Predictors of Incarceration Among Urban Adults With Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illness and a Substance Use Disorder

Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) (Impact Factor: 2.41). 07/2014; 65(11). DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed


People with severe mental illness and a co-occurring substance use disorder (co-occurring disorders) who live in urban areas experience high rates of incarceration. This study examined sociodemographic, clinical, economic, and community integration factors as predictors of incarceration among people with co-occurring disorders.

This secondary analysis used data from a randomized controlled trial of assertive community treatment versus standard case management. In the parent study, researchers interviewed 198 people with co-occurring disorders from two urban mental health centers in Connecticut at baseline and every six months for three years. Researchers tracked incarceration, clinical engagement and status, employment, living situation, social relationships, and substance use. The study reported here used bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses to compare individuals who were incarcerated during the study period with those who were not.

The overall incarceration rate was 38% during the study period. In multivariate analyses, prior incarceration predicted incarceration during the study period (odds ratio [OR]=3.26). Two factors were associated with a reduced likelihood of incarceration: friendships with individuals who did not use substances (OR=.19) and substance use treatment engagement (OR=.60).

Positive social relationships and engagement in substance use treatment are promising service and policy targets to prevent incarceration in this high-risk population.

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Available from: Gregory J Mchugo, Aug 25, 2015
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    • "Several studies have reported concentrations of people with CCD in urban centres (Culhane et al. 1996; Luciano et al. 2014). But it is not clear how people with CCD are distributed over large regions, and if they are relatively less prevalent in rural and remote settings compared with urban centres. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. A subset of people with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders require coordinated support from health, social welfare and justice agencies to achieve diversion from homelessness, criminal recidivism and further health and social harms. Integrated models of care are typically concentrated in large urban centres. The present study aimed to empirically measure the prevalence and distribution of complex co-occurring disorders (CCD) in a large geographic region that includes urban as well as rural and remote settings. Methods. Linked data were examined in a population of roughly 3.7 million adults. Inclusion criteria for the CCD subpopulation were: physician diagnosed substance use and mental disorders; psychiatric hospitalisation; shelter assistance; and criminal convictions. Prevalence per 100 000 was calculated in 91 small areas representing urban, rural and remote settings. Results. 2202 individuals met our inclusion criteria for CCD. Participants had high rates of hospitalisation (8.2 admissions), criminal convictions (8.6 sentences) and social assistance payments (over $36 000 CDN) in the past 5 years. There was wide variability in the geographic distribution of people with CCD, with high prevalence rates in rural and remote settings. Conclusions. People with CCD are not restricted to areas with large populations or to urban settings. The highest per capita rates of CCD were observed in relatively remote locations, where mental health and substance use services are typically in limited supply. Empirically supported interventions must be adapted to meet the needs of people living outside of urban settings with high rates of CCD.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences