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Researches were conducted in the years 2009-2011 on a brown soil, wheat faulty complex (Poland, Podkarpackie Voivodeship). The experiment was carried using the randomized blocks method in 3 replications. Three cultivars of sweet potato were studied: Carmen Rubin, Goldstar and White Triumph – with a different morphological and physiological type. Content of dry matter, carbohydrates, protein, vitamin C, ascorbic acid and macronutrients in tubers was determined using standard methods. The study discusses the content of nutrient in sweet potatoes’ tubers, which can help to reduce nutritional problems in the society. The biological value of sweet potato tubers was high. White Triumph cultivar with a white skin and flesh characterized by a significantly higher content of starch, sugar sum, protein, vitamin C, ascorbic acid and phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in comparison with skin colour and flesh cultivars (Goldstar and Carmen Rubin). The lowest variability was characterized by the starch and the largest – calcium.
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Marczak et al Page 169
RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS
Nutrition value of the sweet potato (
Ipomoea batatas
(L.) Lam)
cultivated in south eastern Polish conditions
Barbara Krochmal-Marczak1, Barbara Sawicka2, Jacek Supski3, Tomasz Cebulak4,
Katarzyna Paradowska5*
1Departament of Agriculture and Rural Development, State Higher Vocational School names
Stanislaw Pigonia in Krosno, Poland
2Department of Plant Production Technology and Commodity, University of Life Science Lublin,
Poland
3Department of Raw Materials and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Department of Food
Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland
4Department of Technology and Quality Plant Products, Department of Biology and Agriculture,
University in Rzeszow, Poland
5 Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland
Article published on April 29, 2014
Key words: Chemical composition, macronutrients, sweet potato, variety.
Abstract
Studies were conducted in the years 2009−2011 on a brown soil, wheat faulty complex (Poland, Podkarpackie
Voivodeship). The experiment was carried out using the randomized blocks method in 3 replications. Three
cultivars of sweet potato were studied: Carmen Rubin, Goldstar and White Triumph with a different
morphological and physiological type. Contents of dry matter, carbohydrates, protein, vitamin C, ascorbic acid
and macronutrients in tubers were determined using standard methods. White Triumph cultivar with white skin
and flesh is characterized by a significantly higher content of starch, sugars, proteins, vitamin C, ascorbic acid as
well as phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in comparison with cultivars (Goldstar and Carmen Rubin) with
coloured skin and flesh. The biological value of sweet potato tubers is high. The content of nutrients in sweet
potatoes’ tubers is discussed in terms of their nutritional utility. Sweet potatoes can help reducing nutritional
problems and can be especially recommended for diabetics.
* Corresponding Author: Katarzyna Paradowska katarzyna.paradowska@wum.edu.pl
International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR)
ISSN: 2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online)
http://www.innspub.net
Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 169-178, 2014
Marczak et al Page 170
Introduction
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.), known as
a patata, is well known long-term species in a warm
and hot climate zone and an annual plant (spring) in
temperate zone. This species has moist and delicate
tubers with a sweetish taste, pleasant and aromatic
smell. It has also a high nutritional value about 50%
higher than the potato. Therefore, it plays an
important role in the diet of the world’s population
(Ofori et al., (2005). Tubers are main usable part of
the sweet potato, although leaves can also be used.
Tubers are characterized by a high unit mass (1−3 and
even 5 kg); diverse shapes spherical, oval, spherical-
oval, fusiform; skin and flesh: white, cream, yellow,
orange, red, claret and even purple, depending on a
cultivar (Maloney et al. (2012). The main nutritional
material in sweet potato’s tubers are carbohydrates
(starches and simple sugars), protein, fat and fat-
soluble vitamins. Moreover, cultivars with a yellow
flesh also contain significant amounts of carotenes
(Allen et al. (2012). Maloney et al. (2012) pointed out
that potentially valuable proteins can be extracted
from the peel during the processing of sweet potatoes.
Sweet potato’s tubers have anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant
and anti-proliferative properties due to the presence
of valuable nutritional and mineral components
(Jaarsveld et al. 2005; Abubakar et al. (2010).
Furthermore, Ipomoea batatas tubers, which are
steady item in the Americans’ diet, appear to be very
beneficial in the diet of diabetics and consumers with
an insulin resistance, because they have a low
glycemic index (Ludvik et al. (2004), Allen et al.
(2012). Knowledge of the glycemic index (GI) diet for
diabetes may help to predict their daily diet in order
to control a blood glucose level. GI of a pure glucose,
which is used as the standard and a pattern for other
products, is 100, while the GI of sweet potato’s tubers,
depending on whether they are boiled, baked or
prepared in a microwave, is: 63 ± 3.6; 64 ± 4.3 or 66
± 5.7, respectively. It encourages using them in the
diet of diabetics (Allen et al. (2012); Maloney, 2012).
Recently, in Poland has been increasing interest in
the cultivation of these vegetables, as raw material
with excellent nutritional values, mainly for the food
and pharmaceutical industries. However, the
knowledge about these species is not sufficient,
especially on their nutritional values.
Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the
chemical composition and nutritional value of three
sweet potato’s cultivars, which are cultivated in
south−western Poland.
Materials and methods
Plant material and preparation plantation
Three cultivars of sweet potato were studied: Carmen
Rubin, Goldstar and White Triumph with a
different morphological and physiological type. The
research material was from a field experiment
conducted in 2009−2011 in Zyznow (Poland,
Podkarpackie Voivodeship), on a brown soil of the
faulty wheat complex. The field experiment was
realized using the randomized blocks method in 3
replications. Organic fertilization, at a dose of 25 ha-
1and mineral fertilization, phosphorus and potassium
(P 43.6 kg; K 124.5 kg ha-1) was applied in the
autumn, while a nitrogen fertilization in the amount
of 100 kg ha-1 in the spring before planting. Forecrop
of the sweet potato was the spring barley. Rooted
sweet potato cuttings (from in vitro reproduction)
were propagating material. Plants were planted into
the soil between 25−26 May in spacing: 75 × 40 cm.
Area of plots for harvest was 15 m2. Mechanical
cultivation involving the double ridging and hand
weeding was used in the experiment.
Chemical analysis
The harvest was realized during the technical
maturity, in early October. During the harvest,
samples were taken (30 tubers of various sizes in
proportion to their share in the crop) from every plot,
in order to determine a chemical composition of
tubers. Immediately after the harvest, in a fresh
weight of tubers following parameters were
evaluated: dry matter drier method, total protein
content Kjeldahl method, starch content
polarimetrically (according to Ewers−Grossfeld);
content of sugar sum and reducing sugars
Luff−Schoorl jodometric method in the Scales
modification; vitamins C spectrophotometrically via
Tillmans. In the dry weight of tubers were identified:
general content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium,
Marczak et al Page 171
magnesium and sodium in a stock solution, which
was obtained after the “dry” mineralization of tubers
in a muffle furnace at 450°C.
Crude ash, which was obtained in a porcelain
crucible, was completely poured over by an aqueous
solution of hydrochloric acid HCI (1:1) in order to
dissolve carbonates and separate silica (SiO2) and
evaporated in a sand bath. 10 cm3 of 5% HCI helps to
obtain a solution containing chlorides of analyzed
elements and phosphoric acid (V). This solution was
transferred to a volumetric flask (100 cm3) and the
silica was separated on a hard filter. Furthermore, the
crucible was washed 3 times with deionised water,
and the solution was transferred via the filter in order
to remove chlorides and completed the volumetric
flask (AOAC, 2000). In such a prepared stock
solution, the concentration of examined
macronutrients was determined using ICP-AES
method on an emission spectrometer with the
inductively coupled plasma (argon) Optima 3200 RL,
produced by the Perkin Elmer Company. For this
purpose, the following wavelengths were used: for P
214.914 nm; K 766.490 nm; Ca 315.887 nm; Mg
285.213 nm; Na 330.237 nm. Operating parameters
of the camera were as follows: RF 1300 W, flow rate
of cooling argon 15 L min-1, auxiliary argon 0.5 L
min-1, nebulizated argon 0.8 L min-1 and the speed
of sample loading 1.5 L min-1.
Data analyses
The statistics was carried out using the analysis of
variance. The significance of variation sources was
checked by the Fisher-Snedecor “F” test. The
significance of object differences for researched traits
was evaluated using the Turkeys test. Furthermore
some features descriptive statistics, such as: standard
deviation, median, kurtosis and coefficients of
variation for the studied traits were also examined.
Rainfalls and air temperature during the growing
period of sweet potatoes
Distribution of temperature and precipitation in
analyzed years was diversified, as illustrated in Figure
1. In 2009 only May and July were wet and warm,
and the remainder of the growing season was
characterized by the deficiency of rainfall and average
air temperature. In 2010, May and July were wet and
cool total precipitation significantly exceeded the
amount of several years, while August was average,
both in terms of precipitation and air temperature,
September and October were dry. In 2011, May, June,
August, September and October were dry and cool,
and July was very wet and warm.
Fig. 1. Rainfalls and air temperature during the growing period of sweet potatoes according to the meteorological
station of IMGW in Dukla
0
5
10
15
20
25
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
160.0
V
VI
VII
IX
X
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
2009
2010
2011
Air temperature [°C]
Rainfall [mm]
Sum of rainfall 2009-2011
Sum of rainfall 1989-2004
Mean of air temperature 2009-2011
Mean of air temperature 1989-2004
Marczak et al Page 172
Results and discussion
Contents of chemical components
The content of tested nutrients in sweet potato’s
tubers appeared to be significantly dependent on
the specific characteristics (Table 2). The amount of
dry matter in tubers reaches 24.19 g 100 g-1 with
fluctuations from 19.69 g to 29.91 g, while the
coefficient of variation of this trait was V = 18.13%
it means its relatively high stability. A variation with
the highest content of dry matter in tubers was
White Triumph, while the lowest one Carmen
Rubin; however, Goldstar had higher content that
Carmen Rubin (Table 1).
Table 1. Content of dry matter and chemical components in fresh matter Ipomoea batatas tubers (mean for
2009-2011)
Cultivars
Dry
matter
g 100 g-1
Starch
g 100 g-1
Total
sugars
g 100 g-1
Reducing
sugars
g 100 g-1
Total
protein
g 100 g-1
Ash
g 100 g-1
Crude
fibre
g 100 g-1
Vitamin C
mg 100 g-1
Ascorbic
acid
mg 100 g-1
Goldstar
Carmen
Rubin
White
Triumph
23.80
19.69
29.91
14.90
14.70
14.91
2.90
2.16
3.85
1.09
0.93
1.60
1.50
0.93
1.63
1.38
1.07
1.52
0.86
1.14
0.97
24.20
20.26
24.20
19.81
17.46
21.23
Mean
21.75
14.84
2.97
1.21
1.35
1.32
0.99
22.89
19.50
LSD05
1.35
n*
0.16
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.05
1.26
1.07
* − not significant at P<0.05
The coefficient of variation in this trait, which is a
measure of the dispersion in obtained results, was V
= 18.1% (Table 2) indicating that this characteristics
is quite stable. The content of dry matter in tubers,
which was presented by Sawicka et al. (2004), was
slightly higher and it averaged 27.15 g 100 g-1 with
fluctuations from 21.51 to 34.36 g. According to the
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard
Reference (2007), the dry weight averages 22.72 g
100 g-1 of a fresh weight of sweet potato’s tubers.
Table 2. Statistical characteristics of chemical components of tubers of sweet potatoes
Traits
Mean ± standard
deviation
Kurtosis
Slant
Variability
coefficient
%
Dry matter g·100 g-1 fresh matter
Starch g·100 g-1 fresh matter
Total sugars g·100 g-1 fresh matter
Reducing sugars g.100 g-1 fresh matter
Protein g·100 g-1 fresh matter
Crude fibre g·100 g-1 fresh matter
Ash g·100 g-1 fresh matter
Vitamin C mg·100 g-1 fresh matter
Ascorbic acid mg·100 g-1 fresh matter
Potassium mg 100 g-1 dry matter
Phosphorus mg 100 g-1 dry matter
Calcium mg 100 g-1 dry matter
Magnesium mg 100 g-1 dry matter
Sodium mg 100 g-1 dry matter
24.47 ±4.43
14.83 ±0.68
2.97 ±0.64
1.21 ±0.29
1.35 ±0.32
0.99±0.28
1.32 ±0.45
22.89 ±9.62
19.50 ±8.19
2.12 ±0.19
0.26 ±0.03
0.51 ±0.26
0.13 ±0.05
0.19±0.04
-0.93
-1.61
-1.65
-1.65
-1.68
-1.66
-1.65
2.95
-1.65
-1.69
-1.65
2.67
-1.63
-1.66
0.27
-0.81
0.17
0.63
-0.70
0.29
-0.49
-0.81
-0.33
0.11
0.57
-0.59
-0.44
-0.61
18.10
4.59
21.55
23.97
23.70
28.88
34.09
42.03
42.00
8.96
11.54
50.98
38.46
21.05
The content of starch, in 100 g of fresh weight of
sweet potato’s tubers, averaged 14.83 g, with a
coefficient of variation V = 4.60%, which means a
very high stability of this trait (Tables 1 and 2). The
highest content of this component in tubers was
accumulated by the White Triumph variation, while
the lowest Carmen Rubin. Goldstar and White
Triumph variations were homogeneous in terms of
the amount of this component (Table 1). In tubers
of Cananua variation, which was cultivated in the
central-eastern part of Poland, Sawicka et al.
Marczak et al Page 173
(2004) obtained an average amount of starch: 21.98
g.100 g-1 with fluctuations from 15.96 to 26.24 g.100
g-1. In China’s conditions, the average value of
starch in the fresh weight of sweet potato’s tuber is
24.4 g 100 g-1 (Katayama et al., 2004). According to
the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard
Reference (2007), carbohydrates are 20.12 g 100 g-1
of a fresh weight of tubers. Katayama et al. (2004)
showed that the content of starch in sweet potato’s
tubers, depending on the geographic area, may
range from 9.3 to 28.8 g.100 g-1.
The average content of sugars in tested cultivars of
sweet potato was 2.97 g.100 g-1 (fresh tubers) and
12.16 g.100 g-1 (dry weight), and reducing sugars
1.21g 100g-1 and 2.88g/100 g-1 in a fresh and dry
weight, respectively (Table 1). Coefficients of
variation for total sugars and reducing sugars were
21.55% and 23.97%, respectively (Table 2). Genetic
variation of researched variations decided about the
accumulation of both sugars sum and reducing
sugars. A variation with the highest concentration of
these components was White Triumph; so, due to
their high content, it can serve as a dietetic and
easily digestible food for children as well as for
diabetics. The lowest value of tested characteristics
was observed in Carmen Rubin tubers. The content
of soluble sugars in Goldstar tubers appeared to be
higher than in Carmen Rubin variation, but it was
significantly lower in comparison with the White
Triumph variation (Table 1).
In conditions of the central-eastern Poland, Sawicka
et al. (2004) got an average of 2.16 g of soluble
sugars in 100 g of a fresh weight, with fluctuations
from 1.97 g to 2.43 g, while for reducing sugars
1.11g with fluctuations in the range between 1.06-
1.17g. Ofiori et al. (2005) state that the total sugar
content in the dry weight of tubers oscillates,
depending on the variety and growing conditions,
from 5.53 to 16.99 g.100g-1, and reducing sugar
0.53-1.62 g.100 g-1. According to the USDA (2007),
the content of soluble sugars in a fresh weight of
sweet potato is about 4.18 g.100g-1, including
reducing sugars (mostly fructose and glucose),
which represent about 1.66 g.100g-1. The rest (i.e.
about 2.52 g.100 g-1) of sugars is sucrose. The total
content of protein averaged 1.35g.100 g-1 of a fresh
weight, while the coefficient of variation of this trait
V = 23.70% (Table 1, 2). In conditions of the
central-eastern Poland, Sawicka et al. (2004) stated
double value of protein (2.82 g.100 g-1) in a fresh
weight of tubers in the Cananua variety, with a
coefficient of variation V = 6.9%. After recalculation
of the results, expressed as the dry weight, the
content of protein in the studied sweet potato’s
tubers was 4.7-6.3 g.100 g-1. These values were in a
range found for this vegetable, which was
determined by Ofori et al., (2005) and Katayama et
al., (2004) 3.74-8.63 g.100 g-1.
According to the USDA National Nutrient Database for
Standard Reference (2007), a daily energy
requirement for men is 2700 kcal and for women
2000 kcal, including 8.3% in a form of protein. Sweet
potato’s tubers have an energy value about 86 kcal,
including 6% in a form of protein. Therefore, food
products from the sweet potato provide sufficient
amount of protein for a suitable, calorific diet
(Katayama et al., 2004). According to Gopalakrishnan
et al. (2011) in Papua New Guinea, protein from
Ipomoea batatas represents about 50% of the total
protein intake in a diet. These authors found from 0.8g
to 1.4 g of protein in 100g fresh weight of this
vegetable. On the other hand, according to Katayama
et al. (2004), the total content of protein can fluctuate
in a slightly wider range from 0.49 g to 2.13 g.100 g-1
of a fresh weight, while according to the USDA
National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
(2007), the content of this component was 1.57 g in
100g of fresh tubers.
The content of vitamin C in sweet potato’s tubers
was between 20.26-24.20 mg.100 g-1, and the
content of L−ascorbic acid represented 82-88% of
the total content of this vitamin. Results, which
were obtained in this study, were similar to
amounts given by Sawicka et al. (2004) and
Krochmal-Marczak and Sawicka (2007). According
to Otieno et al. (2008), the content of vitamin C in
the fresh weight of this vegetable is in the range of
16.13-23.42 mg.100 g-1. According to Ukom et al.
(2009), fresh sweet potato’s tubers contain slightly
higher amounts of this nutrient, what is mainly
Marczak et al Page 174
modified by genetic characteristics of cultivars. In
the Sawicka’s opinion (2000), observed differences
in the chemical composition of tubers are
conditioned by the phenotypic variability of tuber
cultivars. They reflect a combined effect of genetic
and environmental variation. It is worth mentioning
a high and stable content of crude protein and
vitamin C over the years, and also a crude ash and
fiber. In functional food, this last component is
mainly highlighted.
In view of the rich chemical composition of
Ipomoea batatas, and also due to the content of -
amylase, it is included to the plants with a much
higher nutritional value than tuberous species
known in our country, such as: potato or Jerusalem
artichoke (Sawicka et al., 2000, Krochmal-Marczak,
Sawicka, 2007). The content of fibre in a fresh
weight of Ipomoea batatas tubers averaged 0.99%
with a coefficient of variation V = 28,88% (Table
1,2). In Polish conditions, Sawicka et al. (2004)
obtained the content of fiber in a fresh weight of
tubers at the level of 0.93 g with fluctuations from
0.84 g to 1.07 g.100 g-1. Chandy et al. (Indian
researches) (2013) obtained a similar content of this
component (1.0 g.100 g-1 in a fresh weight).
Abubakar et al. (2010) stated that cooked sweet
potato’s tubers have about 0.84 g.100 g-1 of a crude
fibre. According to the USDA (2007), the content of
a total, digestible fibre is 3.0 g.100 g-1 of a fresh
weight. The content of this component significantly
depended on genetic characteristics in examined
cultivars. The highest content of this component
was observed in the Israeli variety Carmen Rubin,
and the lowest one in Goldstar (American variety).
White Triumph variety produced less fibre than
Carmen Rubin variety, but significantly more than
Goldstar variety. An influence of varietals
characteristics on the chemical composition trait of
tubers is confirmed by Sawicka et al. (2004), Ukom
et al. (2009), Abubakar et al. (2010), Maloney et al.
(2012) and Chandy (2013).
The ash content in sweet potato’s tubers averaged 1.32
g.100g-1 of their fresh weight; with a coefficient of
variation V = 34.09% (Tables 1 and 2). In Polish
conditions, Sawicka et al. (2004) noted 1.51 g.100 g-1 of
a fresh weight. Ukam et al. (2009) in Pakistan stated
1.02-1.70 g.100 g-1 of this component in a fresh weight,
depending on the variety. Abubakar et al. (2010)
detected in cooked sweet potato’s tubers 1.03-1.23
g.100 g-1 of ash. The variety, which accumulates the
most amount of element was the White Triumph,
while the least amount Carmen Rubin. Influence of
varietal characteristics on the content of mineral
compound in sweet potato’s tubers was confirmed by
Sawicka et al. (2004); Ukom et al. (2009), Abubakar
et al. (2010) and Chandy (2013).
Contents of macronutrient
The studied sweet potato’s tubers are rich in
phosphorus, potassium, calcium and sodium, while
low in magnesium. The content of macro-elements in
sweet potato’s tubers, due to the stability, can be
ranged as follows: potassium phosphorus sodium
magnesium calcium (Table 2,3), therefore, the
least stable trait of mineral composition proved to be
calcium. According to the USDA (2007), sweet potato’s
tubers have in 100 g of a fresh weight: 337 mg of
potassium, 55 mg of sodium, 47 mg of phosphorus, 30
mg of calcium and 25 mg of magnesium. Colato
Antonio et al. (2011) showed in a dry weight of the
tuber: 320 mg of potassium, 47 mg of phosphorus, 22
mg of calcium and 13 mg of magnesium.
The average content of potassium was an average of
2.12 g.100 g-1 in a dry weight of sweet potato’s tubers
(Table 1). The coefficient of valuation of this trait was
low (V = 8. 96%) and it testifies a high stability of this
characteristic. In Polish conditions, the content of this
element in Ipomoea batatas tubers corresponds with
the amount of this element in potato and Jerusalem
artichoke tubers (Sawicka 2000, Sawicka and
Kalembasa 2008). According to the USDA (2007), its
average concentration in tubers is 337 mg.100g-1 of a
fresh weight, in Ukom et al. study (2009) 115-203
mg.100 g-1, depending on the variety.
The average content of phosphorus in tested tubers
was 0.26 g.100g-1 of a dry weight with the coefficient of
variation V=11,54% (Table 3,2) and it was in the
normal range (Bergman 1992). Genetic characteristics
of examined cultivars did not have a significant
Marczak et al Page 175
influence on the content of this element. These results
are confirmed in Krochmal-Marczak and Sawicka
studies (2007). A little higher content of this element
was noted by Sawicka et al. (2004). In the study of
Ukom et al. (2009), the content of phosphorus was
20.10-27.5 g.100g-1 in tubers, and according to the
USDA (2007) 47mg.100 g-1 of a fresh weight of
tubers.
Table 3. Content macronutrients dry matter tubers Ipomoea batatas (g.100 g-1) (Mean for 2009-2011)
Cultivar
Phosphorus
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sodium
Goldstar
Carmen Rubin
White Triumph
0.26
0.26
0.27
2.25
1.99
2.11
0.55
0.35
0.62
0.14
0.10
0.16
0.21
0.17
0.20
Mean
0.26
2.12
0.51
0.13
0.19
LSD05
n*
0.12
0.03
0.01
0.01
* − not significant at P<0.05
Calcium is the basic mineral component of bones
and teeth. It takes part in blood coagulation
processes and it is essential for the proper
functioning of nerves and muscle contractions.
Therefore, it’s content in vegetables is very
important (Colato Antonio et at., 2011). In the
studied tubers, the content of this element averaged
0.51 g.100 g-1 with the coefficient of valuation
V=50.98%. This amount testifies its low stability
(Table 2,3). Among the tested cultivars, the richest
in calcium was White Triumph variety, while the
poorest Carmen Rubin. Goldstar variety
contained a significantly higher amount of this
element than the Carmen Rubin variety, but
considerably less than the White Triumph. In Ukom
et al. studies (2009), the content of calcium reached
the level of 40-91 mg.100 g-1, while according to the
USDA (2007) only 30 mg.100 g-1.
The average content of magnesium averaged 0.13
g.100 g-1 in a weight of sweet potato’s tubers.
Genetic characteristics of researched cultivars
proved to be a significantly modifying factor of the
potassium content in a dry weight of tubers. Tubers
of the White Triumph variety were the most
abundant in this element. Tubers in the Carmen
Rubin variety accumulated the least amount of
magnesium. On the other hand, the Goldstar variety
accumulated more of this element (in tubers) than
the Carmen Rubin variety, but significantly less
than the White Triumph variety (Table 3). This
macro-element showed an antagonist activity for K+
and NH4+ ions, and it reduces their accumulation
and binding with variety of enzymes. Magnesium
creates ionic bonds (bridge type), for example with
protein and ATP, and also participates in the pH
regulation in a cell. In opinion of Barłóg’s and
Frąckowiak Pawlak’s, (2008) and Touyz (2003),
food products of vegetable origin often contain too
small amounts of magnesium. This low level in
human and animal organisms (due to its role in the
activation of enzymatic processes) accelerates
processes of atherosclerosis and disorders of
nervous and muscle system.
The content of sodium in sweet potato’s tubers
formed at the level of 0.19 g.100 g-1 with a
coefficient of variation V = 21.05%. According to the
USDA (2007), the content of this element is 55
mg.100 g-1, while in Ukom et al. studies (2009)
28-33 mg.100 g-1 in tubers.
It was found, during the evaluation of relative
proportions of mineral components in plant
material, that the Ca:P proportion significantly
deviates from a recognized optimum (Table 4).
Relative proportions Ca:Mg and K:Mg were below,
and K:Ca above the optimum ration of these
components. Only K (Ca+Mg) proportion can be
considered as the optimal.
The standard deviation, as a measure of volatility a
classic, in addition to the arithmetic mean, it tells
you how widely the values of the treats are scattered
around the mean. The smaller the standard
deviation, the more observations are concentrated
Marczak et al Page 176
around its mean, and vice versa: it is the greater the
value characteristics are more varied. The low value
of the standard deviation for example, the dry
matter content of tubers say with a high
concentration of this trait. The median of the data
set is a value dividing the set, in this case, the
content of each component of the chemical
composition of tubers in two parts half of the data is
below a half - than the median.
Table 4. The proportion of mineral components in
Ipomoea batatas tubers (Mean weighed with years
2009-2011)
Cultivars
K: (Ca
+ Mg)
Ca:
Mg
K : Ca
K: Mg
Ca : P
Goldstar
Carmen Rubin
White Triumph
1.48
1.98
1.22
2.38
2.12
2.35
2.10
2.91
1.74
5.00
6.19
4.10
16.35
10.28
17.68
Mean
1.56
2.29
2.25
5.09
14.77
Optimum
1.65
3.00
2.00
6.00
2.00
Kurtosis was in turn strongly varied and ranged
between -0.93 - for dry matter and 2.95 - for
vitamin C (Table 2). Skewness coefficient is set to
zero for a symmetric distribution, negative values
for distributions with left-sided asymmetry (left arm
extended distribution) and positive for distributions
with right-sided asymmetry (right arm extended
distribution). A negative value for the left-hand side
asymmetric distributions (left arm extended
decomposition) was observed for the starch,
protein, vitamin C, ascorbic acid, ash, calcium and
sodium. Negative kurtosis for the studied traits
indicates a flattening of its scope. The positive
coefficient of skewness level, for dry weight, total
sugars and reducing sugars, crude fibre, phosphorus
and potassium, is evidence of right-hand
distribution of features around the mean, or the
right-hand asymmetry. In contrast to the standard
deviation, which determines absolute differences
characteristics, the coefficient of variation is a
measure of the absolute, depending on the size of
the arithmetic average and the measure of the
spread of the results. The greatest variation among
the examined characteristics of the chemical
composition of tubers was characterized by calcium
(50.98%), while the lowest starch (4.59%), which
means that the value of the latter, in the conditions
of south-eastern Polish, is a treat very stable, while
the calcium content of the sweet potato tubers -
most characteristic variable.
Conclusions
1. The sweet potato’s tubers are rich in protein, total
sugars, reducing sugars, vitamin C, ascorbic acid
and macro-elements. The level of vitamin C and
starch in sweet potato’s tubers was similar to the
level in tuberous vegetables, which are cultivated
in Poland. On the other hand, the level of sugar
sum and reducing sugars in tubers was higher
than in tuberous vegetables in Poland.
2. Genetic characteristics of researched cultivars
significantly influenced the nutrient content in
sweet potato’s tubers. The most valuable variety
appeared to be White Triumph variation,
because it had the highest amount of dry weight,
total sugars and reducing sugars, protein,
vitamin C, ascorbic acid calcium and magnesium
in comparison with other cultivars.
3. The amounts of phosphorus, potassium, calcium
and sodium were proved to be high, while of
magnesium low. Goldstar variety was
characterized by the highest content of
potassium and sodium, while the lowest content
of magnesium and calcium was observed in the
Carmen Rubin variety.
4. During the assessment of relative proportions of
mineral components in Ipomoea batatas tubers,
it was found that the K:(Ca + Mg) ratio is the
most optimal.
5. Conducted studies indicate that nutrients, which
are contained in available for consumption sweet
potato’s tubers, can significantly improve the
nutritional status of consumers and reduce their
nutrition and health problems.
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... Calcium is the basic mineral component of bones and teeth. It takes part in blood coagulation processes and is essential for the proper functioning of nerves and muscle contractions [31]. ...
... The difference in the values may be varietal. Sweet potato roots are fairly rich in calcium [31] and were found to contain 182.7 mg/kg in the present study. Calcium content in similar studies on amaranth varied between 15,120 mg/kg and 23,810 mg/kg in dried amaranth leaves [33]. ...
... Sweet potato roots are rich in vitamin C [14] and vitamin A [7]. The present study obtained 30.99 mg/100g of vitamin C. Slightly lower values (20.26 -24.20 mg/100g) were previously reported [31]; while 17.3-34.5 mg/100 g which confirm the present findings were also reported in similar studies [21]. ...
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... In recent years, numerous studies have focused on finding the antioxidants, including plant extracts as well as secondary metabolites of plants, that would scavenge FRs and support the defensive and regenerative mechanisms of the skin (Nichols and Katiyar, 2010;Wölfle et al., 2014;Jadoon et al., 2015;Pai et al., 2014). An example of such raw plant materials is the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae family), whose tubers contain many beneficial phytochemicals, including carotenoids, minerals (zinc, potassium, sodium, manganese, calcium, magnesium, and iron), vitamins (vitamin A, B6, C, K), phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanin, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, and steroids (Sun et al., 2019;Krochmal-Marczak et al., 2014;Ayeleso et al., 2016). Although the sweet potato is not widely known as a medicinal plant, some studies have demonstrated its beneficial effects on the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipogenic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antiulcer, and antimicrobial activities it exhibits (Tang et al., 2015;Ji et al., 2015;Li et al., 2013;Sugata et al., 2015;Mbaeyi-Nwaoha and Emejulu, 2013;Panda and Sonkamble, 2012). ...
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... Nabubya et al. (9) showed that curing and storing sweet potatoes at room temperature over time increased the amylolytic enzyme content. The moisture content of the raw sweet potato agreed with the 71% reported by Ukom et al. (17), although Marczak et al. (18) reported a mean value of 21.7%. The pre-malting characteristics of millet grain used in this study are shown in Table 1. ...
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The contents of copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc were estimated in tubers of Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosus L. coming from the field experiment conducted over 2003-2005. The experimental factors were cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke Albik and Rubik as well as their nitrogen fertilization levels, against phosphorus and potassium fertilization and the full dose of manure. The cultivar Rubik proved to be more abundant in mineral elements than Albik. The latter was characterized by a higher stability of characteristics. The largest mineral element concentrations of copper, manganese and zinc in the tubers were found in objects fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1, while the highest concentrations of molybdenum and iron were found in the control object without mineral fertilization.
Article
The nutrient and anti nutrient composition of some standardized sweet potato dishes in Kwara state was determined using official methods of analysis. The indigenous sweet potato dishes analysed included pounded sweet potato/yam; sweet potato leaf soup; boiled sweet potato; fried sweet potatoes and sweet potato/beans pottage. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) for moisture content which in the proximate, minerals and antinutrient contents of sweet potato dishes. The moisture contents varied between 35.15% in sweet potato and pounded yam to 70.54% in sweet potato leaf soup. The highest protein content of 12.21% was found in sweet potato leaf soup and least value of 1.42% in sweet potato and pounded yam. The fat content of the samples ranged from 0.30% in sweet potato boiled to 3.88% in sweet potato leaf soup. Sweet potato boiled sample had the highest carbohydrate content of 70.54% while sweet potato leaf soup sample had the least value of 25.74%. The ash contents varied from 1.13% in sweet potato boiled to 8.83% in sweet potato leaf soup. The sweet potato leaf sample had the highest content of iron 8.82 ± 0.05 mg/100g while boiled sweet potato sample was highest in zinc (0.26 ± 0.01mg/100g) among all the dishes. Phytate contents ranged from 0.57 to 1.07 mg/100g, oxalate contents ranged from 126.93 to 178.27mg/100g and tannin ranged from 0.22 to 0.86 mg/100g for sweet potato dishes. The contributions of these varied nutrient contents to reducing the nutritional problems in the society were discussed.
Article
Human essential hypertension is a complex, multifactorial, quantitative trait under polygenic control. Although the exact etiology is unknown, the fundamental hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is increased peripheral resistance, due primarily to changes in vascular structure and function. These changes include arterial wall thickening, abnormal vascular tone and endothelial dysfunction and are due to alterations in the biology of the cellular and non-cellular components of the arterial wall. Many of these processes are influenced by magnesium. Small changes in magnesium levels may have significant effects on cardiac excitability and on vascular tone, contractility and reactivity. Accordingly magnesium may be important in the physiological regulation of blood pressure whereas perturbations in cellular magnesium homeostasis could play a role in pathophysiological processes underlying blood pressure elevation. For the most part, epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate an inverse association between magnesium and blood pressure and support a role for magnesium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However data from clinical studies have been less convincing and the therapeutic value of magnesium in the prevention and management of essential hypertension remains unclear. In view of the still ill-defined role of magnesium in clinical hypertension, magnesium supplementation is advised in those hypertensive patients who are receiving diuretics, who have resistant or secondary hypertension or who have frank magnesium deficiency. A magnesium-rich diet should be encouraged in the prevention of hypertension, particularly in predisposed communities because of the other advantages of such a diet in prevention. The clinical aspect that has demonstrated the greatest therapeutic potential for magnesium in hypertension, is in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. The present review discusses the role of magnesium in the regulation of vascular function and blood pressure and the implications in mechanisms underlying hypertension. Alterations in magnesium regulation in experimental and clinical hypertension and the potential antihypertensive therapeutic actions of magnesium will also be addressed.
Article
To investigate the tolerability, efficacy, and mode of action of Caiapo, an extract of white sweet potatoes, on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 61 type 2 diabetic patients treated by diet were given 4 g Caiapo (n = 30; mean age 55.2 +/- 2.1 years; BMI 28.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 31; mean age 55.6 +/- 1.5 years; BMI 27.6 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)) once daily for 12 weeks. Each subject underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 months to assess 2-h glucose levels. Additionally, fasting blood glucose, HbA(1c), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. After treatment with Caiapo, HbA(1c) decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 7.21 +/- 0.15 to 6.68 +/- 0.14%, whereas it remained unchanged (P = 0.23) in subjects given placebo (7.04 +/- 0.17 vs. 7.10 +/- 0.19%). Fasting blood glucose levels decreased (P < 0.001) in the Caiapo group (143.7 +/- 1.9 vs. 128.5 +/- 1.7 mg/dl) and did not change in the placebo group (144.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 138.2 +/- 2.1 mg/dl; P = 0.052). A decrease in body weight was observed in both the placebo group (P = 0.0027) and in the Caiapo group (P < 0.0001), probably due to a better- controlled lifestyle. In the Caiapo group, body weight was related to the improvement in glucose control (r = 0.618; P < 0.0002). Two-hour glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in the Caiapo group (193.3 +/- 10.4 vs. 162.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dl) compared with the placebo group (191.7 +/- 9.2 vs. 181.0 +/- 7.1 mg/dl). Mean cholesterol at the end of the treatment was significantly lower in the Caiapo group (214.6 +/- 11.2 mg/dl) than in the placebo group (248.7 +/- 11.2 mg/dl; P < 0.05). No significant changes in triglyceride levels or blood pressure were observed, and Caiapo was well tolerated without significant adverse effects. This study confirms the beneficial effects of Caiapo on plasma glucose as well as cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. For the first time, the long-term efficacy of Caiapo on glucose control was demonstrated by the observed decrease in HbA(1c). Thus, the neutraceutical Caiapo seems to be a useful agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Chemical composition of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) dishes as consumed Fluctuation of Selected Microelements in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tubers
  • M A Idowu
Idowu M. A. 2010. Chemical composition of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) dishes as consumed Fluctuation of Selected Microelements in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tubers. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 16, 163−165.
Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemist
  • Oac
  • G Eua Ofori
  • I Oduro
  • Elis
  • Dapaah
OAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemist. EUA Ofori G, Oduro I, Elis, HK Dapaah. 2005.
Nutrient composition of selected sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars as influenced by different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application
  • A N Ukom
  • P C Oijmelukwe
  • D A Pokara
Ukom AN, Oijmelukwe PC, Pokara DA. 2009. Nutrient composition of selected sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars as influenced by different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application.
USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8, 1791-1795 (in Polish) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20, 2007