise, cyclooxegenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2) selectively inhibit the COX-2 enzyme and produces significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activity without producing COX-1 associated gastrointestinal and renal side effects. In last two decades numerous selective COX-2 inhibitors (COXIBs) have been developed and approved for various inflammatory conditions. However, data from clinical trials have suggested that the prolong use of COX-2 inhibitors are also associated with life threatening cardiovascular side effects including ischemic heart failure and myocardial infection. In these scenario secondary metabolites from natural product offers a great hope for the development of novel anti-inflammatory compounds. Although majority of the natural product based compounds exhibit more selectively toward COX-1. However, the data suggest that slight structural modification can be helpful in developing COX-2 selective secondary metabolites with comparative efficacy and limited side effects. This review is an effort to highlight the secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine source with significant COX-2 and COX-2 mediated PGE2 inhibitory activity, since it is anticipated that isolates with ability to inhibit COX-2 mediated PGE2 production would be useful in suppressing the inflammation and its classical sign and symptoms. Moreover, this review has highlighted the potential lead compounds including berberine, kaurenoic acid, a-cyperone, curcumin, and zedoarondiol for further development with the help of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and their current status.
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Objectives of this study are to make clear the vegetation structure of Hovenia dulcis community in the Korean Peninsula over ten mountains including 17 plots. The results were summarized as follows. Habitat of the community indicated that elevation ranged from 115 meter to 720 meter at the sea level, slope aspect in nearly all directions, bare rock from 0 to 90 percent, slope degree from 10^{\circ} to 40^{\circ}, topography from valley to middle slope, the height of tree layer from 8m to 22m, the diameter at breast height from 12cm to 59cm and coverage from 65% to 95$\%$Vegetation physiognomy was mainly represented by a valley species such as Comus controversa, Quercus serata, Carpinus cordata, Zelkova serrata, Torreya nucifera, Hovenia dulcis, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Quercus variabilis, Fagus crenata var. muftinevis, Acer takesimense, etc. Vegetation was largely divided into four types such as Sorbus alnifolia Type, Acer palmatum Type, H. dulcis typical Type and Acer takesimense Type. According to CCA, H. dulcis typical Type was positively correlated with disturbance, bare rock and altitude, S. alnifolia Type indicated a positive correlation with organic matter and A. takesimense Type showed a negative correlation with bare rock. Altitude and slope factors were significantly correlated on axes. Canopy profile of S. alnifolia Type was well developed, H. dulcis typical Type was open with about 55$\%$cover under layer and Acer takesimense Type indicated the lowest canopy height of tree layer In four Types. According to importance value, Hovenia dulcis, Comus kousa, Quercus variabilis, Corpus controversa, Lindera erythrocarpa, etc. indicated high value in the H. dulcis dominated plots, but in other plots, Carpinus cordata, Hovenia dulcis, Torreya nucifera, Quercus serrata, Acer mono, Comus controversa, etc. showed high value caused by the differences of the floristic composition between them.
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This study investigated the effect of the precipitation time and temperature on the efficiency of fractional precipitation for the purification of (+)-dihydromyricetin, and analyzed the kinetics and thermodynamics of the fractional precipitation process. The time required to obtain a given yield was the shortest at 277 K in a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. When the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Komolgorov (JMAK) equation was applied to experimental data, simultaneous mechanisms of nucleation and growth were determined at precipitation temperatures of 277, 280, and 283 K, while consecutive mechanisms of nucleation and growth were determined at 263 K and 291 K. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the enthalpy change and entropy change were both negative, plus the Gibbs free energy change was negative and decreased when decreasing the temperature (283, 280, and 277 K). Thus, the precipitation was more feasible when using a lower temperature, and the results indicated that the fractional precipitation process for purifying (+)-dihydromyricetin was exothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous.
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Allium hookeri is known as a healthy food since it contains larger amounts of sulfur compounds than commonly known alliaceous plants. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of A. hookeri were compared between two types of extracts, 80°C water and 95% ethanol extracts of A. hookeri roots. A. hookeri root 95% ethanol extracts displayed superior total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity], and anti-inflammation activity than those of water extracts (P<0.05). We studied the effects of A. hookeri root 95% ethanol extracts (95% ethanol extracts group: AHE) on acute alcohol-induced intoxication in mice. AHE [250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight (BW)/d] was orally administered to the study group once a day for 1 week. On the last day of AHE treatment, 40% ethanol (10 mL/kg BW) was orally administered to induce acute liver injury. The blood alcohol concentration of mice treated with AHE was significantly lower compared to the control group (P<0.05). The levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were lower in the AHE-treated group than the control group (P<0.05). The RT-PCR results for alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase measured based on mRNA in liver tissues showed that enzyme activities were higher in the AHE-treated group than in the control group at a low blood alcohol concentration. © 2016, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
Article
Fractional precipitation is a simple method for purifying (+)-dihydromyricetin extracted from biomass. However, the fractional precipitation process has been inherently problematic due to the lengthy precipitation time that is required. The fractional precipitation time was shortened and (+)-dihydromyricetin yield was improved by increasing the surface area per working volume (S/V) of the reacting solution through the addition of a cation exchange resin (Amberlite 200, Amberlite IR 120Na, Amberlite IR 120H, or Amberlite IRC 50). Most of the (+)-dihydromyricetin (>90%) could be obtained after about 16 h of fractional precipitation using Amberlite 200. Since high-purity (+)-dihydromyricetin can be obtained at a high yield and the precipitation time can be reduced by increasing the surface area available for precipitation, this improved method is expected to minimize solvent usage and the size and complexity of the high performance liquid chromatography operation required for (+)-dihydromyricetin purification.
Book
This book continues as volume 5 of a multicompendium on Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. It covers edible fruits/seeds used fresh, cooked or processed as vegetables, cereals, spices, stimulant, edible oils and beverages. It covers selected species from the following families: Apiaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cunoniaceae, Lythraceae, Papaveraceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Polygonaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae, Salicaceae, Santalaceae, Xanthorrhoeaceae and Zingiberaceae. This work will be of significant interest to scientists, medical practitioners, pharmacologists, ethnobotanists, horticulturists, food nutritionists, botanists, agriculturists, conservationists, lecturers, students and the general public. Topics covered include: taxonomy; common/English and vernacular names; origin and distribution; agroecology; edible plant parts and uses; botany; nutritive/pharmacological properties, medicinal uses, nonedible uses; and selected references.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water extract of peduncle obtained from Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HD) which is commercially developed for the protective effect on the alcoholic hepatotoxicity, on the endurance capacity for weight loaded forced swimming mice. The swimming times to exhaustion in mice fed 100 and 200 mg/kg HD for 2 weeks were prolonged 3.6 and 3.7 fold, and for 4 weeks 1.9 and 2.7 fold compared with each vehicle control (42.8±20.5 min and 67.7±47.8 min, for 2 and 4 weeks), respectively. Blood biochemical parameters for ALT, AST, creatinine and BUN were not significantly different between from HD fed or control mice. Although HD fed mice swam over 2 fold longer time than vehicle control mice at 4 weeks, blood biomarkers of physical fatigue such as glucose, triglyceride and free fatty acid, lactate were not significant different and even tended to ameliorate. Hepatic lipid peroxidation and SOD activity did not significantly change in HD fed- and vehicle control exhausted swimming mice at 2 or 4 weeks. However, catalase activity in HD-fed mice was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner compared with vehicle control mice. The present study indicates that HD improved physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice. Therefore, it has a potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.
Article
Hovenia dulcis Thunb (HDT) has been known folk medicine and has been used as therapeutic drug in the treatment of liver disease. Also it has been used as a detoxifying agents for alcoholic poisoning and promoting diuresis. However, there has not been any study on therapeutic effect of Hovenia dulcis extract on CCl4 induced liver and kidney damage in rats. In this study, we report on therapeutic effects of Hovenia dulcis extract on CCl4 induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Rats were divided into four groups of eighteen animals. Control group (DW) was administrated with distilled water 2.5 mL/kg per peritonial administration and then CCl4 group (CCl) was administrated CCl4 2.5 mL/kg per peritonial administration, CCl4+ HDT extract group (CCl4+ HDT) was administrated HDT extrat (100 mg/kg) after CCl4 2.5 mL/kg administration, CCl4+ Silymarin group (CCl4+ Sily) was administrated Silymarin (50 mg/kg) after CCl4 2.5 mL/kg administration. The complete blood cell (CBC) count of RBC, WBC, PCV, Hb, MCH, MCV, MCHC and blood chemistry profile of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, Total choloesterol, Tryglyceride, Total bilirubin, Amylase, Glucose, BUN, Creatinine, Lipase and pathologic changes were observed for 7 days after administration of D.W., CCl4, CCl4+ HDT extract, CCl4+ Silymarin. The results are as follows: 1. RBC and PCV were significantly (p < 0.01) increased in all groups compared to D.W. but hemoglobin, MCH, MCV and MCHC were not showed significant difference during experimental periods. 2. AST, ALT, T-cholesterol, T-bilirubin, TG were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all groups on day 3 compared to D.W. and were normal on day 7. 3. ALP was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in CCl4+ HDT group on day 3 but Amylase was not showed significant difference during experimental periods. 4. BUN was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in CCl4 group on day 7, but CCl4+ HDT group and CCl4+ Sily group were normal. Creatninie was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in CCl4 group on day 3 and normal on day 7 but CCl4+ HDT group and CCl4+ Sily group were not showed significant difference during experimental periods.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and its physiological effects on ICR mice. According to the sensory score, we selected Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. among Moju made with 0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Compared to Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb., Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. had higher proportions of moisture (86.77 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (11.86 g/100 g). The mean values of the physicochemical analyses were as follows: pH 4.91, acidity 0.28, ^{\circ}Brix 12.63, reducing sugar 68.97, alcohol content 0.1, alcohol density 0.998. Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. did not have effects on DPPH radical scavenging activity; however, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher than that of Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb. For assessing physiological activities, 4-week-old male ICR mice were divided into six groups (n=10): normal control group (NC), ethanol-administered group (EC), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCL), EC plus high-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCH), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDL), and EC plus high-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDH). Serum triglyceride (TG) level was reduced by 11.17% and 19.61% in the MDL and MDH groups, respectively, compared to the EC group. Serum total-cholesterol levels of MDL and MDH groups were significantly lower as compared to the EC group. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels of the MDL and MDH groups were significantly higher than those of the EC group. Liver TG levels were significantly reduced in the MCL and MDL groups. From these results, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. demonstrated antioxidant activity and reduction of hyperlipidemia markers. Therefore, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. can serve as a non-alcoholic beverage and functional food source.
Article
This study evaluated the influence of the zeta potential of silica-alumina on the behavior in terms of purity, yield, and precipitate shape and size of fractional precipitation in the fractional precipitation process for the purification of (+)-dihydromyricetin. The optimal silica-alumina amount (surface area per working volume of reacting solution) for zeta potential control was 100 mm-1. As the zeta potential value of silica-alumina increased, (+)-dihydromyricetin yield and precipitate size were increased. The use of silica with the highest value of the zeta potential (+4.99 mV) as a zeta potential-controlling material increased the (+)-dihydromyricetin yield by 2-fold compared with that of the use of alumina with the lowest value of the zeta potential (-19.00 mV). In addition, the (+)-dihydromyricetin yield and precipitate size was inversely correlated with the absolute value of the zeta potential. On the other hand, the purity of (+)-dihydromyricetin had almost no effect on changes in the zeta potential of silica-alumina.
Article
The protective effect of EtOAc fraction of Limonium tetragonum extract (EALT) against alcoholinduced hepatotoxicity was assessed following acute ethanol intoxication in Spraque-Dawley rats. EALT (200 mg/ kg p.o.) was administrated once before alcohol intake (8 g/kg, p.o.). Blood ethanol concentration, and the activities of alcohol metabolic enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the liver were measured. Also, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), catalase were determined after acute alcohol exposure. Pretreatment of rats received ethanol with EALT significantly decreased blood ethanol concentration and elevated the activities of ADH and ALDH in liver. The increased MDA level was decreased, and the reduced activities of SOD, GSH-px and catalase were markedly preserved by the treatment with EALT. This study suggests that EALT prevent hepatic injury induced by acute alcohol which is likely related to its modulation on the alcohol metabolism and antioxidant enzymes activities.
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