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Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Deliver Core Content to Preservice Teacher Candidates


Abstract and Figures

Teacher educators are always looking for instructional strategies that are easy to create and use but are powerful for promoting learning among preservice teacher candidates. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs) is an example of an instructional strategy that embeds evidence-based instructional design principles to package and deliver critical content in courses such as introductory and foundational special education classes. In this column, a brief overview of current problems of practice that create a need for CAPs, a review research on the use of CAPs for preservice teacher education, and an overview of the processes used to create CAPs are provided.
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Intervention in School and Clinic
The online version of this article can be found at:
DOI: 10.1177/1053451214542046
published online 16 July 2014Intervention in School and Clinic
Michael J. Kennedy, Ryan O. Kellems, Cathy Newman Thomas and Jennifer R. Newton
Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Deliver Core Content to Preservice Teacher Candidates
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Hammill Institute on Disabilities
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DOI: 10.1177/1053451214542046
Teacher Education
Kristin Sayeski, Associate Editor
Survey and introductory courses on special education are
ubiquitous components of teacher preparation programs
(Reschly, Holdheide, Behrstock, & Weber, 2009). Despite
that these courses are omnipresent on college campuses, the
quality of instruction within them is highly variable. To
illustrate, many instructors’ primary pedagogy is the use of
slide-based presentations (i.e., PowerPoint) to communi-
cate content (Kennedy, Thomas, Aronin, Newton, & Lloyd,
2014). This type of instruction is widely panned by research-
ers who study the scholarship of teaching and learning in
higher education (Gallagher & Reder, 2004–2005; Gier &
Kreiner, 2009; Saville, Zinn, Neef, Van Norman, & Ferreri,
2006). This is not to say teacher candidates do not learn in
these settings; obviously they do. Further, minimal guid-
ance is available within the special education teacher edu-
cation literature base in regard to alternative, effective
instructional practices in higher education (Leko, Brownell,
Sindelar, & Murphy, 2012). Thus, a key question for teacher
educators and other instructors to consider is, Do we use
PowerPoint slides with bulleted text because it is an evidence-
based practice, or more generally, because it is simply “the
The use of PowerPoint (or other slide presentation soft-
ware) to convey content is not the only culprit contributing
to inefficiency and ineffectiveness in teacher preparation.
Using multimedia (beyond PowerPoint) is also suspect with
respect to its grounded theory and empirical evidence (Clark,
2009). One example is audio-only and enhanced podcasts
(visuals in time with audio). In recent years, these types of
podcasting have gained significant momentum in the higher
education literature as a method for capturing and conveying
content in an efficient manner (Evans, 2008). A close look at
the emerging literature, however, reveals systematic weak-
nesses with its evidence base to date (Heilesen, 2010; Hew
& Cheung, 2013). Specifically, most published studies of
podcasting in higher education reported student satisfaction
or engagement data but not empirical data demonstrating
learning outcomes. While social validity is important when
designing, selecting, and implementing instructional tools, it
542046ISCXXX10.1177/1053451214542046Intervention in School and ClinicKennedy et al.
1University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
2Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA
3University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA
4James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA
Corresponding Author:
Michael J. Kennedy, PhD, University of Virginia, Curry School of
Education, P.O. Box 400273, Charlottesville, VA 29904, USA
Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Deliver
Core Content to Preservice Teacher Candidates
Michael J. Kennedy, PhD1, Ryan O. Kellems, PhD2, Cathy Newman Thomas, PhD3,
and Jennifer R. Newton, PhD4
Teacher educators are always looking for instructional strategies that are easy to create and use but are powerful for
promoting learning among preservice teacher candidates. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs) is an example of an
instructional strategy that embeds evidence-based instructional design principles to package and deliver critical content
in courses such as introductory and foundational special education classes. In this column, a brief overview of current
problems of practice that create a need for CAPs, a review research on the use of CAPs for preservice teacher education,
and an overview of the processes used to create CAPs are provided.
use in teacher preparation, technology, issues, technology, education/training/preparation, teacher(s)
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2 Intervention in School and Clinic
should take a backseat to whether students actually learn
(Clark, 2009). In addition, most research on podcasts offers
little to no guidance on how podcasts should be developed
and implemented during coursework. Finally, generic audio-
only or enhanced podcasts do not adhere to any specific
theoretical framework that guides instructional design
(Heilesen, 2010; Kennedy, Hart, & Kellems, 2011).
Using a strong and relevant theory to guide the devel-
opment of any intervention is an essential but often-
skipped step in the instructional design process (Clark,
2009; Mayer, 2009). Therefore, podcasting offers promise
for creating instructional materials that are easy to use but
also take advantage of theoretically based instructional
design principles. One example of an emerging technol-
ogy used in this purpose is content acquisition podcasts
(CAPs; Kennedy, Driver, Pullen, Ely, & Cole, 2013). In
essence, CAPs blend the best features of podcasts (e.g.,
ease of creation and use) with validated instructional
design principles. In this article, a brief history of how
CAPs were developed and evaluated is presented. Then,
information on how teacher educators can create and use
CAPs within their programs is provided.
A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia
Even a cursory review of the empirical literature in the field
of educational multimedia will quickly uncover Mayer’s
(2009) cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML)
and accompanying instructional design principles (Mayer,
2008) as an influential framework for instructional design.
The CTML is grounded in cognitive load theory (Chandler
& Sweller, 1991) and the dual processing principle (Paivio,
1986) and also reflects Baddeley’s (1986) model of work-
ing memory. Out of the CTML came 12 instructional design
principles, each grounded in numerous experimental stud-
ies (see Mayer, 2008, for a review). These principles func-
tionally serve to guide instructional designers as they select
content, record narration, position visuals on the screen, and
make other design decisions (see Table 1). CAPs used in
past research studies (Kennedy et al., 2011; Kennedy,
Driver, et al., 2013; Kennedy, Ely, et al., 2012; Kennedy,
Newton, Haines, Walther-Thomas, & Kellems, 2012;
Kennedy & Thomas, 2012; Kennedy, Thomas, Aronin,
et al., 2014) were designed using Mayer’s principles.
Table 1. Mayer’s Design Principles as Aligned With the Triarchic Model of Cognitive Load.
Triarchic Model of Cognitive
Load (DeLeeuw & Mayer, 2008)
Research-Based Instructional Design
Principles (Mayer, 2008, 2009)
Brief Description of Mayer’s Instructional Design
Principles (Mayer, 2008, 2009)
Limit extraneous processing Coherence principle
(ES= 0.97)
Instructional materials are enhanced when irrelevant or
extraneous information is excluded.
Signaling principle
(ES= 0.52)
Learning is enhanced when explicit cues are provided that
signal the beginning of major headings or elements of
the material being covered.
Redundancy principle
(ES= 0.72)
Inclusion of extensive text (transcription) on screen
along with spoken words and pictures hinders learning.
Carefully selected words or short phrases, however,
augment retention (Mayer & Johnson, 2008).
Spatial contiguity principle
(ES = 1.12)
On-screen text and pictures should be presented in close
proximity to one another to limit eye shifting during
instructional presentations.
Temporal contiguity principle
(ES= 1.31)
Pictures and text should shown on screen should
correspond to the audio presentation.
Manage essential processing Modality principle
(ES = 1.02)
People learn better from spoken words and pictures than
they do from pictures and text alone
Segmenting principle
(ES= 0.98)
People learn better when multimedia presentations are
divided into short bursts as opposed to longer modules.
Pretraining principle
(ES= 0.85)
People learn better when there is an advance organizer
that highlights and reviews key content prior to
Foster generative processing Multimedia principle
(ES= 1.39)
People learn better from pictures and spoken words than
from words alone.
Personalization, voice, and image
principles (ES = 1.11)
Narration presented in a conversational style result in
better engagement and learning than more formal audio
presentations. Images should be nonabstract and clearly
represent the content being presented.
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Kennedy et al. 3
Table 2. To-Date Content Acquisition Podcast (CAP) Studies.
Title Participants (N) Method Dependent Measure Results
Kennedy, Hart, &
Kellems (2011)
79 Two-group posttest
Knowledge/retention of
CAP group outperformed audio-
only group (NCLB, d= 0.64; TBI,
d= 0.82)
Kennedy & Thomas
164 Two-group
Knowledge/retention of
CAP group outperformed text-
only group (posttest, 0.98;
maintenance, d= 0.97)
Kennedy, Newton,
Haines, Walther-
Thomas, & Kellems
11 Design experiment Qualitative/project
performance whole Intro
to Sped course
10/11 students improved on final
Kennedy, Ely, et al.
168 Three-group pretest–
Knowledge/retention of
students with LD and
CAP groups outperformed text-
only group (LD, d= 1.09; autism,
d= 0.79)
Kennedy, Driver,
Pullen, Ely, & Cole
148 Two-group
application of
phonological awareness
CAP group outperformed text-
only group (posttest, d = 0.86;
maintenance, d= 0.97)
Kennedy, Thomas,
Aronin, et al. (2014)
164 Two-group
Knowledge/retention of
students with LD and
CAP group outperformed text-only
group (posttest: LD, d = 1.09;
autism, d= 1.21) (maintenance:
LD, d= 0.81; autism, d= 1.33)
Note: NCLB = No Child Left Behind; TBI = traumatic brain injury; PBIS = Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports; LD = learning disabilities.
One key principle in the model is the coherence princi-
ple (Mayer, 2009). This principle instructs designers to
constrain content to only essential material to avoid over-
whelming limited cognitive capacity. Thus, a faculty mem-
ber delivering a 75-min lecture filled with interesting but
ultimately unnecessary details is not an acceptable starting
point for a podcast. In order to adhere to this principle, a
podcast would need to break away from a simple recording
of one’s lecture and instead carefully script a pared-down
message that hits key points. The redundancy principle
(Mayer, 2009) holds that learners improve when on-screen
text is not redundant with information provided through the
auditory channel. Therefore, placing text on the screen
(either captioning or bulleted points) would be counterpro-
ductive for student learning. Other principles, such as the
signaling, segmenting, temporal contiguity, and spatial con-
tiguity principles (Mayer, 2009) underscore the importance
of taking large amounts of information and breaking them
down into “bite-sized” segments that (a) strategically place
text and images on the screen, (b) sync with audio, and
(c) do not require extensive eye movement when viewing.
Thus, the development of CAPs requires scripts that
contain only essential information that are synced to dis-
tinct images that illustrate the content being taught.
On-screen text is used judiciously and reinforces essential
terms or concepts. In addition, instead of a 75-min or lon-
ger podcast, CAPs average 6 to 9 min, with occasional
exceptions (in both directions). A website of CAPs used for
introductory courses in special education can be found at These CAPs are freely available and
undergo frequent updates to content and visuals as feed-
back from experts and users are collected. Readers are wel-
come to use these CAPs as they see fit and are invited to
create their own and add to the collection.
Research on Content Acquisition
Research has shown that CAPs can enhance and improve
preservice teacher knowledge acquisition. Table 2 provides
a glimpse at six empirical studies supporting CAPs as an
instructional tool in teacher education coursework. In five
of the six studies, the dependent measure was a test of
knowledge retention to help evaluate teacher candidate
learning following treatment using CAPs or a different
approach (e.g., audio-only podcast, reading a selection from
the textbook).
Following the preliminary CAP studies (Kennedy et al.,
2011, 2014; Kennedy, Ely, et al., 2012; Kennedy & Thomas,
2012), researchers continued to make improvements to
CAPs with respect to their adherence to Mayer’s principles
and to match feedback from student users. To illustrate, an
early CAP on the characteristics of students with learning
disabilities can be found at; its
upgrade can be found at The
content is a virtual match, but the images reflect significant
improvement. Clear instructional signals to denote key sec-
tions are embedded, and comprehension questions are also
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4 Intervention in School and Clinic
embedded to highlight essential information. More recent
CAP studies (e.g., Kennedy, Driver, et al., 2013) have made
use of improved dependent measures that investigated not
only student retention but application of skill. Results
showed that CAPs are useful in helping teacher candidates
improve in both domains. Future research should explore the
extent to which teacher candidates and in-service educators
can improve teaching and K–12 student learning using this
tool. See Table 2 for a summary of CAP studies.
Producing the Podcasts
Figures 1, 2, and 3 provide a step-by-step process for how
preservice teachers can create CAPs. Figure 1 describes
planning steps, Figure 2 lists the production steps, and
Figure 3 contains steps for publishing. In addition, the
information in these figures is presented in a CAP on how to
make a CAP, broken into two parts, available at https:// (Part 1) and
24182724 (Part 2). It is important to note that these are not
the only ways to create a CAP. These methods were created
using widely available software and standard hardware
(e.g., PowerPoint software and a microphone connected to
a standard computer). The important thing about creating
CAPs is adherence to the CTML principles and content
standards, not the means of production. Other options for
creating CAPs may include using programs/software such
as Camtasia, Profcast, or Keynote.
Initial research conducted on CAPs demonstrates the
promise of this instructional enhancement on the knowl-
edge acquisition of preservice teachers. CAPs can be used
flexibly in instruction. For example, instructors can opt to
assign CAPs as part of the typical preparation for class
along with readings from the textbook and journal articles.
Some instructors use CAPs for review prior to assess-
ments. Students could be assigned to create their own
CAPs as part of the learning process. A related option is
teaching preservice teachers to create CAPs for a different
purpose, including embedding evidence-based practices
Figure 1. Phase 1 of content acquisition podcast production steps: Preparation.
Phase 1: Preparation
Step 1.0 Identify ONE clear topic or concept to be taught in each CAP. For Example: What are the characteristics of students
with specic learning disabilities?
1. 1 Given your topic, select only the most essential content. If creating a CAP for use in teacher education, make decisions based
on the need to reinforce key points from your lecture or assigned readings. Remember, the goal is to supplement and reinforce,
not replace.
1. 2 As needed, organize content into segments (e.g., Part 1, Part 2, etc.). In our work on CAPs, we often provide the IDEA denition
for the disability category in Part 1, note the prevalence of the disability in Part 2, highlight student characteristics in Part 3,
review major accommodations and modications in Part 4, and note evidence-based practices in Part 5. Another choice
to control the length of CAPs is to split one topic into two videos; one that reviews characteristics of students in a disability
category, and another to highlight evidence-based practices.
Step 2.0: Create ‘standard’ PowerPoint slides (heading and bulleted supporting points) for your topic.
2.1 Create a clear title page slide.
2.2 Create a ‘roadmap’ to serve as an advance organizer for the CAP. Note the purpose for the video, and a heading for each topic.
2.2 Put only one detail or piece of information on each slide.
2.3 Type speaker notes for each slide (under the slide where it says: Click to add a note); print a copy of your slides and speaker
notes to use when recording narration later on.
2.4 Remember to keep it simple—eliminate extra content from slides and comments.
2.5 Create signaling slides that announce the beginning and end of each section.
2.6 Write summary questions to go at the end of each section. Questions can be a preview of forthcoming assessments, or simply
function as a way to cue the viewer’s attention to key information.
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Kennedy et al. 5
Figure 2. Phase 2 of content acquisition podcast production steps: Production.
Phase 2: Production
Step 3.0 Replace most of the slides you created in step 2 with images that represent your topic as closely as possible (keep the title slide).
3.1 Select one eye-catching image per key idea. Use or another internet search engine to nd copyright-free photos or other
images. Save the image to a folder you create for this project. Store all of your saved pictures in the same folder.
3.2 Select medium to large images that ll most of the available slide space but are not distorted or fuzzy.
3.3 Avoid cluttered images with words or distracting details. The pictures you select should have a central focal point that limits the need for viewers to
move their eyes across the screen.
3.4 For slides where you plan to insert text over a picture to emphasize key terms or ideas, make three copies of that slide.
Step 4.0: Insert text over images by using ‘insert text box’ on the second of the three slides. The rst and third slide should be free of text.
4.1 Select one word or a short phrase (3-4 words) that demonstrates the key idea for the slide and type it into the text box. Using full sentences is not
advised. Be clear and concise.
4.2 Use 40 point or larger font size; select text color that is easy to read given the contrast with the background images and colors. [NOTE: The text box
“ll color” tool make be used to ensure good contrast between images and text.]
4.3 Place text boxes either in the middle of the slide or near a major part of the picture without covering it up.
Step 5.0: Prepare and time your slide narration so it coincides with any on-screen text. For example, when recording a presentation about
making pizza:
5.1 Create three identical slides using the steps above. Insert a text box (See Steps 3.0-4.3 above) in the second of three identical slides that has the
words “add cheese”.
5.2 Begin narrating these slides (See Step 6.0). With Slide 1 of 3 on the screen say, “The next step in making pizza is…”, then hit “Enter” to advance to
the second slide which is already prepared with the text box and say, “add cheese,” (narration will match text on the screen), hit “Enter,” and nish
narration on this part of making a pizza while slide 3 (without any text, but same picture) is on screen.
5.3 Repeat this process for every key piece of information to be addressed in the CAP. VERY IMPORTANT: Not every picture needs additional text—
reserve use of text for the most essential concepts/pieces of information within your CAP.
Figure 3. Phase 3 of content acquisition podcast production steps: Publishing.
Phase 3: Publishing
Step 6.0: Finalize slides and familiarize yourself with the written narrative before recording narration. Save your le.
6.1 Under PowerPoint pull-down menu, click ‘Slide Show’, and then, ‘Rehearse Timings.
6.2 Rehearse narration using your printed slides and speaker notes—they are your “script”; hit enter to advance through the slides. Note the total length
of your narration when done.
6.3 PowerPoint will ask if you want it to automatically link the amount of time you spent on each slide for later use. CLICK YES.
6.4 Practice recording CAP several times until comfortable and condent.
6.5 Save the le as a movie (.mov). Select the quality of playback (highest quality is recommended)
Step 7.0: Import saved .ppt movie le into your choice of iMovie (MAC) or Windows MovieMaker (PC).
7. 1 There are several options for recording narration and linking to your CAP—there is no ‘correct’ way. Recording narration within PowerPoint is
possible, but is frequently unreliable (based on experience with Office 2011 or previous versions). An easy way for novices to record narration
following the preceding steps is Apple’s iMovie or Window’s Movie Maker programs.
7. 2 Import the saved .mov le from PowerPoint into the video production timeline (at bottom of screen in both iMovie and Movie Maker).
7. 3 Ensure the built in microphone or external mic is functioning properly and at an appropriate volume. Record a test statement to conrm audio level
prior to narration.
7. 4 Record narration in a room free from background noise or other distractions. Preview your recording. If sound is distorted or otherwise imperfect,
diagnose the problem (you were too close to microphone, etc.) and re-record.
7. 5 Speak in a clear, engaging voice; record in front of a mirror or with another person to create a more natural-sounding recording. Use good posture,
smiling, and hand gestures can also improve the quality of vocal recordings.
7. 6 Listen to your recording for unnecessary pauses (um’s or other dead air). If they are noticeable/distracting, re-record your CAP.
7. 7 Save/Export your nished video as a quicktime or windows media le.
Step 8.0 Upload your saved video to the web
8.1 Upload your CAP to course management websites (e.g., BlackBoard) or other le-sharing sites (e.g.,;
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6 Intervention in School and Clinic
for teaching students with disabilities. Kennedy and col-
leagues recently (Kennedy, Deshler, & Lloyd, 2013;
Kennedy, Thomas, Meyer, Alves, & Lloyd, 2013) used
CAPs for this purpose, demonstrating the effectiveness of
this tool for a different purpose in instruction. Preservice
educators who create CAPs for use in K–12 teaching
might increase their knowledge of evidence-based prac-
tices by going through a multimedia production process.
Indeed, CAPs can be used to reduce the amount of time
spent lecturing on foundational concepts and allow more
time for case studies, modeling exercises, guest speakers,
discussions, and rehearsing evidence-based practices for
teaching. The shift in how and when to provide static con-
tent can pay large dividends in terms of the engagement
during class and the overall learning of students as deter-
mined by end of course assessments.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with
respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this
The author(s) received no financial support for the research,
authorship, and/or publication of this article.
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... Educational podcasts have become an increasingly popular mode of teaching college students (Kennedy, Kellems, Thomas, & Newton, 2015;McNamara, Wilson, & Petersen, 2020). Educational podcasts have been noted as an educational phenomenon with social and media-rich features that exemplify the uniqueness and broad appeal of online learning (McNamara et al., 2020). ...
... Educational podcasts have been noted as an educational phenomenon with social and media-rich features that exemplify the uniqueness and broad appeal of online learning (McNamara et al., 2020). One type of educational podcast that has well-established positive effects on learning is content acquisition podcasts (CAPs; Kennedy et al., 2015). CAPs are podcasts that distribute audio paired with still images and focus on one specific topic in a concise presentation (Kennedy et al., 2015;Peeples et al., 2019). ...
... One type of educational podcast that has well-established positive effects on learning is content acquisition podcasts (CAPs; Kennedy et al., 2015). CAPs are podcasts that distribute audio paired with still images and focus on one specific topic in a concise presentation (Kennedy et al., 2015;Peeples et al., 2019). CAPs can blend the desirable features of podcasts (e.g., increased accessibility) with psychometrically sound instructional design principles and content developed by experts (Kennedy et al., 2015). ...
Identifying tools to reinforce content on teaching children with visual impairments (VI) is needed to better inform future physical educators as children with VI often have poor physical education (PE) experiences. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), podcasts created with instructional design principles and expert-developed content, may provide preservice PE teachers with knowledge and confidence needed to properly teach children with VI. The purpose of this investigation was to compare knowledge and self-efficacy differences from pre- to postintervention among a control group, a textbook chapter group, and a CAPs group. A knowledge and self-efficacy assessment was developed through a modified Delphi method. The CAPs participants showed significantly higher knowledge gains compared with other groups. The CAPs group revealed significantly higher self-efficacy gain when compared with the control but did not significantly differ from one another. The textbook group did not significantly differ from the control group. Implications for future research and suggestions for practitioners are discussed.
... Online learning has become an increasingly popular mode of teaching college students (Elliot, 2017;Parson, Reddy, Wood, & Senior, 2009). One specific method of online learning that has recently become more prevalent is educational podcasts (Drew, 2017;Kennedy, Kellems, Thomas, & Newton, 2015). Podcasts have been noted as an educational phenomenon, with social and media-rich features that exemplify the uniqueness and broad appeal of online learning (Kidd, 2012). ...
... Podcasts have been noted as an educational phenomenon, with social and media-rich features that exemplify the uniqueness and broad appeal of online learning (Kidd, 2012). One type of educational podcast that has well-established positive effects on learning is Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs; Kennedy et al., 2015). ...
... CAPs are podcasts that distribute audio paired with still images, and embed evidence-based instructional design principles to deliver the content (Kennedy et al., 2015). This multimedia focuses on one specific topic in one concise presentation and is designed to be viewed several times (Peeples 4 British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 0 No 0 2020. ...
Educators’ understanding and use of language is particularly relevant in relation to historically marginalized groups, such as people with disabilities. However, previous research has suggested that teacher education programs do not adequately address the concepts of language and disability. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs) may provide them with knowledge related to language and disability. The purposes of this investigation were to determine how a CAP impacts undergraduate students’ understanding of language with regards to people with disabilities, and examine undergraduate students’ perceptions towards CAPs as a learning tool. Qualitative analyses, a pairwise t ‐test, and a Pearson’s correlation analysis were used to determine CAP’s impact on 43 preservice educators. Results revealed that the CAP significantly increased the participants’ knowledge and that the participants had positive perceptions towards the CAP. Findings from focus group discussions indicated a number of themes emerged in relation to both language use regarding people with disabilities and CAPs. Practitioner Notes What is already known about this topic Language allows for one to build and understand the world around them, as well as reflects how one views others. The language educators use when referring to and addressing students with disabilities creates a unique environment that can impact students with disabilities’ self‐esteem, and provides a model for typically developing students on how to interact with their peers with disabilities. Podcasts have been noted as an educational phenomenon, with social and “media‐rich” features that exemplify the uniqueness and broad appeal of online learning. What this paper adds Although there has been a great deal of research with regards to content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), most of the research has focused on topics that have singular answers, rather than focusing on complex issues that are often contextual, such as language use. This study utilized focus groups to better understand undergraduate students’ perceptions of CAPs. To the best of the investigators’ knowledge, is the first CAP study to do so. Implications for practice and/or policy This investigation suggests that CAPs can be used to teach ambiguous and complex information, such as language usage and disability, to preservice teachers. CAPs that are able to teach complex issues are a promising tool, as this would allow faculty members to positively impact preservice teachers’ instructional skills and enable CAPs to be used to prepare preservice teachers to build meaningful relationship with their students and create a positive learning environment.
... Online PD differs from traditional PD as it has the ability to overcome accessibility and cost barriers (Elliott, 2017). There is a growing amount of research that has demonstrated the effectiveness and potential of online PD for a variety of educators (e.g., Healy, Block, & Kelly, 2019;Kennedy, Kellems, Thomas, & Newton, 2015). This research has generally reported that educators who have participated in online PD have significantly increased their knowledge in their subject area and improved their instructional practices (Healy et al., 2019;Kennedy et al., 2015). ...
... There is a growing amount of research that has demonstrated the effectiveness and potential of online PD for a variety of educators (e.g., Healy, Block, & Kelly, 2019;Kennedy, Kellems, Thomas, & Newton, 2015). This research has generally reported that educators who have participated in online PD have significantly increased their knowledge in their subject area and improved their instructional practices (Healy et al., 2019;Kennedy et al., 2015). However, there is a lack of empirical research focused on the implementation of online PD for school administrators, with even less research focused on specific types of online PD (e.g., webinars, podcasts) for special education administrators (Crockett, Becker, & Quinn, 2009). ...
... One method of online PD that has become increasingly popular is the use of podcasts (Drew, 2017;Kennedy et al., 2015). Podcasts have been noted as an educational phenomenon, with social and 'media-rich' features of online learning that exemplify the uniqueness and broad appeal of online learning (Kidd, 2012). ...
Special education administrators need an understanding of adapted physical education (APE) educational service delivery in order to properly supervise APE service delivery to students with disabilities. However, some preliminary research has suggested that special education administrators have a general lack of knowledge related to APE. Content acquisition podcasts (CAPs) may provide them with the knowledge needed to effectively supervise APE services. The purposes of this study were to examine the impact of CAPs on special education administrators’ knowledge specific to APE and determine how special education administrators perceived CAPs as a form of professional development. Qualitative analyses, t-tests, and a repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine CAPs’ impact on 29 participants. Results revealed that the participants had a low understanding of APE; however the CAPs were found to increase the participants’ knowledge. In addition, the participants had positive perceptions towards the CAPs as a form of professional development.
... This paper examines those studies that have used well-established learning theories (Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning [CTML]; Mayer, 2008;andragogy theory;Knowles, 1975) to guide the development of educational podcast (e.g., Healy, Block, & Kelly, 2019;Kennedy et al., 2011;Kennedy, Newton, Haines, Walther-Thomas, & Kellems, 2012;Luna & Cullen, 2011;McNamara, 2018). Recent literature would suggest that when educational podcast development is guided by theoretical frameworks and accompanied by a greater degree of detail, they can significantly enhance students' learning experiences (e.g., Healy et al., 2019;Kennedy et al., 2011;Kennedy, Kellems, Thomas, & Newton, 2015). Thus, the purpose of this paper was to explore key theoretical frameworks that have been used to develop educational podcasts for empirical research. ...
... Kennedy and colleagues explained the need for a guiding theoretical framework to develop and study educational podcasts, as "there is no set of agreed-upon 'rules' for creating effective podcasts" (Kennedy et al., 2011, p. 91). CAPs are podcasts that distribute audio and video information and embed evidence-based instructional design principles to deliver content (Kennedy et al., 2015). CAPs are able to blend the desirable features of podcasts (e.g., accessibility) with validated instructional design principles. ...
... CAPs are able to blend the desirable features of podcasts (e.g., accessibility) with validated instructional design principles. Numerous studies have used this framework to develop and disseminate CAPs to a variety of professionals in the field of education (e.g., undergraduates, special educators, physical educators; Healy et al., 2019;Kennedy et al., 2011Kennedy et al., , 2015Kennedy et al., , 2014. For instance, Kennedy et al. (2016) noted that from 2011 to 2016, there had been 12 published studies that had developed and studied the impact of CAPs on teacher candidates' learning. ...
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Research on educational podcasts’ impacts on learning has steadily increased in recent years. Within this research, several issues related to methodology in educational podcast research have been cited. These include lack of detail, lack of reporting reliability, and questionable validity of testing instruments. However, one the theoretical frameworks that guide podcast development processes have received minimal attention. To address the lack of attention to theoretical frameworks within the educational podcasting literature, this paper utilized a conceptual analysis to examine key theoretical frameworks that have been used in empirical studies of educational podcasts. By examining theoretical frameworks used within relevant research, this paper introduces the value of using applicable learning theories to guide podcast development. Three theoretical frameworks are discussed: (a) the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, (b) adult learning theories (e.g., andragogy theory), and (c) a combination of the two. The paper shows both the versatility of educational podcasts and the need for further examination of how different theoretical frameworks may underpin the development of podcasts across unique learning environments.
... Undergraduate assignments often consist of presentations, tests, and papers. However, technology-enhanced college classrooms can promote improved engagement (Carle, Jaffee, & Miller, 2009) and content knowledge (Kennedy, Kellems, Thomas, & Newton, 2015). ...
... CAPs were designed based on Mayer's (2008Mayer's ( , 2009) cognitive theory of multimedia learning and 12 accompanying evidence-based instructional design principles. CAPs offer a promising solution to build content knowledge and improve strategy instruction for preservice teachers (Kennedy, Thomas, & Meyer, 2014;Kennedy et al., 2015). ...
... Additionally, instructor-created podcasts have been successfully used to provide students with a new means of studying (Heilesen, 2010) and increase active engagement in learning (Carle et al., 2009). More specifically, instructor-created CAPs have been shown to improve students' content acquisition Kennedy et al., 2015). This study makes a unique contribution to the research on CAPs by (a) focusing on the impact of student-created products, rather than instructor-created materials, to increase student knowledge and retention rates (Heilesen, 2010) and (b) applying CAPs to preservice teacher learning about mathematics instructional teaching methods. ...
In undergraduate college courses, assignments designed to showcase preservice teacher learning traditionally include classroom presentations, papers, projects, and tests. Often, these activities do not translate into permanent products that will be utilized outside the course. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of self-created video podcasts on content acquisition among undergraduate preservice special education teachers. Preservice teachers in two undergraduate courses were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) podcast condition (treatment group; n ¼ 25) and (2) traditional live presentation condition (control group; n ¼ 25). The participants in each group were then assigned targeted instructional strategies for teaching mathematics. Pre-post measures included a comprehensive multiple-choice test and an open-ended assessment targeting each assigned strategy. During the last 2 weeks of the semester, participants presented their final product and completed the posttests. Results suggested that the participants in the treatment group (podcasts) acquired a deeper understanding of their assigned strategy than the participants from the comparison group (live presentations). The treatment group also outperformed the control group on the comprehensive multiple-choice test.
... Educational podcasts that are used within a college course are often categorized as either supplementary (i.e., providing summaries of face-to-face teaching or additional resources) or substitutional (i.e., replacing faceto-face teaching; Heilesen, 2010). Although many scholars advocate for podcasts to be used to supplement traditional forms of learning (e.g., Kennedy, Kellems, Thomas, & Newton, 2015;, the literature on educational podcasting has not reached a consensus, especially with regard to fully-online settings (e.g., Hew & Cheung, 2013). For example, O'Bannon, Lubke, Beard, and Britt (2011) suggested that these findings demonstrate that podcasts may be able to effectively replace face-to-face instruction. ...
... It is important for faculty to consider how theoretical frameworks may assist in the overall learning process. Recent literature suggests that educational podcasts specifically grounded in theoretical frameworks can significantly enhance students' learning experiences (e.g., Healy, Block, & Kelly, 2020;Kennedy et al., 2015). A majority of educational podcast research has focused on adult learners (e.g., college students; Kay, 2012), and thus a few studies have employed well-established adult learning theories to guide podcast development (Healy et al., 2020;Luna & Cullen, 2011;. ...
E-learning has become an increasingly popular mode of teaching college students, including students in the field of kinesiology. With the rise of e-learning, it is important to examine and understand specific components of online learning, such as educational podcasts. Educational podcasts are podcasts that are developed specifically for learning purposes and are frequently developed and used by faculty members. Preliminary research suggests that many college courses already regularly use podcasts as a learning tool, as well as that educational podcasts are a beneficial tool to use to supplement the learning process. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the literature related to educational podcasts. More specifically, within this paper the authors highlight the benefits of using educational pod-casts, theories to apply to podcast development and implementation, types of podcasts, and strategies to properly incorporate educational podcasts within a kinesiology-related course.
... Relying on a connectivist philosophy (Siemens, 2005) that speaks to how digital technologies have restructured our social interactions and thinking to be bottom-up, Mayer's approach suggests that a learner actively constructs knowledge through the use of media technologies, and that interaction with digital content may spur many-to-many communication about media-driven content. However, in this paper, we move beyond the idea of using podcasts for content acquisition and sharing (Kennedy et al., 2015). ...
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This extended paper, co-authored by undergraduate students and their instructor part of an educational psychology seminar, describes a participatory curriculum design approach for preservice teacher education that focuses on the use of the principles of second-order cybernetics to teach about teaching and learning. Using elements of an Open Source Educational Processes framework, our Spring ESEPSY2309 section created project-based collective hive minds of preservice teachers, relying on a cybernetic approach at the crossroads of Gregory Bateson and Gordon Pask’s theories. The classroom community used four innovative tool-mediated pillars to guide collaborative activity: 1) Live-chatting using the Reddit social media platform, 2) observation of the lives, strategies, and practices used by teachers and students in their own social networks through Soundcloud podcasting to expand their own perceptions of pedagogies and best practices that they could employ in their careers, 3) open-ended paper writing, exploring sources beyond the object language provided by the textbook through extensive dyadic conversations with the instructor, and 4) training in the use of the Alice 3 game creation tool for block programming enabling the accumulation of competence in designing classroom systems that may treat students these undergraduates would soon teach as active historical agents in learning environments, combining skills from varied subjects into transdisciplinary educational experiences. We showcase outcomes of our class projects using a narrative inquiry to describe podcast episodes, a topic network analysis to illustrate the expansive nature of Open Source writing activity, and a visual depiction of our class Alice 3 games.
Developers of evidence-based preventive interventions and professional development models have often struggled to scale their interventions and make them more readily available to a broader audience. Many program developers have expressed interest in using the Internet and online platforms to help address these scaling and delivery challenges. Yet very few have carefully considered the myriad of decisions and challenges one may encounter when adapting an existing program for online delivery. The COVID-19 pandemic has also accelerated the urgency for the online delivery of evidence-based programs to address student behavioral and mental health needs through quality professional development for teachers and practitioners. The purpose of this chapter is to review several frameworks, best practices, approaches, and related considerations for program developers who are seeking to adapt existing programs for online delivery to teachers and practitioners without compromising the integrity of the program and its content.
To successfully participate in the science learning experience, students are expected to participate in investigations and communicate their thinking with their peers. However, in order to engage in these conversations and develop a deeper understanding of the science concepts being explored, it is necessary to understand the specialized vocabulary being used. Science teachers do not regularly provide evidence-based vocabulary instruction in the classroom which could create difficulty for students with disabilities who often know a smaller number of vocabulary word meanings and have executive functioning difficulties. In this chapter, a technology-based instructional approach to support the science vocabulary learning among students with disabilities will be introduced and discussed. In addition, production steps for the technology will be provided.
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Universal design for learning (UDL) is a framework that is commonly employed for guiding the construction and delivery of instruction intended to support all students. In this study we employed a related model to guide creation of a multimedia-based instructional tool called content acquisition podcasts (CAPs). CAPs delivered vocabulary instruction during two concurrent social studies units to 32 students with disabilities and 109 students without disabilities. We created CAPs using a combination of evidence-based practices for vocabulary instruction, UDL, and Mayer’s (2008) instructional design principles. High school students with and without learning disabilities completed weekly curriculum-based measurement probes (vocabulary matching) over an 8-week period along with two corresponding posttests. Students were nested within sections of world history and randomly assigned to alternating treatments (CAPs and business as usual) that were administered sequentially to each group. Results revealed that students with and without disabilities made significant growth on CBMs and scored significantly higher on the posttests when taught using CAPs.
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A critical issue facing the field of education is the need to improve teachers' preparation to effectively manage student behavior in the classroom. Many pre- and in-service teachers receive exposure to evidence-based behavioral interventions, such as schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports, during teacher preparation programs; however, face-to-face instructional time is always at a premium given the range of learning experiences that must be acquired prior to licensure. Consequently, many educators begin their careers without strong classroom management skills, which has many unfortunate consequences, including the decision for some to leave the field within the first three to five years. In this study, we evaluated content acquisition podcasts based on validated instructional design principles. We focused on determining the extent to which preservice teachers could learn core information related to schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports using a short multimedia vignette compared to students who learned content using traditional methods (e.g., reading and note taking). Results show students who learned by watching content acquisition podcasts significantly outperformed students who had unlimited time to read a chapter on SW-PBIS and had access to other learning materials on a test of knowledge related to schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Implications for practice and future research are presented.
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The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms.
For hundreds of years verbal messages such as lectures and printed lessons have been the primary means of explaining ideas to learners. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, this book explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. Recent advances in graphics technology have prompted new efforts to understand the potential of multimedia and multimedia learning as a means of promoting human understanding. In Multimedia Learning, Second Edition, Richard E. Mayer asks whether people learn more deeply when ideas are expressed in words and pictures rather than in words alone. He reviews twelve principles of instructional design that are based on experimental research studies and grounded in a theory of how people learn from words and pictures. The result is what Mayer calls the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, a theory introduced in the first edition of Multimedia Learning and further developed in The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.
This chapter is divided into two parts. The first describes the effect of Pat Rabbitt's influence in encouraging the first author to use the increasingly sophisticated methods of ageing research to answer questions about the fundamental characteristics of working memory, together with reflections on why so little of this work reached publication. The second part presents a brief review of the literature on working memory and ageing, followed by an account of more recent work attempting to apply the traditional method of experimental dissociation to research on normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease. The discussion suggests that even such simple methods can throw light on both the processes of ageing and the understanding of working memory.
Evidence-based practice in education entails making pedagogical decisions that are informed by relevant empirical research evidence. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss evidence-based pedagogical approaches related to the use of Web 2.0 technologies in both K-12 and higher education settings. The use of such evidence-based practice would be useful to educators interested in fostering student learning through Web 2.0 tools. A comprehensive literature search across the Academic Search Premier, Education Research Complete, ERIC, and PsycINFO databases was conducted. Empirical studies were included for review if they specifically examined the impact of Web 2.0 technologies on student learning. Articles that merely described anecdotal studies such as student perception or feeling toward learning using Web 2.0, or studies that relied on student self-report data such as student questionnaire survey and interview were excluded. Overall, the results of our review suggested that actual evidence regarding the impact of Web 2.0 technologies on student learning is as yet fairly weak. Nevertheless, the use of Web 2.0 technologies appears to have a general positive impact on student learning. None of the studies reported a detrimental or inferior effect on learning. The positive effects are not necessarily attributed to the technologies per se but to how the technologies are used, and how one conceptualizes learning. It may be tentatively concluded that a dialogic, constructionist, or co-constructive pedagogy supported by activities such as Socratic questioning, peer review and self-reflection appeared to increase student achievement in blog-, wiki-, and 3-D immersive virtual world environments, while a transmissive pedagogy supported by review activities appeared to enhance student learning using podcast.
a b s t r a c t There are many open questions with respect to theory and empirical support for methods used in college teaching, especially when technology is incorporated into instruction. In this article, we report the results of a study of a multimedia-based instructional tool called Content Acquisition Podcasts (CAPs) that pro-vides university instructors with a tool that is grounded in applied theory and has advanced through several iterations of developmental and experimental testing as suggested by Clark (2009). CAPs are a form of enhanced podcasts (still images synchronized with audio) that incorporate Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning (2009), and accompanying instructional design principles (2008) to ensure the looks and sounds of instruction do not overwhelm the limitations of users' cognitive processes. This article reports data from one of the first five experimental tests of CAPs in which undergraduate teacher candidates received instruction related to content from an introductory course in special education. In this study, teacher candidates from two universities were randomly assigned either to watch a CAP or read a textbook chapter containing the same content for two topics: characteristics of students with learning disabilities or high-functioning autism. We employed a pretest-posttest-maintenance design to evaluate participant performance on dependent measures of knowledge. Results indicate that when participants learned with CAPs, they had significantly higher scores on content-knowledge tests at both posttest and maintenance assessments than when they studied via the usual text-based materials.