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One hundred ten heterosexual individuals (67 men; 43 women) responded to questions related to penis size and satisfaction. Men showed significant dissatisfaction with penile size, despite perceiving themselves to be of average size. Importantly, there were significant relationships between penile dissatisfaction and comfort with others seeing their penis, and with likelihood of seeking medical advice with regard to penile and/or sexual function. Given the negative consequences of low body satisfaction and the importance of early intervention in sexually related illnesses (e.g., testicular cancer), it is imperative that attention be paid to male body dissatisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
(Perceived) Size Really Does Matter: Male Dissatisfaction With Penis Size
Lucy Johnston and Tracey McLellan
University of Canterbury
Audrey McKinlay
University of Canterbury and Monash University
One hundred ten heterosexual individuals (67 men; 43 women) responded to questions related to penis
size and satisfaction. Men showed significant dissatisfaction with penile size, despite perceiving them-
selves to be of average size. Importantly, there were significant relationships between penile dissatis-
faction and comfort with others seeing their penis, and with likelihood of seeking medical advice with
regard to penile and/or sexual function. Given the negative consequences of low body satisfaction and
the importance of early intervention in sexually related illnesses (e.g., testicular cancer), it is imperative
that attention be paid to male body dissatisfaction.
Keywords: penis size, body dissatisfaction, sexual illnesses
Although the focus within the literature on body-image percep-
tion has been on women, men are also known to experience
dissatisfaction with their physical appearance (Cohane & Pope,
2001;Hildebrandt, Langenbucher, & Schlundt, 2004;Pope,
Philips, & Olivardia, 2000;Tiggemann, Martins, & Churchett,
2008), with recent estimates of male body dissatisfaction preva-
lence being between 17% and 82%, dependent on the body part
being considered (Tiggemann et al., 2008). Indeed, for muscular-
ity, this discontent has become normative (Tiggemann et al.,
2008). Body image dissatisfaction among men has been linked to
low self-esteem and depression (e.g., Olivardia, Pope, Borowiecki
& Cohane, 2004) and impaired social relationships (e.g., Pope et
al., 2000).
The present research focuses on perceptions of penis size. There
is considerable anxiety among men in regard to penis size, with
between 45% (Lever, Frederick, & Peplau, 2006) and 68% (Tigge-
mann et al., 2008) reporting discontent with their penis size,
preferring it were larger. In many cultures, the penis symbolizes
attributes of masculinity, virility, and fertility (Wylie & Eardley,
2007). Indeed, in some cultures, a man’s penis is described as “his
manhood,” and anxiety accordingly arises when men equate man-
hood and masculinity with penis size (Kilmartin, 2000). It is not
surprising, then, that men often attach great importance to the size
of their penis and associate a larger penis with attributes such as
strength, dominance, power, and the capacity to love and be loved
(Wylie & Eardley, 2007). Men with a larger penis have a more
positive genital image, body image, and feel more sexually com-
petent (Francken, van de Wiel, Van Driel, & Weijmar Schultz,
2002;Winter, 1989). Further, the importance men place on penis
size has been shown to negatively predict appearance self-esteem
(Tiggemann et al., 2008). Concern about penis size may be linked
to sexual satisfaction and functioning (Ackard, Kearney-Cooke, &
Peterson, 2000;Faith & Schare, 1993) and have negative conse-
quences for relationships, as well as for physical and mental health
(Grov, Parsons, & Bimbi, 2010;Pope et al., 2000;Son, Lee, Huh,
Kim, & Paick, 2003).
There has been an increase in the number of men seeking
cosmetic procedures to increase penis size (Tiggemann et al.,
2008), indicating that at least some men are sufficiently worried
about their penis size to undergo costly and potentially risky
procedures. This increase coincides with popular media frequently
emphasizing the link between penis size, masculinity, and virility
(e.g., Frederick, Fessler, & Haselton, 2005;Lehman, 1993). There
has been an increase in accessibility of pornographic material that
may include “supersized” penises and exaggerated positive female
response to such, which may mislead men as to women’s prefer-
ences. It is noteworthy that men show a greater likelihood of
making size comparisons while viewing sexually explicit materials
(Lee, 1996). Internet marketing of penile enlargement medications
and techniques is now common, and there has been an increase in
spam e-mail messages focusing on penis size as a symbol of
masculinity and virility (Cukier, Cody, & Nesselroth, 2006). The
use of e-mail advertising heightens personal relevance; the mes-
sages arrive in a personal inbox, which implies that they are
targeted to the individual receiving them rather than simply being
general messages. Personalizing persuasive messages in this way
has been shown to increase the impact of the message on the
This article was published Online First February 10, 2014.
Lucy Johnston, Deputy Vice-Chancellor’s Office, and Tracey McLellan,
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New
Zealand; Audrey McKinlay, Department of Psychology, University of
Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, and School of Psychology and
Psychiatry, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
The authors thank Leila Marie, who was funded through a University of
Canterbury Summer Scholarship, for her contributions to the reported
research. TMW is thanked for his small contribution to the research.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Lucy
Johnston, Dean of Postgraduate Research, University of Canterbury, Pri-
vate Bag 4800, Christchurch 8410, New Zealand. E-mail: lucy
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This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
Psychology of Men & Masculinity © 2014 American Psychological Association
2014, Vol. 15, No. 2, 225–228 1524-9220/14/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0033264
recipient compared with general messages (e.g., Rogers & Mew-
born, 1976).
Young men are reluctant for others to see their penis (Wylie &
Eardley, 2007). As well as the potential negative consequence for
the development of social and sexual relationships, this reluctance
may also contribute to medical concerns. Of particular concern in
New Zealand are increased rates of testicular and prostate cancer
and the importance of early detection for effective treatments.
Early detection requires men to engage in self-examination and, if
needed, to overcome their reluctance for others (e.g., medical
practitioners) to see their penis (Wylie & Eardley, 2007). In the
present research, we investigate penis size dissatisfaction, and
whether there is a relationship between penis size dissatisfaction
and comfort with others seeing one’s penis and with health-related
An important component of male dissatisfaction with penis size
is related to perceptions of female preferences (Winter, 1989;
Wylie & Eardley, 2007) and worry that their romantic partners are
dissatisfied with their penis size (e.g., Van Driel, Weijmar Schultz,
van de Wiel, & Mensink, 1998). Such anxieties are fueled by
advertisements for penile enlargement that focus on positive re-
sponses by women to their partners’ enhancements (e.g., Total Life
Enhancement, 2005) and may have a negative impact on sexual
relationships (e.g., Lever et al., 2006). To understand male dissat-
isfaction with penis size, it is important to identify whether men’s
beliefs and anxieties regarding female preferences are accurate or
not. Accordingly, a group of female participants was also included
in the present study to provide data regarding female beliefs and
One hundred ten heterosexual individuals (43 women; 67 men)
completed the questions on an online survey related to penis size.
Mean age of the total sample was 25 years 10 months (SD 6 years
11 months), with 81% self-identified as New Zealand European
keha), and 54% had an undergraduate degree or higher.
Procedure and Measures
Participants were recruited, through advertisements on the uni-
versity campus and via word of mouth, to take part in a study on
male body image and self-esteem. Data were collected via an
anonymous online survey and there was no compensation for
participation. This project was reviewed and approved by the
University of Canterbury Human Ethics Committee.
For penis length and circumference, in both a flaccid and erect
state, the participant was asked to indicate current size (men only),
ideal size, average size, and what others (same sex; other sex)
would consider ideal size.
All measures were in centimeters (cm).
Male participants were asked a number of additional questions: (a)
the extent to which he would like a longer and thicker penis, the
extent to which he thought women would prefer a penis longer and
thicker than his, and how comfortable he felt about other men and
women seeing his penis (all items rated on a 7-point scale from 1
[not at all]to7[very much]); (b) to what extent he believed that
penis size can be altered by diet, drugs, or exercise (not at all/
somewhat/very much); (c) whether he used e-mail and, if so, the
percentage of spam mail received in the preceding 2 weeks that
was related to penis size or sexual performance; (d) whether he
engaged in testicular self-examination and whether he had ever
consulted a medical practitioner regarding penis size or sexual
function. Female participants completed only (b) and (c).
Discrepancy Score: Erect Penis Length
A number of discrepancy scores
were computed for each male
participant, with a negative discrepancy score indicating the re-
spondent considered his current state to be less than ideal:
Current size versus perceived ideal size
Current size versus perceived average size
Current size versus size thought own sex considered ideal
Current size versus size thought other sex considered ideal
Except for current versus average length, mean discrepancy
scores were negative. Indeed, for the current-ideal discrepancy,
only two participants had a positive discrepancy score and 17 had
a zero discrepancy. Single-sample ttests comparing discrepancy
scores to zero (no dissatisfaction) revealed significant levels (p
.05) of dissatisfaction for the current-ideal (M⫽⫺2.05; SD
2.25), current-ideal other men (M⫽⫺2.23; SD 3.19), and
current-ideal women (M⫽⫺1.63; SD 3.37) discrepancy score,
but not for the current-average score (M.59; SD 3.20).
Table 1 shows the estimates of penis length provided by both
men and women. Male estimates of their own and the average
length are consistent with population norms, whereas women
slightly underestimated length (Wylie & Eardley, 2007). Male
ideals were greater than population norms, and significantly higher
than those of female participants, which were similar to population
norms, F(1, 133) 25.16, p.0001, ŋ
.159; Ms18.47
versus 15.47. For average length, there was no significant sex
For estimates of ideal length a 2 (participant sex) 2 (target
sex) ANOVA revealed a main effect of participant sex,
F(1, 132) 36.86, p.0001, ŋ
.218, and a significant
participant Sex Target Sex interaction, F(1, 132) 11.73, p
.001, ŋ
.082. Post hoc tests (Tukey, p.05) showed no
difference in the estimates of male ideal length by male and female
participants (Ms18.62 vs. 17.96), but that male estimates of
female ideal length were significantly larger than those made by
One hundred ninety-seven (96 female) participants partially completed
the whole survey. Partial completion of the survey results in differences in
the degrees of freedom in the reported analyses, but there were no sys-
tematic patterns in the unanswered questions across participants and these
were treated as missing values. Fifteen respondents who identified as
bisexual or homosexual were omitted due to low numbers and differences
in body image between heterosexual and homosexual men (Drummond &
Filiault, 2007).
Participants were also asked similar questions regarding height,
weight, and muscularity. Full details of these measures and the findings can
be obtained from the first author.
All four measures (penis length and circumference in a flaccid and
erect state) showed the same pattern of findings. Accordingly, details are
only provided for erect penis length. Full details of the other measures can
be obtained from the first author.
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This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.
female participants (Ms18.01 vs. 15.78). There was no differ-
ence in the estimates by male participants of male and female ideal
length, but for women, the estimate for male ideal length was
significantly higher than that for female ideal length.
Mean ratings of the extent to which men would like a longer
penis, indicating that they would like a longer penis (M4.47)
and believed that women would like them to have a longer penis
(M4.58). There was a significant correlation between own
current-ideal discrepancy score and ratings of preference for a
longer penis, r(61) .581, p.0001.
Penis Enlargement
Less than half of the participants believed that penis length
could not be altered by diet, exercise, or drugs (44% of male and
45% of female participants). A large proportion believed that there
was a possibility of such alteration in size (49% male; 44%
female), with a small percentage being sure that such alteration in
size was possible (7% male; 11% female). Those men who be-
lieved that penis enlargement was possible were, however, no
more or less likely to be dissatisfied with their own penis length.
Comfort With Others Seeing Penis
Mean ratings indicated a moderate level of comfort, but with
significantly higher comfort ratings for women than other men
seeing their penis, F(1, 61) 79.73, p.0001, ŋ
.567; Ms
4.98 versus 2.73. There were significant negative correlations
between comfort with other men seeing one’s penis and current-
ideal discrepancy, r(61) ⫽⫺.257, p.001; desire for a longer
penis, r(66) ⫽⫺.482, p.0001; and belief that women desire a
longer penis, r(66) ⫽⫺.316, p.01. There was similarly a
negative correlation between comfort with women seeing their
penis and desire for a longer penis, r(66) ⫽⫺.471, p.0001, and
with belief that women desire a longer penis, r(66) ⫽⫺.394, p
Spam E-Mails
The mean estimate of the percentage of spam e-mail that was
related to penis size and/or sexual function was 25.07% (range 0 to
85%). There were no significant correlations between the percent-
age of spam e-mail and either ideal penis length, discrepancy
scores, or comfort with others seeing one’s penis.
Testicular Self-Examination and Medical Consultation
Of the 65 men who answered the question, only 22 (34%)
reported engaging in testicular self-examination. There were no
significant differences in the penis discrepancy scores or comfort
scores between those participants who did and did not engage in
testicular self-examination. Of the 62 male participants who an-
swered the question, only 10 (16%) indicated that they had con-
sulted a medical practitioner regarding penis size or sexual func-
tion. Those who had consulted a medical practitioner were more
comfortable with other men or women seeing their penis than
those who had not consulted a medical practitioner, F(1, 60)
4.02, p.05, ŋ
.045, Ms3.70 versus 2.54, and F(1, 60)
4.52, p.05, ŋ
.070, Ms5.90 versus 4.81. There was also
a marginally significantly higher current-ideal discrepancy score
than those who had not, F(1, 60) 2.82, p.10, ŋ
Our data indicate that men experience significant levels of
dissatisfaction related to penis size. Despite men seeing themselves
to be of average size, and their estimates of average size being
consistent with population norms (Wylie & Eardley, 2007), their
ideal size was larger. Men also believed that both other men, and
women, would prefer a penis longer than their own. Female
participants, however, indicated that they did not consider a larger
than average penis to be desirable; their ideal lengths were com-
parable with population norms. Women were, however, aware that
men desired a longer penis. This discrepancy between women’s’
desires and men’s perceptions of female desires is consistent with
past research on perceptions of male muscularity (Pope et al.,
2000) and may contribute to tension or discomfort in intimate
relationships (e.g., Lever et al., 2006). Anxiety over penis size
may, in part, be reduced by a greater awareness of female satis-
faction with average penis size and, accordingly, a reduction in the
association between penis size and cultural conceptualization of
manhood and muscularity (e.g., Pleck, 1995).
Of concern is the potential impact of this dissatisfaction on
behavior (Ackard et al., 2000;Faith & Schare, 1993). Somewhat
surprisingly, given the highly educated nature of the sample, over
half of the participants believed that there was at least some
possibility that penis length could be altered by diet, exercise, or
drugs. There has been a large increase in men with normal penis
length seeking cosmetic procedures to enlarge penis size (Mon-
daini et al., 2002), and the finding that discrepancy scores were
related to comfort with others seeing one’s penis may have neg-
ative implications for the development of social and sexual rela-
tionships (Lever et al., 2006), and for engagement with medical
practitioners. Only a small proportion of male participants in the
present study indicated that they engaged in testicular self-
examination or had consulted a medical practitioner regarding
penis size or sexual function.
It is important to encourage self-
examination and, when appropriate, medical consultation, and
hence to ensure that lack of comfort with others seeing one’s penis
is not an inhibitory factor—in the present study, those who had
consulted a medical practitioner had significantly higher comfort
levels with others seeing their penis than those who had not.
Our findings add to a growing body of research indicating the
importance of attention being paid to body dissatisfaction among
young men. This is especially important in a context in which there
It is acknowledged that the number of young men needing medical
consultation is low.
Table 1
Mean Estimates of Ideal Penis Length
Erect length (cm)
Perceived ideal length 18.47 15.47
Perceived average length 15.79 13.46
Perceived ideal by men 18.62 17.96
Perceived ideal by women 18.01 15.78
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Received July 17, 2012
Revision received April 9, 2013
Accepted April 10, 2013
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... 7 Johnston, et al. found that men who were significantly dissatisfied with the size of their penis still wanted to enlarge their penis even though they had a normal penile measurement. 11,13 Besides, Lever, et al. found that 45% of heterosexual men wanted a bigger penile size. 5 A study found that shorter penile length in men who are concerned about their penile size compared to men who are not worried. ...
... 7,15 While watching sexual content, men tend to compare their penile size with those of pornographic actors, which then makes them feel like they have a small penile size. 13,16 Studies found that 36%-41% of teenage boys start worrying about their penile size after watching pornography. 7,17 There is a relation between dissatisfaction with penile size and exposure to pornography. ...
... 18,19,20 Men's misconceptions about women's preference for penis size can also be caused by pornography, which displays women's exaggerated positive responses to the enormous penile size. 13 The increasing number of pornographic images with very large penises accompanied by the emergence of advertisements for penile enlargement tools or clinics will make this concern more and more in the future. 1,7 ...
Full-text available
The dissatisfaction of men due to their penile size is found in a number of studies. Concerns can be focused on the penile length or width or even both, whether erect or flaccid. Men who are worried about the penile size also want to increase the size of the penis. Concerns about men’s penile size are also increasing because they think normal penile size is what is shown in pornography. These worries can affect self-esteem, sexual function, and satisfaction, to physical and mental health. Small penis anxiety is an anxiety that arises when a man observes his flaccid penile size and feels concerned that his penile size is less than the normal size. In addition, this concern persists even though it has been refuted by clinical examination. Penile dysmorphic disorder is excessive self-concern, distress, and a preoccupation with trivial or even non-existent deficiencies in penile size and shape that can lead to impaired function. Until now, there have not been effective guidelines for managing patients with complaints of penile size. Some of the treatments that can be conducted are psychosexual counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, penile traction devices, and invasive procedures. Various modalities of therapy have been tried to overcome excessive concern about penile size. Yet, so far, no good results have been obtained. Thus, clear and effective guidelines are needed to make treatment can be carried out properly.
... constitutes a conspicuous marker of masculinity (Lehman, 1998;Lever et al., 2006;Ostberg, 2010). Indeed, although Freud's (1925) penis envy concept was meant to psychoanalytically proclaim a female envy for the male reproductive organ, some studies have found symbolic support for penis envy even in men (Hall and Van de Castle, 1965;Melnick, 1997;Gottlieb, 2004;Domhoff, 2013), with many men being concerned about their penis size, supporting the notion that size seems to matter (Lever et al., 2006;Johnston et al., 2014). For example, one study on more than 50,000 heterosexual men and women found that only 55% of men were satisfied with their penis size, although 85% of women expressed satisfaction with their partner's penis size (Lever et al., 2006). ...
... The results delineated above indicate that men may exaggerate their penis size, height, and presumably other factors linked to their physique in self-report situations, partly because men and, to some extent, women seem to equate bigger with better when it comes to male markers of masculinity (Frederick and Haselton, 2007;Mautz et al., 2013;Johnston et al., 2014). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether men at the aggregate level would overestimate their height, weight, athleticism, and penis size in a self-report study, and if so, to what extent. ...
Full-text available
Bodily markers, often self-reported, are frequently used in research to predict a variety of outcomes. The present study examined whether men, at the aggregate level, would overestimate certain bodily markers linked to masculinity, and if so, to what extent. Furthermore, the study explored whether the amount of monetary rewards distributed to male participants would influence the obtained data quality. Men from two participant pools were asked to self-report a series of bodily measures. All self-report measures except weight were consistently found to be above the population mean (height and penis size) or the scale midpoint (athleticism). Additionally, the participant pool that received the lower (vs. higher) monetary reward showed a particularly powerful deviation from the population mean in penis size and were significantly more likely to report their erect and flaccid penis size to be larger than the claimed but not verified world record of 34 cm. These findings indicate that studies relying on men's self-reported measures of certain body parts should be interpreted with great caution, but that higher monetary rewards seem to improve data quality slightly for such measures.
... Still, his reference to the penis is relevant for men's body image not only related to function, but also to appearance. Penis size and men's thoughts about its appearance has been found to be closely associated with feelings of masculinity and sexual performance (Johnston et al., 2014;Winter, 1989) influencing men's body image (Tiggemann et al., 2007. When asked about how they felt about their genitals, all the men said they were satisfied with their penis's size and appearance, some also expressed being proud of it. ...
Full-text available
Older adults face age-related changes as well as stigma in relation to their bodies and sexuality, challenging their understanding of themselves as sexual, thought to impact both sexual desire, activity and satisfaction. A qualitative study with a semi-structured interview was completed with 32 people, aged 65–85, to investigate how older people construct understanding of their self as sexual in an ageing body. The analysis generated two main themes; “Positions of the ageing body as sexual”, with three subthemes, and “Negotiating change, transitions in identities”, with two sub themes. Results showed variations in participants’ thoughts about their body and how either appearance, agency or body function influenced different aspects of current sexuality and sexual satisfaction, and understandings of self. Statements showed examples of both internalized ageist understandings of the ageing body as sexual, but also rejections or low relevance of ageist attitudes in the understandings of present body image and sexual satisfaction. Results showed differences in how changes were understood and negotiated either through enhancement strategies or through cognitive-emotional, and social regulation. The findings demonstrated paradoxes and contradictions in the understanding and management of the ageing body and sexual satisfaction, where variations were found along but also across the divides of gender, relationship status and quality, sexual orientation, self-esteem and age cohorts. Implications indicate that health care strategies and policies should understand sexual ageing from a developmental perspective to support individual projects of developing affirmative and adjusted identities as sexual in an ageing body.
... Men and women also have specific concerns with sexually-dimorphic aspects of their bodies that could impact sexuality-related body image that should be measured. For example, many women are concerned with the size or shape of their breasts (Forbes & Frederick, 2008;Frederick, Peplau, & Lever, 2008) and genitals (Amos & McCabe, 2016), and many men are concerned with their penis size (Johnston, McLellan, & McKinlay, 2014;. People who are dissatisfied with their genitals tend to report lower sexual satisfaction (see Gillen & Markey, 2018). ...
Body image is a critical component of an individual’s sexual experiences. This makes it critical to identify demographic and sociocultural correlates of sexuality-related body image: the subjective feelings, cognitions, and evaluations related to one’s body in the context of sexual experience. We examined how sexuality-related body image differed by gender, sexual orientation, race, age, and BMI. Four items assessing sexuality-related body image were completed by 11,620 U.S. adults: self-perceived sex appeal of their body, nude appearance satisfaction, and the extent to which they believed that body image positively or negatively affected their sexual enjoyment and feelings of sexual acceptability as a partner. Men reported slightly less nude appearance dissatisfaction and fewer negative effects of body image on sexual enjoyment and sexual acceptability than women, but did not differ in reported sex appeal. Poorer sexuality-related body image was reported by people with higher BMIs, not in relationships, who had sex less frequently, among White compared to Black women and men, and among gay compared to heterosexual men. Data also revealed a subgroup of respondents who reported that their body image had a positive impact on their sex lives. The findings highlight a need for interventions addressing sexuality-related body image.
Background: In recent years aesthetic injection techniques using soft tissue fillers are becoming popular worldwide due to their effectiveness, safety, and low cost. There is no standard approach for the management and follow-up of patients seeking penile enlargement procedures described in the literature and the surgical penile enlargement methods are also controversial. Objectives: To assess the effect of injection penile girth enlargement on sexual relationship satisfaction, confidence, self-esteem, and to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of this procedure for the management of men with small penis syndrome (SPS). Methods: This is a single-center, clinical case series study executed from January 2019 to February 2021, that involved 148 men who were unsatisfied with the shape of their normal-sized penises and requested penis girth correction. Results: A total of 132 patients completed full treatment and follow-up. Mean girth enlargement was 1.7 ± 0.32 cm for the mid-shaft and 1.5 ± 0.32 cm for the glans of the penis. Satisfaction with sexual life improved. Mean scores increased by 17.9 ± 3.04 points for the sexual relationship and by 12.2 ± 3.17 points for the confidence. The self-esteem mean score raised by 8 ± 2.8 and by 4.3 ± 0.97 points for the overall relationship. Conclusions: Penile enlargement with hyaluronic acid (HA) injection positively affects sexual relationship satisfaction, confidence, and self-esteem of men with SPS. But the rate of psychosocial improvement does not correlate with penile size changes. It is a simple, safe, and effective technique that can be used in daily clinical practice.
Background Dissatisfaction with the appearance and size of one's genitalia is a common issue, and the use of cosmetic genital surgery is increasing among people with normal genitalia. Aim This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the distribution of genital self-image in a large sample of males and females, and whether selected factors could predict genital self-image. Methods Three thousand five hundred three anonymous participants completed online questionnaires. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify the association between genital self-image and genital size (length of penis or protrusion of labia minora), consumption of sexually explicit material (SEM), sexual activity, avoidance and safety seeking behaviors, openness toward genital cosmetic surgery and age. Outcomes Total scores on the Female and Male Genital Self Image Scale were used as the main outcome measures. Results Overall, 3.6% of females and 5.5% of males had a severely low genital self-image (defined as 2 SD below the mean) and 33.8% of all individuals reported dissatisfaction with the appearance of their genitalia, with 13.7% of females and 11.3% of males considering undergoing cosmetic genital surgery. Mean protrusion of labia minora and stretched flaccid penis length in the population was estimated to 0.76 cm (95% CI 0.63–0.89 cm) and 12.5 cm (95% CI 12.33–12.76 cm), respectively. A higher genital self-image score was predicted by having a larger penis or less protruding labia minora, but not by the degree of SEM consumption, although 93.6% of males and 57.5% of females had consumed SEM in the past three months. The degree of avoidance and safety seeking behaviors, sexual activity, and openness toward genital cosmetic surgery predicted a low genital self-image. Being older was associated with a better genital self-image in females. Clinical Implications The results show that a psychological intervention may be needed as an alternative to cosmetic genital surgery for people who are dissatisfied with the appearance of their genitals. Strengths and Limitations This is one of few available studies investigating the association between actual genital size and genital dissatisfaction. The vast sample size and high response rate are also strengths. Limitations include the cross-sectional design, and possible bias in the study sample due to self-selection. Conclusion Overall, a low genital self-image and dissatisfaction with one's genitalia is relatively common and is influenced not only by genital size, but also behaviors performed to alleviate worry about one's genitals. Hustad IB, Malmqvist K, Ivanova E, et al. Does Size Matter? Genital Self-Image, Genital Size, Pornography Use and Openness Toward Cosmetic Genital Surgery in 3503 Swedish Men and Women. J Sex Med 2022;XX:XXX–XXX.
Introduction: Across many cultures, penis size has been associated with virility, and concerns about penile length are commonplace. Peyronie's disease (PD) is a known acquired cause of penile shortening. Objectives: This paper describes the psychosocial impacts of penile length on men and their partners, both generally and in men with PD, and evaluates the effect of PD treatments (eg, collagenase clostridium histolyticum , surgery, mechanical therapy) on this outcome measure. Methods: A PubMed database search was performed for English language articles through July 2021. Main outcome measures were association of penile length with emotional well-being, selfesteem, and relationship satisfaction in men with PD, and change from baseline penile length after treatment. Results: Shortened penile length caused by PD can negatively impact patient and partner quality of life, including effects on body image, emotional well-being, sexual function, and interpersonal relationships. In men with PD, studies have demonstrated an association between loss of penile length and emotional problems, reduced satisfaction with sexual performance, poor self-esteem, depression, and relationship difficulties. Loss of penile length can frequently occur after surgery for PD (including plication, plaque incision/excision with grafting, and penile implant). Advanced surgical techniques may preserve/increase penile length, but the increased risks associated with these complex procedures must be carefully considered. Treatment with collagenase clostridium histolyticum does not appear to negatively impact penile length, and 5-year follow-up data suggest potential longterm posttreatment improvements in this outcome measure. Penile traction therapy, either alone or as adjunctive therapy, may increase penile length in men with PD, but nonadherence may limit improvement. Conclusion: Changes in penile length are important to many men, particularly those with PD, and should be considered during PD treatment selection. Penile length should be measured objectively before and after treatment for PD and should be included as an outcome measure in future studies on treatment effectiveness. Goldstein I, Gelbard MK, Lipshultz LI. Clinical Significance of Shortened Penile Length and Alterations in Penile Length Following Treatment for Peyronie's Disease. Sex Med Rev 2022;10:409-420.
Male genital regenerative surgery spans from pure male genital cosmetic surgery, where penile lengthening procedures and girth enhancement procedures are the most common, to functional problems after trauma, diseases, or congenital anomalies. The male genitals symbolize masculinity, strength, courage, endurance, and sexual health and are important for masculine identity. Tissue engineering and the therapeutic use of stem cells are emerging techniques in male genital surgery, and have a good potential for penile reconstruction. In penile augmentation, lipofilling with the effects of regenerative cells and stromal vascular fraction from fat transfer treatments are the most commonly used regenerative techniques today. We present a series of 204 patients that we operated with our cosmetic penile lengthening and girth enhancement procedure. With a good selection of patients, attention to surgical technique and follow-up, the overall satisfaction was good, and the complications were low and minor.KeywordsPenile elongationGirth enhancementRegenerative cellsBiofillingFat transferNanofatStem cellRegenerative surgeryPenile lengtheningPenile augmentationFat graftStromal vascular fraction
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present an overview of the . . . debate about male gender role strain in the research and theoretical literatures of the last dozen years / distinguish the 3 major arguments inherent in the gender role strain model and describe how they have faired in recent research / develop the construct of masculinity ideology as a central "co-factor" in male gender role strain / analyze and respond to the criticisms on the gender role strain model made by a more recent theoretical perspective on masculinity, social constructionism / consider the recent revival of "male identityism" (the older dominant theory of masculinity) and reflect on the broader cultural contention between the strain and identity models of masculinity (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The media equate a man's penis size with his power and masculinity. Views about penis size were assessed in an Internet survey of 52,031 heterosexual men and women. Most men (66%) rated their penis as average, 22% as large, and 12% as small. Self-reported penis size was correlated positively with height and negatively with body fat level. Whereas 85% of women were satisfied with their partner's penis size, only 55% of men were satisfied with their penis size, 45% wanted to be larger, and 0.2% wanted to be smaller. Satisfaction did not vary across age groups from 18 to 65. Men reporting a larger-than-average penis rated their appearance most favorably, suggesting a possible confidence effect of perceived large penis size. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study examined body image and associated psychological traits in 154 college men. The comprehensive battery of measures included a novel computerized test of body image perception, the Somatomorphic Matrix, in which subjects could navigate through a range of body images, spanning a wide range of body fat and muscularity, to answer various questions posed by the computer. Subjects also completed paper-and-pencil instruments assessing depression, characteristics of eating disorders, self-esteem, and use of performance-enhancing substances. Findings suggest that contemporary American men display substantial body dissatisfaction and that this dissatisfaction is closely associated with depression, measures of eating pathology, use of performance-enhancing substances, and low self-esteem. Muscle belittlement, believing that one is less muscular than he is, presented as an important construct in the body dissatisfaction of men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conference Paper
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This paper is a pilot study that explores how the concept of genre can be applied to the massive set of digital documents known as ‘spam’. The authors studied 300 spam messages collected over 15 weeks from a university email system. Messages were coded based on content, form and specific features as well as on the manifest relationship to existing genres of communication. The paper argues that spam is not a single genre but many genres. For the most part, the genres evoked in spam are adaptations of print to Internet, including information artifacts, pamphlets, business cards, order forms, bulletins, advertisements, and "Nigerian letters". With spam, however, the concept of genre operates at several levels. Often, there is a contradiction between the manifest genre and the underlying purposes. The paper concludes that spam exploits genre by conforming to known forms while at the same time breaching those norms.
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Contemporary research regarding men’s body image has focused primarily on perceptions of muscularity and thinness, leaving aside other issues such as penis size. Despite pop cultural notions regarding the importance of penis size, and Western cultural notions more broadly regarding masculinity and the penis, little research has been done on men’s perceptions of penis size, and no work has been done on gay men’s perceptions of penis size. This article presents the results of three separate qualitative research projects conducted by the authors with openly gay men that considered body image and masculinity in the lives of gay men. Noteworthy is that all of the studies were conducted using the same methodology and data analysis procedures. This paper utilises rich descriptive text to highlight the issues surrounding gay men, penis size and constructions of masculinities. The primary aim of the paper is to provide a context within which future qualitative research can be conducted on issues relating to the penis among gay men, in addition to emphasising the importance of perceiving the penis as a legitimate body image issue which has rarely been discussed in qualitative research projects.
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Larger penis size has been equated with a symbol of power, stamina, masculinity, and social status. Yet, there has been little research among men who have sex with men assessing the association between penis size and social-sexual health. Survey data from a diverse sample of 1,065 men who have sex with men were used to explore the association between perceived penis size and a variety of psychosocial outcomes. Seven percent of men felt their penis was "below average," 53.9% "average," and 35.5% "above average." Penis size was positively related to satisfaction with size and inversely related to lying about penis size (all ps < .01). Size was unrelated to condom use, frequency of sex partners, HIV status, or recent diagnoses of HBV, HCV, gonorrhea/Chlamydia/urinary tract infections, and syphilis. Men with above average penises were more likely to report HPV and HSV-2 (Fisher's exact p <or= .05). Men with below average penises were significantly more likely to identify as "bottoms" (anal receptive) and men with above average penises were significantly more likely to identify as "tops" (anal insertive). Finally, men with below average penises fared significantly worse than other men on three measures of psychosocial adjustment. Though most men felt their penis size was average, many fell outside this "norm." The disproportionate number of viral skin-to-skin STIs (HSV-2 and HPV) suggest size may play a role in condom slippage/breakage. Further, size played a significant role in sexual positioning and psychosocial adjustment. These data highlight the need to better understand the real individual-level consequences of living in a penis-centered society.
An expanded, updated version of Peter Lehman's classic text that became the leading source for the study of masculinity, the male body, and sexuality in film.
"The Masculine Self" offers comprehensive coverage of contemporary concepts of gender and masculinity. It applies the psychology of men to mainstream personality theory, including theorists such as S. Freud, C. Jung, S. Bem, E. Maccoby, and C. Rogers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--New York University, 1989. Includes bibliographical references (p. 114-118). Photocopy.