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The personal and political economy of psychologists' desires for social justice

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From an anticapitalist perspective we examine the personal and political economy of the desires for social justice expressed by psychologists associated with either the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) or Behaviorists for Social Responsibility (BSR). First, we consider terms and concepts related to social justice and acknowledge our conceptual debts to critical theory, poststructuralism, feminist epistemology, and liberation psychology. To provide context, we briefly review North American psychologists’ historical relationship to the state. Then, after discussing the implications of different accounts of SPSSI’s past expressions of interest in social justice, we assess three collections of articles in the last decade of SPSSI’s house organ, the Journal of Social Issues. Next, we examine the interests in social justice shown by B. F. Skinner and subsequent generations of operant behaviorists, known as behavior analysts. Overall, our review of these two bodies of literature indicates that authors tended to use the language of social justice loosely and to present liberal political visions, abstracted from direct political involvement and aimed at reforming social conditions. Furthermore, we infer that the privileged socioeconomic status of academic psychologists compromises aspirations to contribute to social action that challenges the status quo. Accordingly, we propose abandoning attempts as psychologists to practice social justice. Instead, we advocate joining emancipatory struggles in solidarity with other citizens, while striving to overcome socioeconomic and intellectual hierarchies in academic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Academic psychologists at that time typically did not participate directly in social change, such as the civil rights movement. Even members of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), one of the few groups of psychologists interested in social action, concentrated on research, not research and action (Walsh & Gokani, 2014). ...
... Consequently, the social transformation option for community psychology, even if conceptually and politically improved, is likely to be unrealistic. In fact, this status is consistent with the history of other bodies of reputedly progressive psychologists (Walsh & Gokani, 2014) and prompts us to question what community psychologists should do about their genuine commitments to social transformation. ...
... One recommendation we suggest is that community psychologists engage directly in solidarity with oppressed groups in the struggle for social transformation, but as citizens and not as academic community psychologists (Walsh & Gokani, 2014). Many important social justice movements today are better platforms for the social transformation that some community psychologists seek from within academia and our subdiscipline. ...
Article
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We examine historical and conceptual literature in community psychology in order to understand the field's potential to be the socially transformative subdiscipline of psychology to which it aspires. By reviewing papers from two prominent journals and other literature, we conclude that the claim that community psychology is well-suited to social transformation, because it is a product of Sixties' radicalism and is theoretically equipped, is untenable. Systematic accounts of the subdiscipline's origins suggest that the transformative aspirations of current community psychologists do not correspond to the subdiscipline's reformist past. Furthermore, in analyzing three related concepts currently employed in the field-social justice, power, and praxis-we show that each suffers from conceptual ambiguity and a restricted political scope. These conceptual flaws, coupled with community psychology's historical inclination toward social reform, inhibit the possibility of contributing to radical social transformation. We conclude that neither questionable historical claims nor ambiguous and politically dubious concepts support a community psychology of social transformation. We offer solutions for the historical and conceptual problems we identify and, as a broader solution to the problem of engaging in socially transformative work, propose that community psychologists should seek direct political engagement in solidarity with other citizens as fellow citizens not as psychologists.
... Critical political psychologists are increasingly concerned with understanding how political systems impact psychological functioning and social movements (see Decety & Yoder, 2016;Hasan-Aslih et al., 2019;Leach, 2016;Rucker, Galinsky, & Magee, 2018). This work has convincingly called for political psychology and related disciplines to abandon value-neutrality (see, e.g., Vollhardt & Bilali, 2008;Walsh & Gokani, 2014). However, such critical work remains marginal. ...
... The field's reliance on statistics and surveys tends to confine politics to partisanship, voting, political affiliation and governmental action (Montero, 1997), thereby limiting the very idea of politics to the bureaucratic processes in which 'good citizens' participate (see Parker, 2015;Tileagȃ, 2013). Although there are exceptions here (see Clarke et al., 2006;Gokani & Walsh, 2014;Hasan-Aslih et al., 2019;Malherbe, 2020b;Tileagȃ, 2013), it is only in more recent years that political psychologists have taken seriously political formations which occur outside of formalised, State-centric apparatuses (e.g. protests, social movements, wildcat strike action, prefigurative politics). ...
... This is not, however, to discount explicitly partisan political psychology work (e.g. Butler, 2020;Malherbe, 2020b;Walsh & Gokani, 2014), but to highlight that those involved in resistance politics proper are regularly pathologised within political psychology discourse, and made to seem abnormal or the product of 'negative thinking' (Parker, 2015). Therefore, despite critical work being undertaken in the field, a lot of political psychology continues to lend scientific credence to oppressive social and political norms (Montero, 1997;Tileagȃ, 2013). ...
Article
Within psychology, love is typically understood in fundamentally psychological terms. Even those critical psychologists who have interrogated the sociopolitical dimensions of love seem unable to break from conceptions of love as romantic, familial, and/or private. In this article, I argue that in understanding love as a disposition, rather than a feeling, political psychologists are able to bring nuance to mainstream psychology's engagement with the emancipatory potentialities of love while, simultaneously, instating a critical reorientation of political psychology. To this end, I offer two pathways through which political psychologists can work with love: rooting counter-hegemonies in the love ethic, and enunciating love knowledges across contexts. I conclude by reflecting on future directions for critical political psychologists who are concerned with a multifaceted, materialist, psychopolitical and contextually-bound notion of love.
... Examples here include mainstream CP's regular alignment with nongovernmental organizations which function in the interests of global capital; its embrace of a corporatised model of community engagement (Fourie & Terre Blanche, 2019); and its increasing reliance on participatory methods which can work to relegate democratic ideals to capitalist logic (Coimbra et al., 2012). The de-radicalizing potential of CP is also observed in the role that the discipline has played in defusing social movements while proclaiming to mobilize them through a pseudoprogressive language (Parker, 2015;Walsh & Gokani, 2014). Coimbra and his colleagues (2012) provide several examples here, including community psychologists' role in diminishing grassroots resistance in Palestine and Britain. ...
... Situated in the tradition of critical community psychology (e.g. Burton et al., 2012;Fryer, 2008;Kagan et al., 2011;Nelson & Prilleltensky, 2010;Seedat et al., 1988;Walsh & Gokani, 2014), as well as writing from and working in South Africa, we attempt in this article to imagine CP within an emancipatory politics. Such a politics, we argue, rejects the liberal constitution of much mainstream CP, and is oriented toward systemic, socially just change. ...
... Indeed, the discipline has its institutional roots in white, male power, observed in many of the editorial boards of prominent CP journals, as well as CP graduate program coordinators. CP tends to engage only marginally with disability struggles, and deals ineffectively with issues of class (see Walsh & Gokani, 2014). Moreover, a number of authors have argued that issues pertaining to gender (see Cosgrove & McHugh, 2000), and race (see Carolissen et al., 2010) have been attended to inadequately by much of mainstream CP, either by ignoring these issues outright, downplaying them, or failing to engage their intersectional nature. ...
Article
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According to Lewis Gordon, one is said to adhere to disciplinary decadence when disciplinary orthodoxy is prioritised over how particular problems are addressed. Under neoliberal capitalism, disciplinary decadence oftentimes reproduces a politics that is based on individual-rather than collective-freedoms (i.e. a liberal politics). This article interrogates two common disciplinarily decadent ways of politicising community psychology (CP), namely: parochial historicization and respect for diversity as liberal tolerance. We argue that in both cases, pseudo-progressive language is used to advance a liberal politics that distorts the collective change-making capacities of CP. In an attempt to break from such liberal politics, we consider how an ethic of discomfort can allow community psychologists to move beyond disciplinary decadence. This ethic, we contend, can be advanced through pedagogy (i.e. unlearning disciplinary comforts) and solidarity-making (i.e. embracing, rather hurriedly resolving, conflict when forming political alliances). We conclude by calling for a CP that signifies a critical approach rather than a set of disciplinarily-bound dictums.
... Additionally, social psychology is underperforming in its public service impacts and lacks public appreciation and translational policy research and applications, which undermines the field (e.g., Dafermos, 2015;Gropp, 2021). Many (especially Southern) researchers have long appealed for the discipline to be more connected to urgent public issues and to enhance policy pipelines and sociopolitical relevance (e.g., Sinha, 1989;Liu et al., 2008;Walsh & Gokani, 2014). ...
... It is clear that the future of research in our discipline depends on our ability to understand and cope with hierarchy-enhancing systems internationally, nationally, in academia, institutionally, societally, and their intersectionalities. We argue that the most sustainable solution to our many disciplinary problems and inequities is orienting our discipline's systems and its membership to center emancipative, intersectional, anti-hierarchical struggles both within and across our countries and within and beyond academia (see also, Gjorgjioska & Tomicic, 2019;Walsh & Gokani, 2014). ...
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This paper offers an exploration of research production in social psychology as a global endeavor from the point of view of Anglophone social psychologists (N=232) across 64 countries. We examine social psychologists’ beliefs regarding the difficulties in conducting research in social psychology and the inequalities that they report between the Global North, South and East Europe, and the Global South. Across all regions, we found pervasive critical awareness of obstacles to conducting research--including underinvestment in the field, precarious and counter-productive labor conditions, and excessive and biased disciplinary standards. However, we also found that colleagues outside the Global North reported quantitatively and qualitatively larger obstacles to research. These included well-known historically-rooted inequalities but also contemporary systemic procedural and distributive injustices in material, human, and social-political capital. Non-Northern colleagues in particular critically reflected on how these inequalities and injustices are amplified by Northern hegemonies in social, institutional, disciplinary, economic, and political systems. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for social psychologists, social psychology as a discipline, and its situation within broader hierarchical systems and their intersectionalities.
... Today, much mainstream community psychology aligns with the neoliberal political project by psychologising, de-politicising, and pathologising anti-capitalist movements (see de Oliveira & Júnior, 2022;Malherbe & Dlamini, 2020) all while claiming to mobilise them towards politically progressive ends (Walsh & Gokani, 2014). Community psychology of this kind tends to assist people in acclimatising to capitalism, improving their experience of it rather than working to dismantle it (Malherbe & Dlamini, 2020). ...
... The English language, for instance, is typically understood as the gold standard within these journals. Moreover, the manner by which much community psychology is taught usually engages marginally, if at all, with issues of class and how class relates to racism, sexism, and disability within and across communities (Walsh & Gokani, 2014). In considering all of this, community psychology has involved itself not only in epistemic violence (i.e. ...
Chapter
This chapter clarifies the object of the book’s critique, namely, capitalism. Although there are various approaches that we can take when attempting to understand capitalism, I argue for three conceptions: capitalism as (1) a political project, (2) an ideology, and (3) a mode of normative rationality. I then speak to how each of these conceptions relate to one another and insist that an expansive anti-capitalism must consider all three. However, even though we cannot separate out any of these three conceptions from the others, I argue that one of them will always take precedence in anti-capitalist work. Put differently, because anti-capitalism will, regrettably, be unable to take on the totality of capitalism, it is useful to enter into anti-capitalist activism through either politics, ideology, or normative rationality and from here seek to connect with and address other formations of anti-capitalist resistance. My aim is, then, not to argue against or for a specific conception of capitalism, but to engage capitalism in a way that reflects a multitude of conceptions that might be useful for the practice of an anti-capitalist psychology of community. Thus, capitalism (and, in the following chapters, anti-capitalist resistance) is separated into politics, ideology, and normative rationality in ways that are artificial but tactically and analytically useful. The chapter concludes with an account of how capitalism, conceived of in these three ways, has intersected with community psychology and what this means for those who practise what I am calling an anti-capitalist psychology of community.
... Today, much mainstream community psychology aligns with the neoliberal political project by psychologising, de-politicising, and pathologising anti-capitalist movements (see all while claiming to mobilise them towards politically progressive ends (Walsh & Gokani, 2014). Community psychology of this kind tends to assist people in acclimatising to capitalism, improving their experience of it rather than working to dismantle it . ...
... The English language, for instance, is typically understood as the gold standard within these journals. Moreover, the manner by which much community psychology is taught usually engages marginally, if at all, with issues of class and how class relates to racism, sexism, and disability within and across communities (Walsh & Gokani, 2014). In considering all of this, community psychology has involved itself not only in epistemic violence (i.e. ...
Book
Anti-capitalist political struggle is a site of struggling psychologies. Conscious political action is never far from unconscious desire, and the fight for material justice is always also the fight for dignity and psychological well-being. Yet, how might community psychologists conceive of their discipline in a way that opposes the very capitalist political economy that, historically, most of the psy-disciplines have bolstered in return for disciplinary legitimacy? In its consideration of an anti-capitalist psychology of community, this book does not ignore or try to resolve the contradictory position of such a psychology. Instead, it draws on these contradictions to enliven psychology to the shifting demands - both creative and destructive - of a community-centred anti-capitalism. Using practical examples, the book deals with the psychological components of building community-centred social movements that challenge neoliberal capitalism as a political system, an ideology, and a mode of governing rationality. The book also offers several theoretical contributions that grapple with how an anti-capitalist psychology of community can remain attentive to the psychological elements of anti-capitalist struggle; what the psychological can tell us about anti-capitalist politics; and how these politics can shape the psychological.
... As earlier discussed, certain historically rooted factors in academe that have been present for decades, such as psychologists' intense desires for societal legitimacy, professional recognition, and peer acceptance, routinely get in the way of valiant attempts at disrupting the economic and political status quo in society (Walsh, Teo, & Baydala, 2014). In the past, many academic community psychologists have expressed their desires to promote social justice but unfortunately have tended to use the language of social justice loosely or remained content with providing rhetoric associated with pretensions of enacting radical change in communities (Walsh & Gokani, 2014). ...
... In their article discussing academic psychologists' desires for social justice, Walsh and Gokani (2014) expressed the notion that the privileged socio-economic status of academic psychologists has frequently compromised their aspirations to contribute to social actions that challenge societal status quo. They proposed that instead of pursuing the promotion of social justice as psychologists, advocates for social justice in the field of Psychology can choose to join other people in the community in their struggles to fight against injustices as engaged citizens. ...
Article
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Due to pervasive inequalities and inequities in society, many people have a difficult time envisaging a just society, let alone how to go about actualizing such an aspiration. A critical reflection on the concept of a just society and the role that community psychologists and other advocates can play in upholding a critical social justice agenda in their research and civic engagement, particularly against neoliberalism and other systems of domination, is discussed. As part of a proffered framework, four tasks are proposed to fulfil the role: (1) raising public critical consciousness, (2) convincing people of the possibility of change, (3) creating a vision shared by the community, and (4) forging a political will from the shared vision. Accompanying strategies are provided in the discussion of each of the tasks of the suggested framework.
... While counseling psychologists are using social media sites "… to connect socially with peers, network with other professionals, and provide education to consumers of psychological services, " (Kolmes, 2012, p. 606) we assert that counseling psychologists can use social media for much more. In a 2014 article that explored the role of psychologists in social change, Walsh and Gokani (2014) recommended that psychologists should engage as every-day people in "social justice through direct political struggle in solidarity with ordinary citizens …" to help change the world (p. 42). ...
Article
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Multicultural competence is a cornerstone of modern day counseling psychology. The new multicultural and social justice competencies highlight the integration of social justice and multicultural frameworks. These competencies include community engagement through social justice advocacy. Social media may be one way to advocate for social justice for underserved or marginalized communities. Social media networks impact in the Arab Spring and the 2016 United States Presidential election suggests that people may utilize social media to inform and act on their social or political views. Throughout this article, we will explore the benefits of social media for raising critical consciousness, as defined by Freire, and examine how counseling psychologists can utilize social media to engage in social justice advocacy in diverse communities.
... While counseling psychologists are using social media sites "… to connect socially with peers, network with other professionals, and provide education to consumers of psychological services, " (Kolmes, 2012, p. 606) we assert that counseling psychologists can use social media for much more. In a 2014 article that explored the role of psychologists in social change, Walsh and Gokani (2014) recommended that psychologists should engage as every-day people in "social justice through direct political struggle in solidarity with ordinary citizens …" to help change the world (p. 42). ...
Article
Full-text available
Multicultural competence is a cornerstone of modern day counseling psychology. The new multicultural and social justice competencies highlight the integration of social justice and multicultural frameworks. These competencies include community engagement through social justice advocacy. Social media may be one way to advocate for social justice for underserved or marginalized communities. Social media networks impact in the Arab Spring and the 2016 United States Presidential election suggests that people may utilize social media to inform and act on their social or political views. Throughout this article, we will explore the benefits of social media for raising critical consciousness, as defined by Freire, and examine how counseling psychologists can utilize social media to engage in social justice advocacy in diverse communities.
... For community psychologists who approach injustice as a kind sociostructural malady (see Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997), the crisis of care may represent a politicoethical imperative (see Bartos, 2018;Tronto, 1993). In this short commentary, I posit that centring care work within critical community psychology allows us to engage in community activism in important ways (see Walsh & Gokani, 2014). In what follows, I outline how we can begin to conceptualise the political and ethical nature of the crisis of care within community psychology work. ...
Article
In addition to the twinned crises of ecology and political economy, we face today a crisis of care. The crisis of care, I contend, is fundamentally a political and an ethical crisis. In this short commentary, I outline the structural (i.e., systemic) and reproductive (i.e., labour) character of this crisis, using the COVID‐19 pandemic as an example. From here, I argue for the imperative to centre an expansive conception of care in critical community psychology work. Specifically, I posit that by working with and alongside activist care workers, community psychologists can assist in building socially just modalities of care. After reflecting on my work with collective caring initiatives, I offer five (tentative) guiding principles for a community psychology that is committed to addressing the crisis of care, namely: (1) commitment to building political coalitions; (2) commitment to refuting capitalist conceptions of care; (3) commitment to expanding conceptions of care; (4) commitment to embracing the psychological consequences of care work; and (5) a politicoethical commitment.
... The focus on market values and individual responsibility within neoliberal ideology results in those who perform well and generate wealth are considered successful. By announcing the end of ideology (Harvey, 2000), neoliberalism permits ideological ignorance preventing the consideration of more equitable ideological positions (Walsh-Bowers & Gokani, 2014). Individualism is drawn upon in talk to legitimise the interests of the wealthy over the collective needs of poorer groups (Carr, Goodman & Jowett, 2018). ...
Chapter
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Political communication is not static and takes a range of forms due to technological change requiring researchers to diversify their interests. When examining talk about wealth inequality, focusing on the overtly political is problematic as issues such as poverty are presented as banal in the media. This chapter will examine how documentaries that are presented as banal entertainment can be discursively analysed as a form of political communication. Discursive Psychology is used to explore how wealthy people account for employing staff to perform domestic tasks in television documentaries. Talk about domestic staff constructs extreme inequality as acceptable by drawing upon individualism, a tenet of neoliberal ideology. It was found that employing staff was presented as essential for the super-rich and desirable for others. Humour within the programmes creates an ambiguous argument to question the fairness of wealth inequality within super-rich homes. Domestic staff account for their labour by presenting their work as beneficial to others drawing upon collectivist ideology. This chapter establishes how a particular television genre (the documentary) that is usually presented as entertainment is also a form of political communication as it draws upon differing ideological stances.
... Some contemporary psychologists' express skepticism that individuals acting in their roles as psychological professionals can pursue justice and challenge power effectively, given entrenched epistemologies and practices within the disciple and its dedication to self-interest (e.g., Fox, 2008;Walsh & Gokani, 2014). This as well as the tendency of psychologists to psychologize the political, supports their claim that much, if not most, social change will depend on externally grounded popular movements. ...
Chapter
The growing visibility and engagement with the ideas of social psychologist and Jesuit priest Ignacio Martín-Baró by an international network of psychologists and practitioners raises questions about whether and how Martín-Baró’s work has contributed to the project he envisioned of liberating psychology as the twentieth century transitions into the twenty-first. This chapter discusses key epistemological, methodological, and ethical challenges Martín-Baró put forward in articulating his vision for a liberation psychology and offers a selective review of the contributions of psychologists inspired by his legacy over the last 30 years, many of them decolonial scholar activists and practitioners located in the Third and Fourth Worlds and at the margins of the academy in core neoliberal capitalist countries. In doing so, it also addresses ontological and epistemological assumptions, limiting institutional practices, and problems of professional self-interest that Martín-Baró challenged and that persist within the discipline today.
Article
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RESUMEN El siguiente artículo analiza, desde una perspectiva epistemológica, cuáles son los posibles mecanismos que operan en la producción de investigaciones científicas de carácter biomédico aplica-das a niños y niñas, y cómo influyen en la interpretación de los resultados, causando eventuales consecuencias que distan de los discursos emancipadores de la propia niñez. En el desarrollo del artículo se plantean tres posibles conflictos epistemológicos asociados a: la binariedad, la lógica de poder y la noción de realidad. La propuesta de hacer visibles estos conflictos permitiría explicar y comprender de manera crítica cómo se interpreta la producción científica del conocimiento. Cada hipótesis explicativa ofrece propuestas para incorporar, dentro de la producción científica, ciertas orientaciones provenientes de enfoques interdisciplinares como una forma de acercarse a la construcción del conocimiento desde una ética de la consecuencia que evite la vulneración de niños y niñas y se abran a mayores posibilidades de reconocimiento social. INTRODUCCIÓN La investigación es una de las producciones que contribuye al desarrollo de las diversas ciencias en la medida que su objetivo es cuestionar y analizar la realidad desde diferentes perspectivas. Las investigaciones científicas producidas en el campo de las ciencias naturales pueden causar consecuencias psicológicas en las personas, debido a que la acción de considerar los resultados como una "verdad" influiría en las posiciones sociales de éstas, interfiriendo en aspectos tan importantes como su individualidad y sus oportunidades de acceso a una mejor calidad de vida. Estas consecuencias psicológicas negativas se podrían incrementar cuando el enfoque de estudio es biomédico, y el objeto de estudio son personas que se encuentran en la etapa de la infancia. En cuanto al concepto de "infancia", esta es una noción que ha cambiado considerablemente a lo largo de la historia. Un reflejo de tal variación es la abundante terminología de referencia: niños, niños y niñas, menores, infancia, niñez etc. Estos términos aluden a conceptos legales, históricos o psicológicos a los que subyacen una determinada visión social, forma de crianza, interés sociopolítico, teoría pedagógica, reconocimiento de derechos y desarrollo de políticas sociales (Ariés, 1987). De lo anterior se desprende que el concepto de "niñez" se conforma de un entramado de factores que incluye aspectos sociales, psicológicos y prácticas jurídico-políticas, atravesadas por luchas políticas, ideológicas, cambios socio-económicos y culturales (Dio Iorio, Lenta y Hojman, 2007). Recibido el 13 de agosto de 2019. Aceptado el 19 de noviembre de 2019 1 PH(c) en Psicología. Psicóloga, Fonoaudióloga, Especialista en Psicomotricidad. División de neurociencia social, Centro de Investigación en Complejidad Social (CICS), Facultad de Gobierno, Universidad del Desarrollo. Correspondencia a: josefinalarrain@udd.cl 2 Modelo médico: aproximaciones centradas en el fármaco y en la noción de normalidad versus anormalidad, enfermedad (Parker, 2014). Ciencia biomédica es un término que engloba el conocimiento y la investigación que es común a los campos de la medicina y las biociencias. La biomedicina se relaciona con la práctica de la medicina, y aplica todos los principios de las ciencias naturales en la práctica clínica, mediante el estudio e investigación de los procesos fisiopatológicos, considerando desde las interacciones moleculares hasta el funcionamiento dinámico del organismo, a través de las metodologías aplicadas en la biología, química y física.
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In Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duties, and His Expectations David Hartley (1749/1971) presented a systematic, comprehensive, complex, and medically informed psychological treatise, drawn from Newtonian mechanics. Evidently motivated by religious beliefs about the perilous state of humankind, he speculated that human nature’s physical foundation in vibrations and association ranged from sensory processes and simple ideas to sympathy (i.e., benevolent social relations, leading to perspective-taking), theopathy (i.e., loving union with God), and moral sensibility (i.e., reliance on moral principles to guide conduct). However, typical accounts of scientific psychology’s roots in Enlightenment thought have neglected the complex psychological processes and developmental, interpersonal, societal, religious, and moral aspects of Hartley’s system. For him, manifestations of sympathy, theopathy, and moral sensibility are central to human experience, whereas self-fulfillment results from the developmental transit of self-interest to moral sensibility. Thus, after describing the multiple facets of association in sensation, ideas, action, language, and memory, I show how Observations synthesizes contemporaneous scientific, religious, and moral thought about human psychology. Then I relate Hartley’s views to subsequent psychological thought, identify parallels with concepts in past and present scientific psychology, and suggest the value of his synthesis for exploring the interface between psychology, and religion and spirituality. However, philosophical impediments in psychology’s traditions make such explorations unlikely without facilitative institutional changes.
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This article aims to stimulate discussion about the potential relevance of the concept of socialism for what we study and the questions we ask. The economic systems of capitalism and socialism are seldom considered subjects of interest in psychology. At this particular time, however, especially in the United States, the relevance of these systems for our theories and research on human behavior, health, and human welfare seem particularly relevant and potentially significant. I argue that discussions of socialism should be helpful in expanding the context of our concerns in psychology and the identification of important new variables. The growing crisis of inequality in the United States is the major impetus for this argument. © 2015 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
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This paper responds to a set of problems in contemporary psychology that cluster around the notion that the discipline might be “applied” to the real world, and that such application would thereby serve as the methodological and conceptual grounding for “political psychology.” The specific problems addressed comprise “interpretation” of material in the quantitative and qualitative traditions, the notion of “application” as such which rests on the prior modelling of individual and collective psychological phenomena, the conceptions of “politics” that operate in disciplinary interventions, the idealisation of “community” in different traditions of community psychology in the US and Europe, and finally “psychology” itself as the background against which these other problems are elaborated. In response to these problems the paper describes political theoretical concepts from feminist interventions in Left practice and brings them to bear on the discipline of psychology, turning the direction of travel of concepts around so that psychology itself rather than the outside world becomes the object to which ideas are “applied.” The five political theoretical concepts described here are: “performativity,” “standpoint,” “the personal as political,” the “tyranny of structurelessness,” and “intersectionality.”
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Social contextual and social justice perspectives on North American psychologists' conceptions of ethical ideals and prescribed practices show that interpersonal, organizational-institutional, and sociopolitical systems are dimly represented on our moral landscape. In this critical review I first examine conceptions of ethical decision-making from cognitive and interpersonal angles, noting the operation of nonrational phenomena and conversational processes and promoting a communicative conception of ethical decision-making. Next, I consider how the discourse on the concepts and practice of ethics addresses both the social conditions of our employment and the challenges of maintaining professional-personal boundaries on ethical conduct. Lastly, I assess the ways in which psychologists discuss ethical issues that arise from our espoused commitments to enhancing human welfare, responsibility to society, and social justice. I argue that certain historical trends in psychology's culture reduce our moral vision of practicing the principle of justice to social reforms that sustain the status quo. I conclude by questioning how we can shift the transit of our ethical discourse and practice toward communicative ethics and social justice.
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Although there has been considerable empirical scholarship on the psychological dimensions of social justice, there has been less interest in interrogating and clarifying the philosophical and theoretical issues that lie at the intersection of psychology and social justice. The purpose of this special issue is to bring together a range of established scholars with diverse social and political commitments to reflect on some of the philosophical and theoretical issues that emerge when psychologists address social justice in their research and practice. The major themes taken up in this issue include the relationship between the individual and the community, the role that psychology plays both in promoting and in preventing the development of more equitable social and political institutions, and the way that different forms of universalism (e.g., moral, scientific, psychological) inform the struggle for social justice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite B. F. Skinner's prominence, his impressive written corpus, and the many authoritative presentations by others of his approach to psychology, the fundamentals of Skinner's psychology have never been addressed in any comprehensive manner. In this article, the authors take steps to fill this gap by synopsizing Skinner's written corpus into 12 fundamental points that seem to characterize his behaviorism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Skinner's cultural analyses persistently have been misunderstood, yet he has offered social activists a powerful tool for promoting progressive social change. His advocacy of nonpolitical empiricism, in terms of the isolated Walden Two style communities as well as of the general society, is discussed. It is suggested that Skinner's analyses are limited by the information-driven nature of the postmodern world and that utilization of the concept of the metacontingency (S. S. Glenn, 1991) will be necessary to achieve economic justice. Nevertheless, Skinner's work provides the basic conceptual approach and fundamental tools for cultural analysis and intervention.
Article
Arguing that ecological thinking can animate an epistemology capable of addressing feminist, multicultural, and other post-colonial concerns, this book critiques the instrumental rationality, hyperbolized autonomy, abstract individualism, and exploitation of people and places that western epistemologies of mastery have legitimated. It proposes a politics of epistemic location, sensitive to the interplay of particularity and diversity, and focused on responsible epistemic practices. Starting from an epistemological approach implicit in Rachel Carson's scientific projects, the book draws, constructively and critically, on ecological theory and practice, on (post-Quinean) naturalized epistemology, and on feminist and post-colonial theory. Analyzing extended examples from developmental psychology, from medicine and law, and from circumstances where vulnerability, credibility, and public trust are at issue, the argument addresses the constitutive part played by an instituted social imaginary in shaping and regulating human lives. The practices and examples discussed invoke the responsibility requirements central to this text's larger purpose of imagining, crafting, articulating a creative, innovative, instituting social imaginary, committed to interrogating entrenched hierarchical social structures, en route to enacting principles of ideal cohabitation.
Article
The Great Financial Crisis and the Great Recession began in the United States in 2007 and quickly spread across the globe, marking what appears to be a turning point in world history. Although this was followed within two years by a recovery phase, the world economy five years after the onset of the crisis is still in the doldrums…. The one bright spot in the world economy, from a growth standpoint, has been the seemingly unstoppable expansion of a handful of emerging economies, particularly China. Yet, the continuing stability of China is now also in question. Hence, the general consensus among informed economic observers is that the world capitalist economy is facing the threat of long-run economic stagnation (complicated by the prospect of further financial deleveraging)…. It is this issue of the stagnation of the capitalist economy, even more than that of financial crisis or recession that has now emerged as the big question worldwide. This article can also be found at the Monthly Review website, where most recent articles are published in full. Click here to purchase a PDF version of this article at the Monthly Review website.
Book
Series Editor's Preface Acknowledgements Introduction PART 1: COMPASS POINTS Beyond Universalism: Local Regeneration Beyond Ideology: Dialogue Beyond Development: Liberation PART 2: PSYCHIC WOUNDS OF COLONIALISM AND GLOBALIZATION Symptoms and Psychologies in the Context of Culture From Bystanding to Engaged Witness Bystanding Pathologies of Perpetration Mourning and Witness After Collective Trauma PART 3: SPRINGS FOR CREATIVE RESTORATION Rupture and Hospitality Non-Subjects and Nomadic Consciousness Dialogue PART 4: PARTICIPATORY PRACTICES FOR REGENERATION Communities of Resistance Libertory Arts and Imagination Critical Participatory Action Research Placing Dialogical Ethics at the Center of Research Dreams of Reconciliation and Restoration Afterword Tikkun Olam : The Restoration and Repair of the World References Index
Article
A psychological perspective has been largely absent in the multidisciplinary discourse surrounding globalization. In this commentary, we highlight the unique contributions that the articles in this special issue have made in advancing a new psychological science of globalization. We discuss the critical role that psychological theory plays in understanding reactions to globalization, and in turn, how globalization research provides a new context that challenges, refines, and extends psychological theory. We offer suggestions as to how psychology can take an active role in the future of globalization research, in particular in specifying the psychological dimensions on which globalization is construed (e.g., morality, power) and the implications these construals have for reactions to globalization. Building on research discussed in this special issue on psychological dynamics involved in responses to globalization, we offer some observations on factors that might play a role in positive and negative reactions to globalization.
Article
Playing with the doubled use of the term “revolting”—as an adjective to describe the repulsive inequality gaps that litter the globe and as a delightful gerund to capture the thrilling days of global collective protest—this Lewin address muses about social psychology's debt in politically difficult times of massive inequality and sustained oppression. I venture back to the 1930s for inspiration, reviewing the writings of Lewin, Jahoda, and Dollard, as well as the research of W.E.B. Du Bois in the early 1900s and Ignacio Martín-Baró toward the latter part of the 1900s, to understand how social psychologists have intervened theoretically and empirically to contest injustice, inspire solidarity, and advance more just social arrangements. Calling for research that both documents the collateral damage of neoliberalism and generates alternative visions of democracy and justice, the second half of the article sketches a critical participatory action research project conducted with urban youth, which was designed to challenge both the strategic disinvestment in the public sphere and the concomitant conservatizing pressures on our methods of social inquiry, raising questions about “evidence-based practice” and the current marketing of Randomized Clinical Trials as the “gold standard.”
Article
Drawing from social historical studies and critical feminist perspectives on psychological method and report writing, I analyze the content of the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 1994) as if it were a biblical text. I focus on the correspondence between the espoused intention of sensitivity toward participants and the codes of investigative conduct made explicit and implicit in the manual. Specifically, I examine definitions of research, research roles, ethical standards, writing style, and gender issues. I then discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist bible in relation to psychologists' culture, including socialization of psychology students and the production of research articles. I conclude with recommendations for investigative and compositional alternatives.
Article
Examines 5 Western cultural practices that have eroded the contingencies of reinforcement under which humans have evolved by promoting pleasing effects of behavior consequences at the expense of strengthening effects. The cultural practices described are as follows: (a) alienating workers from the consequences of their work, (b) helping those who are capable of helping themselves, (c) guiding behavior with rules rather than supplying reinforcing consequences, (d) maintaining aversive sanctions of governments and religions with long-deferred benefits for the individual, and (e) reinforcing pleasures that are not contingent on the survival of the culture or species. It is suggested that these cultural practices have resulted in apathy and stagnation in Western culture. It is proposed that these effects can be reversed by restoring more strengthening contingencies of behavior through the application of principles derived from an experimental analysis of behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Skinner's cultural analyses persistently have been misunderstood, yet he has offered social activists a powerful tool for promoting progressive social change. His advocacy of nonpolitical empiricism, in terms of the isolated Walden Two style communities as well as of the general society, is discussed. It is suggested that Skinner's analyses are limited by the information-driven nature of the postmodern world and that utilization of the concept of the metacontingency (S. S. Glenn, 1991) will be necessary to achieve economic justice. Nevertheless, Skinner's work provides the basic conceptual approach and fundamental tools for cultural analysis and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Kurt Lewin's scientific biography after his 1933 emigration from Nazi Germany and his move to the US exhibits a complex mix of continuity and change. In his work at the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station between 1935 and 1944, Lewin tried to recreate the scientific microculture that had formed around him in Berlin. In the process, he converted biography into theory, adapting to current cultural concerns, to then-prevailing research styles, and to changing institutional and funding networks in American psychology. However, despite their considerable impact at the time, the later reception of Lewin's ideas and methods by American psychologists was ambivalent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Based on a social-contextual analysis, I assess unification and pluralist impulses to resolve psychology's historical disunity. Unifiers and pluralists seem to privilege the context of justification by focusing on rational argument, whereas skeptics in the debate over unification concentrate on irrational dimensions that constitute the social-historical context for epistemic positions on pluralism and unification. Applying Kurt Danziger's (1997b) notion of the “context of construction” to psychological discourse, I discuss six contextual issues that impinge upon solutions to the unification-pluralist debate: historical precedents for disunity; marginalization of human-science psychology; the intersection of psychological knowledge with power; persistent social conflict within the discipline; implicit notions of social change for psychology; and tension between globalized US psychology and an emergent, genuinely international psychology. Adopting the context of construction to examine these contextual issues, pending systematic investigation, might facilitate reflection on the potential of pluralism to resolve the discipline's fragmented state.
Article
The construct of privilege has been undertheorized in the field of psychology. The discipline more commonly examines those who have been disenfranchised, marginalized, and discriminated against. However, psychologists concerned with social issues must also attend to questions of power and privilege. This article uses a collaborative research project with New York City youth and adults called Polling for Justice to engage in a discussion about privilege as it runs through three areas of that work: by design, in results, and through action. First, the paper argues that privilege is an epistemological standpoint of empirical psychology that has been disguised as objectivity. Next, that privilege is a set of material and social psychological conditions that protect adolescents as they develop, take risks, and mature. Finally, that those who hold privilege can embrace and model a sense of collective responsibility and solidarity, not retreat or passively empathize.
Article
From a personal perspective on the tensions experienced in my career as a community psychologist, I advocate spiritualizing community psychology. I draw heavily from my teaching and research of the history of the discipline, as well as from teaching introductory psychology to Native students. Using the critical concept of scientism to examine the historical dialectic between objectivity and subjectivity, I show how a quasi-religion of psychology has prevailed, while excluding soul, spirit, and spirituality. Radical developments in Christianity (i.e., liberation theology, the historical Jesus scholarship, and feminist theology) further challenge community psychologists seeking rapprochement with religion and spirituality. I conclude by discussing the implications of a conversion to spirituality for community psychology. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This issue of the Journal of Social Issues explores psychological meanings of social class in the context of education. In this article we propose an outline for a critical psychology of social class and discuss why education is a useful context for examining relations between class and individual psychology. We consider how research and theory in the study of race and gender can and cannot inform a psychology of social class. We introduce three themes that organize the issue and the articles that illustrate them. The articles in this issue address all levels of education, include data from within and outside of the United States, and investigate perspectives of individuals from a range of social class groups. “What I remember most about school was that if you were poor you got no respect and no encouragement. I mean if you didn't have cute ringlets, an ironed new uniform, starched shirts, and a mother and father who gave money to the church, you weren't a teacher's pet and that meant you weren't encouraged.” —a working-class woman respondent interviewed in Luttrell, 1993 Class differences were boundaries no one wanted to face or talk about. It was easier to downplay them, to act as though we were all from privileged backgrounds, to work around them, to confront them privately in the solitude of one's room, or to pretend that just being chosen to study at such an institution meant that those of us who did not come from such privilege were already in transition toward privilege … . It was a kind of treason not to believe that it was better to be identified with the world of material privilege than with the world of the working class, the poor. —hooks, 1989
Article
Two aspects of the social psychology of collective action are of particular interest to social movement organizers and activists: how to motivate people to engage in collective action, and how to use collective action to create social change. The second question remains almost untouched within social psychology. The present article delineates research from political science and sociology concerning variables that moderate the effectiveness of collective action and maps these variables against intergroup research. Within intergroup social psychology, there is a theoretical literature on what needs to be done to achieve change (e.g., changing identification, social norms, or perceptions of legitimacy, stability, permeability). The article considers possible testable hypotheses concerning the outcomes of collective action which can be derived from intergroup research and from the synthesis of the three disciplines. For theoreticians and practitioners alike, a program of research which addresses the social-psychological outcomes of collective action and links these to identities, norms, intentions, and support for social change in bystanders, protagonists, and opponents has a great deal of interest.
Article
The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) has been a prominent conduit for American psychologists' involvement in political and social affairs. For years SPSSI has stood as the center of political activism in American psychology. An examination of SPSSI and several other professional organizations founded during the period between the two world wars indicates that, despite its activism, SPSSI shared with the others a set of conventional assumptions about the irrationality of human nature, an unstable social order, and the preference for scientific judgment. Early SPSSI documents also contain more radical aspirations: critical self-reflection about the scientific enterprise, candid culture criticism, and political activism. However, these did not remain dominant in the organization. While being an occasion for celebration, the 50th anniversary of SPSSI also offers occasion to reevaluate these mixed commitments.
Article
In 1939 George W. Hartmann was Chairman of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) and a prominent activist-scholar. By the end of World War II, his teaching career and psychological health lay in ruin, and he never reestablished his influence as a psychopolitical expert. This article traces the rise and fall of Hartmann's career and its unique mixture of Gestalt psychology, socialism, and anti-Communism. Unpublished correspondence, family papers, and files from the FBI and other intelligence agencies are used to recreate Hartmann's political personae—including Socialist electoral candidate, chairman of Peace Now, and leader of the War Resisters League. His life as a public intellectual is used to reflect upon the nature of psychological expertise at midcentury.
Article
The year 2011 marks the 75th anniversary of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI). One of the primary reasons SPSSI was established was the desire, on the part of its founders, to use scientific research for social action and to bring the insights of social science into national-level debates about social issues. This anniversary affords us the opportunity to examine when, where, why, and how SPSSI has been more and less successful in its efforts to impact society. Historical analyses focusing on the long-standing tension between scientific objectivity and political advocacy are used as a lens through which to examine SPSSI's legacy and to provide a more informed basis for future action.
Article
We use the concept of intersectionality to explore the psychological meaning of social class and upward mobility in the lives African Americans. Throughout, we pay special attention to the context of education, a site which many Black Americans feel represents their best hope for upward mobility. Literature related to three themes is reviewed and discussed: (a) the history and significance of class divisions within the Black community, (b) experiences of educational institutions as entryways to upward mobility, and (c) the hidden costs of mobility. It is suggested that future research should address the intersection of gender with class and race, the relevance of class to racial identity, and the experience of downward mobility among Black Americans.
Article
The articles presented in this volume describe part of a new generation of interest and vigor in the social psychological study of collective action. This new wave builds nicely on the foundation set by social identity, self-categorization, and relative deprivation theories but also introduces a number of important innovative perspectives and variables. In this commentary, I review some of these expansions and additions, raise a number of conceptual concerns that arise out of these new directions, and discuss more generally some novel and important directions that emerge from the work presented in the volume and in other recent work on collective action.
Article
This paper explores the development and subsequent transformation of a “radical” professional model in American psychology. Its focal point is Goodwin Watson and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), an organization Watson helped found in 1936. During the Depression, he and many of his SPSSI colleagues called upon psychologists to abandon value neutrality and political disinterestedness in favor of an explicit set of social democratic goals and left-wing political alliances. Government service and political persecution during World War II led Watson to conclude that his Depression-era calls for sweeping change in psychology had neglected a number of significant political dimensions. Of particular importance was the problematic interface between psychological expertise and policy formation. In response to this concern, Watson encouraged the development of the now familiar model of the psychologist as a disinterested purveyor of value-neutral expertise. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This article engages the intersection of class, race, and ethnicity and the ways in which class marginality informs self and academic practice by drawing on research with ten female professors from the working class. Two phenomenological interviews were conducted with each participant as a primary source of data. Secondary sources included classroom visits and relevant documents. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a combination of grounded theory and narrative analysis. The author presents a narrative analysis of two stories told by participants to illustrate two distinct conceptualizations of class and ethnicity. Following this, she draws on grounded theory analysis to illustrate the ways in which class marginality informs academic practice. Implications of this work for educational institutions are discussed.
Article
Henry E. Garrett (1894–1973) was the President of the American Psychological Association in 1946 and Chair of Psychology at Columbia University from 1941 to 1955. In the 1950s Garrett helped organize an international group of scholars dedicated to preventing race mixing, preserving segregation, and promoting the principles of early 20th century eugenics and “race hygiene.” Garrett became a leader in the fight against integration and collaborated with those who sought to revitalize the ideology of National Socialism. I discuss the intertwined history the International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics (IAAEE), the journal Mankind Quarterly, the neofascist Northern League, and the ultra-right-wing political group, the Liberty Lobby. The use of psychological research and expertise in the promotion of neofascism is examined.
Article
In most parts of the world, globalization has become an unstoppable and potent force that impacts everyday life and international relations. The articles in this issue draw on theoretical insights from diverse perspectives (clinical psychology, consumer research, organizational behavior, political psychology, and cultural psychology) to offer nuanced understanding of individuals’ psychological reactions to globalization in different parts of the world (Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Mainland China, Singapore, Switzerland, United States, Taiwan). These articles address the questions of how people make sense of and respond to globalization and its sociocultural ramifications; how people defend the integrity of their heritage cultural identities against the “culturally erosive” effects of globalization, and how individuals harness creative insights from their interactions with global cultures. The new theoretical insights and revealing empirical analyses presented in this issue set the stage for an emergent interdisciplinary inquiry into the psychology of globalization.
Article
This article argues that beliefs about social class are influenced by power and social location. Using an essentialist theory of power this study explores the asymmetries in the representations of social class among Brahmins (N= 99) and Dalits (former “Untouchables,”N= 100) in India. The results show that a significantly higher number of Brahmins believed that a poor man's brain transfer to a rich man would not affect his actions, whereas they believed the poor man's actions would be affected by the brain transplant from the rich man. Dalits did not selectively endorse essentialist notions of identity. The implications of the findings are discussed in conjunction with current empowerment and affirmative action programs for Dalits in India.
Article
Here we present the subject of poverty in the United States as one that is central to a concern with social issues and justice and argue that its relative invisibility in psychology reflects the discipline’s dominant middle-class standpoint. We describe, first, the articles in this issue, which are focused particularly on the voices of poor women in the United States. Then we examine poverty in terms of its economic indicators as well as its experiential correlates.
Article
In this epilogue, we offer a theoretical mapping of notions that have emerged across the articles in this issue of the Journal of Social Issues specifically dedicated to questions of social class. Social class is often included within the “race, class, gender, and sexual orientation” mantra of feminist and critical race work in psychology, but rarely scrutinized with rigor or serious scholarship. Thus, for the purposes of this epilogue, we theorize the relationship between the material, social, psychological, and the political. We identify four theoretical venues through which these researchers have opened a conversation about class and schooling: ideology, institutions, contradictions and consciousness, and method. We conclude by crafting a research agenda for a critical psychology of class and schooling.
Article
Collective action is one of the core mechanisms of social change, and thus of major importance to social scientists, practitioners, and policy-makers. Our goal in editing this issue is to bring together recent advances on the social and psychological dynamics of collective action among members of disadvantaged as well as advantaged groups. This article introduces the contributions to this issue after a brief review of the major psychological perspectives on collective action (social identity, relative deprivation, and resource mobilization theories), and a discussion of the considerable diversity in collective action research in terms of contexts, populations, and measures. We hope that this issue contributes to a more multi-faceted and integrative understanding of the social and psychological dynamics of collective action in terms of theory, research, policy, and practice.
Article
Título en la cubierta: One Dimensional Man: The Ideology of Industrial Society Sostiene Marcuse en esta obra que el sistema de producción en las sociedades postindustriales -basado en un creciente rol central de la tecnología en él- ejerce un control total sobre los individuos y la sociedad misma, no sólo en términos de lo que económica y laboralmente se espera de ellos, sino también sobre aspiraciones y sueños personales.
Article
This article shows the pattern of socioeconomic class differences in schooling outcomes and indicates some of the causes for those differences that lie within the public realm. Those causes include “nested inequalities” across boundaries of states, school districts, schools within a district, classes within a school, and sometimes separation within a class. In addition, urban public schools demonstrate a particular set of problems that generate differential schooling outcomes by economic class. The article also demonstrates ways in which class biases are closely entwined with racial and ethnic inequities. It concludes with the broad outlines of what would be necessary to reduce class (and racial) disparities in American public schools. The American dream will succeed or fail in the 21st century in direct proportion to our commitment to educate every person in the United States of America. —President Bill Clinton, 1995 (Clinton, 1995: 617) There is no greater test of our national responsibility than the quality of the education we provide. —Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore, 2000 (Gore, 2000) Both parties have been talking about education for quite a while. It's time to come together to get it done, so that we can truthfully say in America: No child will be left behind. —President George W. Bush, 2001 (Bush, 2001)
Article
This article traces briefly the roots of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social issues in the movement to combat unemployment among psychologists during the mid-1930s. The principal topic is one aspect of the Society's history: the manner in which the Society responded tothe issue of labor. There were two attempts to deal with this issue in the context of the Depression: the Society's Committee on Trade Union Affiliation and its Yearbook Committee on Industrial Conflict. These committees are described in the context of prolabor sympathies among academics during the period, and in the context of industrial conflict occurring at that time. The continuing conflict within the Society over its role as an “activist” organization versus its role as a research-supporting organization is shown to have its roots in the very earliest efforts to organize the Society.
Introduction A social history of psychology
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Drunen, P., & van Jansz, J. (2004). Introduction. In J. Jansz & P. van Drunen (Eds.), A social history of psychology (pp. 1–11). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Resuscitating critical psychology for " revolting " times Class notes: Toward a critical psychology of class and schooling An aspect of the early history of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
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Fine, M. (2012). Resuscitating critical psychology for " revolting " times. Journal of Social Issues, 68, 416 – 438. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01756.x Fine, M., & Burns, A. (2003). Class notes: Toward a critical psychology of class and schooling. Journal of Social Issues, 59, 841– 860. doi:10.1046/j.0022-4537.2003.00093.x Finison, L. J. (1979). An aspect of the early history of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sci-ences, 15, 29–37. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(197901)15: 1Ͻ29::AID-JHBS2300150104Ͼ3.
Dumbing us down: The hidden curriculum of compulsory schooling
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Gatto, J. T. (1992). Dumbing us down: The hidden curriculum of compulsory schooling. New York, NY: New Society Publishers.
Knowledge and human interest Science and social inequality: Feminist and postcolonial issues
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Cultural contingencies: Behav-ior analytic perspectives on cultural practices
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Lamal, P. A. (1997). Cultural contingencies: Behav-ior analytic perspectives on cultural practices. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Who are the poor? Retrieved from www Collective action—And then what
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Lott, B., & Bullock, H. E. (2001). Who are the poor? Journal of Social Issues, 57, 189 –206. Retrieved from www.wiley.com Louis, W. R. (2009). Collective action—And then what? Journal of Social Issues, 65, 727–748.
Behavioral analysis of socialism in Eastern Europe: A framework for understanding the revolutions of 1989 Behavioral analysis of societies and cultural prac-tices (pp
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Beyond the box: B. F. Skin-ner's technology of behavior from laboratory to life
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Methodology of the oppressed
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