Article

Predictive factors of unfavorable prostate cancer in patients who underwent prostatectomy but eligible for active surveillance

Prostate international 06/2014; 2(2):70-5. DOI: 10.12954/PI.14042
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose:
To investigate the predictive factors of unfavorable prostate cancer in Korean men who underwent radical prostatectomy but eligible for active surveillance according to Epstein criteria.

Methods:
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,036 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 1994 and 2011. Among these, 233 patients were eligible for active surveillance based on Epstein criteria. Unfavorable prostate cancer was defined as pathologic Gleason sum ≥7 or non–organ-confined disease. We investigated pathologic outcomes and predictive factors for unfavorable prostate cancer.

Results:
Of 233 cases, 91 patients (39.1%) were pathologic Gleason sum ≥7, 11 (4.7%) had extracapsular extension, and three (1.3%) had seminal vesicle invasion. Ninety-eight patients (42.1%) had unfavorable prostate cancer. When comparing clinically insignificant and significant prostate cancer, there were significant differences in mean age (P=0.007), prostate volume (P=0.021), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (P=0.03), maximum tumor volume in biopsy core (P<0.001), and rate of two positive cores (P=0.001). On multivariate analysis, age (P=0.015), PSA density (P=0.017) and two positive cores (P=0.001) were independent predictive factors for unfavorable prostate cancer.

Conclusions:
A significant proportion of patients who were candidates for active surveillance had unfavorable prostate cancer. Age, PSA density, and two positive cores were independent significant predictive factors for unfavorable prostate cancer. These factors should be considered when performing active surveillance.

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Available from: Han Yong Choi, Oct 19, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical value of active surveillance may still be limited due to acceptance and considerable misclassification rates, and inadequate follow-up criteria. This review focuses on the most recent developments in the use of active surveillance and patient-specific factors that may be used to identify patients suitable for this strategy. The number of patients diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer has risen. Active surveillance acceptance rates are increasing, but still limited and varying importantly (2-49%). Misclassification is inevitable in all currently used protocols, although most of these patients still have relatively favorable-risk prostate cancer. African-American race, obese, and older-aged patients show more unfavorable intermediate results in an active surveillance situation. These are unlikely to be explained by the small differences in preoperative characteristics only. Psychological profiling may also be added to the selection process. Most studies report intermediate endpoints only. Patient-specific factors may be incorporated when identifying patients for active surveillance. This does not imply that active surveillance is not justified in specific groups, but may suggest the need for an intensified and personalized selection, instead of a one-size-fits-all approach.
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