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Executive coaching and leadership assessment: Past, present, and future

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Abstract

Executive coaching has come of age both inside and outside the field of consulting psychology, and has become one of its most significant developments in the past decade. This article briefly describes this phenomenon. It also suggests that executive coaching can continue to be a defining force in consulting psychology in the coming decade, as well as its corollary, leadership assessment, provided the field is proactive in promoting both. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Few previous studies focused on leadership coaching for assistant principals while scarce studies analyzed the perceptions of novice school administrators in relation to leadership as well as dedicated learning opportunities for assistant principals. Leadership coaching has been shown in previous studies to be an effective support mechanism to build capacity within leaders in line with the organization's mission and goals (Cerni et al., 2010;Gyllensten & Palmer, 2014;Iverson, 2016;MacKie, 2015;Sperry, 2013). Sonesh et al. (2015) recognized multiple positives for employees who received leadership coaching including increased "performance, coping skills, work attitudes, goal-directed self-regulation, and well-being" (p. ...
... & Palmer, 2014;Iverson, 2016;MacKie, 2015;Sperry, 2013). Leadership coaching is normally ...
Article
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenographic study was to understand how leadership coaching supported personal growth for new assistant principals. Newly appointed assistant principals from a suburban school district outside metro Atlanta, Georgia were interviewed as part of a professional development model which incorporated leadership coaching into the support mechanisms for new administrators. The professional development model, known as a leadership academy, was instituted by the school district and comprised of multiple learning opportunities of which leadership coaching was one component. This study gathered perceptions of newly appointed assistant principals regarding their perceptions of the effectiveness of leadership coaching and the leadership academy for their personal leadership growth. From a constructivist worldview, in which reality is formed from personal experiences and has multiple meanings, a phenomenographic approach was used to gather data from assistant principals in the form of interviews. Those interviews were transcribed and analyzed through both open and axial coding for variations of participant perceptions toward the effectiveness of leadership coaching. The results show strong, positive perceptions toward the effect of leadership coaching on the reduction of stress, the ability to cope with new obstacles, and the overall positive use of leadership coaching for newly appointed school leaders. Keywords: Assistant Principals, Executive Leadership Coaching, Professional Development, Phenomenology, Phenomenography
... Kata-kata "coaching " sudah ada sejak tahun 1500-an dan coaching juga memiliki banyak arti, seperti disiplin dan domain (Sperry, 2008(Sperry, .2013. Sebagai titik tolak, didefenisikan bahwa coaching sebagai proses pembelajaran dan pengembangan yang mengarah pada perspektif, sikap, perilaku, dan keterampilan baru. ...
Book
Stephen R. Covey berhikmat bahwa "cara terbaik untuk mempelajari sesuatu adalah dengan mengajarkannya". Terinspirasi akan hal tersebut, maka untuk memahami dengan baik dan cepat mengenai Organizational Development Strategy adalah dengan mengajarkannya—baik secara lisan dengan melakukan presentasi pada setiap sesi pertemuan dan juga dengan menuliskan hasil pembelajaran tersebut dalam bentuk buku. Bagi khalayak yang sudah memiliki pengalaman bekerja apalagi pengalaman memimpin dalam organisasi bisnis—baik itu perusahaan keluarga, swasta nasional, BUMN/D, maupun perusahaan multi nasional, tentulah bisa dengan cepat dan mudah memahami konsep-konsep teoritis terkait dengan pengembangan organisasi bisnis. Namun tidak demikian halnya bagi mahasiswa undergraduate program yang umumnya belum memiliki pengalaman langsung berada dalam organisasi bisnis. Membahas mengenai Organizational Development Strategy merupakan hal yang abstrak dan tidak mudah dicerna. Oleh karena itulah maka dalam pengajaran mata kuliah Organizational Development Strategy di BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program pada semester ganjil 2021–2022, saya selaku Dosen pengampu mata kuliah tersebut untuk kelas LB21 dan LC21 mengembangkan pola pembelajaran yang khas. Kelas dibagi dalam delapan kelompok yang terdistribusi merata antara mahasiswa yang memiliki IPK tertinggi dengan yang mahasiswa yang memiliki IPK rata-rata dan rendah di kelasnya. Setiap kelompok mendapat dua tugas utama, yaitu mempresentasikan satu pokok bahasan sesuai dengan agenda pembelajaran dan menuliskan hasil presentasi tersebut dalam sebuah book chapter. Dari kedua kelas yang saya ampu, diperolehlah 16 book chapters yang membahas delapan topik. Dari masing-masing topik, dipilihlah hasil tulisan terbaik. Dari delapan topik yang dibahas, ada satu topik yang tidak diikutsertakan dalam buku ini, karena kualitas tulisan yang masih banyak kesalahan dan perlu ditingkatkan kualitasnya. Dari 16 book chapters yang ditulis oleh kelas LB21 dan LC21 terpilih tujuh bab saja yang diterbitkan. Ada pun "ruh" dari buku ini bersumber dari buku "Organization Development: A process of Learning and Changing", karya Burke dan Noumair (2015) yang menjadi buku pegangan atau text book pada mata kuliah Organizational Development Strategy. Secara keseluruhan, buku ini terdiri dari tujuh bab. Bab pertama dari buku ini membahas mengenai apa, mengapa, dan bagaimana Organizational Development atau OD itu. Bab ini merupakan pengantar untuk memudahkan memahami kseseluruhan mengenai OD. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan bab kedua yang membahas mengenai OD sebagai sebuah proses perubahan. Sementara itu bab ketiga membahas mengenai beragam model atau konsep yang lazim digunakan praktisi OD untuk menganalisis organisasi. Selanjutnya bab keempat membahas mengenai bagaimana melakukan pemodelan terhadap perubahan di dalam organisasi. Bab kelima mengetengahkan pembahasan mengenai perencanaan dan pengelolaan perubahan. Bab keenam membahas mengenai pendekatan coaching dalam melakukan intervensi OD. Akhurnya, buku ini ditutup dengan bab ketujuh yang membahas mengenai arah atau tren perkembangan konseptual OD di masa mendatang. Buku ini merupakan hasil kolaborasi dua kelas paralel yang terdiri dari 52 orang penulis. Mereka adalah (1) Andrew J Stokes, (2) Muhammad F. P. Arbi, (3) Bernardus William, (4) Mohammad A. H. Hasan, (5) Hendri Kusniawan, (6) Rizky A. Indrajaya, (7) Vanessa A. Tanuwijaya, (8) Abdul Munir, (9) Ihsan N. Usman, (10) Daniel A. Saputra, (11) Muhammad J. Alfaridzi, (12) Anjunior, (13) Daffa Syahli, (14) Marsya K.Putri, (15) Farrel A. Maleakhi, (16) Kelvin, (17) Martina W. Anggraini, (18) Charles D. Lie, (19) Brian A. Mahendra, (20) Jang J. Hyeok, (21) Kevin R. Priyantoko, (22) Alyssa Aileen, (23) Aldetiara Putie, (24) Bryan Valentino, (25) Maylitta Br Barus, (26) Muhammad Ramadhan, (27) Regina N. Liwoso, (28) Zakky Alfathoni, (29) Stevania F. Natalie, (30) Marcella Emelia, (31) Marchelin Wally, (32) Alvianka Pasaribu, (33) Rasha Pramasta, (34) Sylvia Khanza, (35) Abdullah Reza, (36) Nabila A. Azizah, (37) Ni Kadek D. A. Pranawati, (38) Dewi Mulyani, (39) Eleanor V. K. Alliston, (40) Dhimas H. Nugroho, (41) Mulkika A. Nazansia, (42) Dira A. Aisyah , (43) Rainanda A. Murod, (44) Abdu R. Syah, (45) Alifarrell P. Fauzi, (46) Andina Stefandi, (47) Andreas E. T. Tumbol, (48) Calvin Paulus, (49) Fify, (50) Patricia I. Saverina, (51) Ryan C. Lodrinata, dan (52) Theofilus. Semoga buku ini dapat memberikan manfaat yang besar, baik bagi para pembaca terutama sekali bagi penulis yang terlibat aktif dalam pengembangan materi pada setiap bab.
... Serenko and Bontis (2013, p. 138) contend that for any discipline to be acknowledged as a profession should demonstrate two attributes: it should provide a theoretical, conceptual and methodological foundation to research and practice and the discipline should improve "the state of practice, ensure practical application of academic findings and increase the quality of life." Sperry (2013) doubts if coaching meets with the two criteria for it to be recognized as a profession, while Schutte (2019) expresses concern that coaching is not considered a profession as it is an unregulated industry. Hence, contribution toward theoretical grounding of coaching and higher effectiveness will advance professionalizing the coaching industryan attempt this study makes and contributes by employing ecosystem theory and a systemic approach to coaching that predicts higher coaching effectiveness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Practitioners’ literature on coaching has swelled as compared to the theoretical grounding and academic research on coaching, thereby questioning if coaching is a profession. Furthermore, the increasing investments in coaching seek a higher return on investments. These trends call for a deeper theoretical grounding of coaching and evolving innovative approaches that increase the effectiveness of coaching. Against this backdrop, this study aims to describe a process a coach can adopt for objectively and systemically understanding the context of the coachee at multiple levels (organizational, teams/dyadic and intrapersonal) to develop and execute an effective coaching intervention. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a radical humanistic paradigm, deploys ecosystems theory, develops a conceptual model and uses it for action researching in an Indian manufacturing organization. This study uses a non-experimental purposive sampling and makes use of a cross-sectional survey method for gathering data by using validated instruments. Guided by the ecosystems theory, data is gathered at three levels of nested systems – the microsystem (intrapersonal and direct reports of coachee), mesosystem (peers and manager of coachee) and the macrosystem (cultural) levels. Analysis of data helps the coach to design and execute an effective coaching intervention at multiple levels – intrapersonal, dyadic and organizational. Findings This study provides an alternative approach to systemically diagnose at three levels of the environment (microsystem, mesosystem and macrosystem) and uses validated instruments for assessing the areas of opportunity and concerns for carrying effective coaching. The use of employee strengths that conceives strengths as a dynamic interaction of personal attributes and contextual factors instead of the trait-based conceptualizations in extant literature leads to rich data for designing effective coaching interventions. Using the ecosystems theory for carrying out systemic coaching is an effective approach for professionalizing coaching and increasing the effectiveness of coaching. Originality/value The originality of this study lies in using the ecosystems theory for guiding the research, developing the conceptual model, collecting data by using validated instruments and in making use of data across multiple levels of systems (micro, meso and macro) for carrying out systemic coaching. The use of a new higher-order construct of employee strengths at work that conceives strengths as a dynamic interaction of personal traits and contextual factors is yet another originality of the research. Finally, this study identifies key systems variables and provides a proof of concept by executing a generalizable systemic coaching process in an organization.
... Although lifestyle and proprietary leadership assessments are commonplace in coaching (McDowall & Smewing, 2009), the vast majority of coaches are unlikely to formally assess the coachee's levels of dysphoric or dysfunctional attitudes using psychometrically validated diagnostic questionaries (Sperry, 2013). This is not least, because most coaches are not registered psychologists and do not have the diagnostic skills required to use clinical measures of psychopathology (Mathews & Pratt, 2016). ...
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Little is known about impact of different types of questions used in coaching. This study compares the relative impact of 1) SF with 2) PF coaching questions and with 3) a combined problem-focused and solution-focused (PF + SF) coaching questions condition. Despite much discussion about the impact of mental health issues in coaching, there has been little research on how coachees’ dysfunctional attitudes effect coaching outcomes. 80 participants were randomly assigned to PF, SF or PF + SF coaching conditions. It should be noted that a whole coaching session was not conducted – in an experimental self-coaching exercise participants responded to different types of coaching question: SF questions were more effective than PF questions on all measures. SF questions were also more effective at increasing self-efficacy and decreasing negative affect compared to a combined PF + SF approach. Dysfunctional attitudes were found to have a detrimental impact on negative affect following both PF and PF/SF questions but not SF. Further analysis revealed that PF questions were significantly less effective on decreasing negative affect for participants ‘high’ in dysfunctional attitudes, but not for those ‘low’ in dysfunctional attitudes. For those ‘low’ in dysfunctional attitudes all three coaching styles were equally effective in reducing negative affect. No other significant relationships were observed between dysfunctional attitudes on goal attainment measures. This research suggests that SF approaches are more effective than PF or combined PF + SF. Recommendations for future research and potential implications for coaching practice are discussed.
... Despite the popularity of these methods in practice and volumes of empirical research at mid to lower levels in organizations regarding the validity of assessments (e.g. Scott and Reynolds, 2010;Sperry, 2013), there remains little applied case study material that explores the dynamics and learnings associated with these tools, particularly at the most senior levels in major corporations. Other than marketing collateral from consulting firms, what exists in the published literature is largely focused on either senior executive selection (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose Formal assessment and development of executives has become standard practice in organizations. There is a need, however, to determine what levers are available to maximize the impact and return on investment of initiatives. This case study presents outcomes and learnings from a multi-method approach to evaluating behavior change following the implementation of PepsiCo’s Senior Leader Development Center (SLDC), a comprehensive process designed to accelerate capability at the executive level. Design/methodology/approach Learnings are presented based on analyses from three independent data sources collected throughout the 18 month program: (1) behavioral change ratings from managers, direct reports and peers via a 360 survey; (2) attitudinal measures from participants post program completion, and (3) third-party observations by an internal facilitator. Findings Overall, findings indicate that while program rigor and content do matter as baseline components, principles of participant engagement and commitment emerged as most essential to delivering programs with sustained impact. Research limitations/implications This case is based on leaders in a high-touch multi-trait multi-method (MTMM) assessment and development program in one organization. Additional research is needed to explore in other settings. Practical implications Results and implications are organized by each of the four key stages of the assessment and development process: (1) conduct data-based assessments, (2) deliver feedback and insights, (3) build the development plan, and (4) take action to implement the plan. Findings and recommendations for practice regarding each stage are discussed Originality/value Few case studies or applied research exist that focus on the execution and outcomes associated with senior executive assessment and development programs in major corporations. This paper offers findings regarding the overall impact of such a program and key learnings from its sustained effort in a complex multi-national organization. The discussion and implications in this paper may directly influence how other organizations design and manage future talent management interventions with similar types of senior level populations.
... Executive coaching is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide (Yi-Ling & McDowall, 2014). Executive coaching is considered to be one of the most effective talent management activities, but also the most significant developments within the field of consulting psychology over the past decade (Sperry, 2013;Yi-Ling & McDowall, 2014). The implication of coaching across cultures is a relatively new consideration in coaching psychology and interest on its impacts is also rapidly expanding (Plaister-Ten, 2013). ...
Chapter
Coaching is one of the fastest growing industries. However, ethical insights on coaching are not developing at the same rate. Even highly qualified coaches can find themselves involved in serious ethical issues, especially in a multi-cultural context. This chapter is a philosophical and normative analysis from a meta-theoretical literature review. Ethical issues are identified, questionable approaches in coaching psychology is critiqued and a model for ethical coaching in a multi-cultural context is developed under eight themes: coaching regulation, scientific foundation, normative issues, diagnostic assessments, confidentiality and conflicting interests, dependency, keeping coaching boundaries and coaching proficiency. Coaching ethically is complex and fraught with ethical issues that can easily be missed. Identification of the ethical issues in coaching psychology creates better understanding of potential ethical pitfalls and how to avoid them. This can lead to a more ethical, and thus sustainable coaching industry.
... Too much of what we do is based on assumptions that are unproved and untested (see, e.g., Kaiser & Curphy, 2013;Pavur, 2013;Sperry, 2013). Even in cases in which we work with well validated measures, approaches, or interventions, there is still the need to prove the effectiveness of our interventions in specific applications (see Winum, Nielsen, & Bradford (2002). ...
This article builds on the articles in the special issue of Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research on “The Future of Consulting Psychology and Consulting Psychology Research” to discuss several important issues that need the field’s attention. Seven major themes are identified: 1) consulting psychology changes lives, groups/teams, organizations, and society; 2) consulting psychology is mostly a profession of practitioners, not researchers; 3) research is ultimately our major source of professional differentiation; 4) expanding the source of our influence means expanding the scope of our practice; 5) “internationalize or die”; 6) technology will rapidly change how we practice consulting psychology; and 7) we need to know more about what works and what does not work in our assessments and interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
... Leadership and leadership training have also been the foci of a number of articles and special issues over the last 6 years. This was also a focus of Sperry's (2013) article in this special issue. Kaiser and Curphy (2013) present a somewhat negative view of "the failure of an industry" but identify this as an area of opportunity for consulting psychologists. ...
In this introduction to the Special Issue, I briefly summarize highlights of the provocative articles (mostly by editorial board members of Consulting Psychology Journal over the last 6 years) that comprise this special issue of Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. I also discuss the role of the journal’s editorial board and the important behind-the-scenes contributions they make to the journal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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With the enormous number of deaths and hospitalizations related to COVID-19, the need for public health government leaders that are responsive and effective has never been more important. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of 20 government supervisors who experienced executive coaching to illuminate patterns of effective and agile coaching practices by drawing from theories of experimental and interdisciplinary learning and transformational leadership models. This study proposes executive coaching as a potentially effective and functional methodology to solve this problem, and supports the government in understanding the practical and theoretical dimensions of executive coaching as a developmental method in U.S. government healthcare organizations. This research shows that coaching can be a useful tool to help in the development of more effective healthcare managers, many of which have only been extensively trained in clinical areas.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the meta-context in which coaching psychology1 has emerged. The aim is to contextualise coaching, coaching psychology and multi-cultural coaching. The emphasis is further on developments within these domains in both the discipline and profession of broader psychological practice. The chapter is based on inputs received from various stakeholders in the coaching industry and extends on current knowledge, practices and positioning statements both nationally and internationally. A South African definition as well as the value proposition of coaching psychology is presented, followed by a descriptive overview of a meta-framework for further research in the application of coaching psychology in multi-cultural contexts.
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The explosive growth of coaching over the past decade has been accompanied by comparable growth in coach training as well as in membership of professional bodies representing the industry. Yet philosophical and intellectual debates over executive coaching and its measurable value and outcomes appear limited in much of the existing literature. Many practitioners appear uncomfortable with the hard measurement of real return on investment, preferring softer, more qualitative approaches to evaluation. To challenge the self-perpetuating myth of value which has grown up around executive coaching, The Value of Executive Coaching critically explores the discourses surrounding this aspect of leadership development and considers different ways of thinking about its growth, development and application outside its established functionalist perspective. Using case study evidence, this exciting new text enhances our understanding of how and why the value proposition of executive coaching is perceived and perpetuated, and provides readers with the opportunity to explore some of the issues which influence perceptions of value. This bookwill be valuable reading for practising coaches and students on postgraduate coaching courses.
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A case of psychological consultation involving an executive and his direct supervisor is presented from the perspectives of the consultant, the consultee, and the president of the company who made the request for services. The presenting situation, consulting process, and results of the consultation are reviewed. Lessons learned by all participants are reported. Overarching issues and strategies relevant to the delivery of consulting services in the executive suite are highlighted.
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Core Competencies in Counseling and Psychotherapy addresses the core competencies common to the effective practice of all psychotherapeutic approaches and includes specific intervention competencies of the three major orientations. The book provides a research-based framework to aid clinicians in applying these competencies in their own practice. It begins by identifying and describing the core competencies and skills of expert therapists, then elaborates six core competencies and related supporting competencies and skill-sets. Instead of a review of psychotherapy theory and research or a cookbook of methods and techniques, Core Competencies in Counseling and Psychotherapy is a highly readable and easily accessible book that can enhance the knowledge and skill base of clinicians – both novice and experienced – in all the mental health specialties.
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