Article

Note-Taking With Computers: Exploring Alternative Strategies for Improved Recall

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Abstract

Three experiments examined note-taking strategies and their relation to recall. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed either to take organized lecture notes or to try and transcribe the lecture, and they either took their notes by hand or typed them into a computer. Those instructed to transcribe the lecture using a computer showed the best recall on immediate tests, and the subsequent experiments focused on note-taking using computers. Experiment 2 showed that taking organized notes produced the best recall on delayed tests. In Experiment 3, however, when participants were given the opportunity to study their notes, those who had tried to transcribe the lecture showed better recall on delayed tests than those who had taken organized notes. Correlational analyses of data from all 3 experiments revealed that for those who took organized notes, working memory predicted note-quantity, which predicted recall on both immediate and delayed tests. For those who tried to transcribe the lecture, in contrast, only note-quantity was a consistent predictor of recall. These results suggest that individuals who have poor working memory (an ability traditionally thought to be important for note-taking) can still take effective notes if they use a note-taking strategy (transcribing using a computer) that can help level the playing field for students of diverse cognitive abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

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... Such findings indicate that students are most likely to commit lecture information to memory after it has been recorded in notes and reviewed. Unfortunately, college students often fail to record many of the ideas and images conveyed during lectures (Bui et al., 2012;Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020), leading researchers to examine factors impacting lecture note taking and subsequent achievement. Some contributing factors recently examined include note-taking medium-whether notes are recorded using longhand or computer mediums (e.g., Bui et al., 2012;Luo et al., 2018;Morehead et al., 2019a;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014), note completeness-whether notes are recorded completely or partially (Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020;Peverly et al., 2007;Reddington et al., 2015), and note revision-the opportunity to add or complete noted ideas during or following the lecture (Luo et al., 2016). ...
... Unfortunately, college students often fail to record many of the ideas and images conveyed during lectures (Bui et al., 2012;Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020), leading researchers to examine factors impacting lecture note taking and subsequent achievement. Some contributing factors recently examined include note-taking medium-whether notes are recorded using longhand or computer mediums (e.g., Bui et al., 2012;Luo et al., 2018;Morehead et al., 2019a;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014), note completeness-whether notes are recorded completely or partially (Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020;Peverly et al., 2007;Reddington et al., 2015), and note revision-the opportunity to add or complete noted ideas during or following the lecture (Luo et al., 2016). The present study is the first to address all three of these factors concomitantly. ...
... As shown in Table 1, research supports the notion that computers make it easier to note lesson ideas. Most students type faster than they write (Brown, 1988), and those who type tend to record about 35% more words (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014) and 20% more ideas (Bui et al., 2012;Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020) in their notes than those who write (Bui et al., 2012;Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020;Luo et al., 2018;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
Article
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Many college students believe that typing lecture notes on computers produces better notes and higher achievement than handwritten lecture notes on paper. The few studies investigating computer versus longhand note taking yielded mixed note-taking and achievement findings. The present study investigated computer versus longhand note taking but permitted note takers to revise or recopy notes during pauses interspersed throughout the lecture. Moreover, the present study analyzed notes recorded while a lecture was ongoing and following revision pauses to determine if lecture ideas and images were recorded completely or partially. Findings did not support the belief that computers aid note taking and achievement and, instead, favored longhand note taking and revision. Computer and longhand note takers recorded a comparable number of complete and partial ideas in notes while the lecture was ongoing, but longhand note takers recorded more lecture images. Among note revisers, longhand note takers added three-times-as-many complete ideas to their notes during revision as computer note takers—an important finding because note completeness predicted achievement. Achievement results showed that longhand note takers who revised notes scored more than half a letter grade higher on a lecture posttest than computer note takers who revised notes. Present findings suggest that college instructors should provide students with revision pauses to improve note taking and achievement and encourage students to record and revise notes using the longhand method. Finally, regarding the computer versus longhand note-taking debate, the need to investigate further the interplay between note-taking medium and lesson material is discussed.
... Laptop note takers have an advantage over longhand note takers in terms of the volume of words and complete text-based lecture ideas they capture in their notes (Bui et al. 2012;Luo et al. 2018;Morehead et al. 2019a;Mueller and Oppenheimer 2014). Because most students type faster than they write (Brown 1988), taking notes on a laptop makes it easier to quickly record lecture ideas into their notes than the longhand method (Kay and Lauricella 2011). ...
... Because most students type faster than they write (Brown 1988), taking notes on a laptop makes it easier to quickly record lecture ideas into their notes than the longhand method (Kay and Lauricella 2011). The speed advantage allows laptop note takers to store approximately 20% more complete text-based ideas in their notes than longhand note takers (Bui et al. 2012). The speed at which laptop users type their notes allows them to transcribe many lecture ideas in a verbatim, word-for-word style as ideas are communicated during class, while longhand note takers adapt to their speed disadvantage by paraphrasing lecture ideas into shorter sentences (Bui et al. 2012;Luo et al. 2018;Mueller and Oppenheimer 2014). ...
... The speed advantage allows laptop note takers to store approximately 20% more complete text-based ideas in their notes than longhand note takers (Bui et al. 2012). The speed at which laptop users type their notes allows them to transcribe many lecture ideas in a verbatim, word-for-word style as ideas are communicated during class, while longhand note takers adapt to their speed disadvantage by paraphrasing lecture ideas into shorter sentences (Bui et al. 2012;Luo et al. 2018;Mueller and Oppenheimer 2014). ...
Article
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Laptop computers allow students to type lecture notes instead of relying on the traditional longhand (i.e. paper–pencil) method. The present research compared laptop and longhand note-taking methods by investigating how the quality (i.e. complete versus incomplete idea units) and quantity (i.e. total words and total idea units) of typed and handwritten notes differed when students did or did not reply to text messages during a simulated lecture. Accounting for the presence of text messaging while participants took notes situated the present study within the reality facing many students in today’s digital age. Findings indicated that a considerable proportion of the idea units captured in participants’ notes were incomplete, regardless of note-taking method or exposure to distraction during the simulated lecture. However, only the total number of complete idea units stored in student notes meaningfully predicted lecture learning. Furthermore, the presence of digital distraction was particularly disruptive to the quality and quantity of laptop users’ lecture notes relative to longhand note takers. Finally, digital distraction emerged as a more meaningful predictor of lecture learning than note-taking method. Recommendations for improving the quality of student lecture notes are discussed and avenues for future research into note-taking completeness and the interplay between digital distraction and note-taking method are proposed.
... Also, when students record notes, with or without graphic organizers, does the notetaking medium matter: Should notes be recorded longhand on paper or typed on computer? This important question has only recently been investigated because of the steep and recent rise in computer note taking (e.g., Aguilar-Roca et al., 2012;Morehead, et al., 2019;Peverly & Wolf, 2019;Witherby & Tauber, 2019), and findings are mixed (Bui et al., 2013;Fiorella & Mayer, 2016;Luo et al., 2018;Morehead et al., 2019;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;Urry et al., 2021). The present study adds to that literature but is unique in its investigation of note-taking mediums for computer-based learning, in that learning was measured immediately following the lesson when notes were not reviewed (the process function of note taking) and measured following a delay when notes were reviewed (the product function of note taking) (see Kiewra et al., 2018). ...
... Surveys about college students' note-taking behaviors (Aguilar-Roca et al., 2012;Fried, 2008;Morehand, et al., 2019;Peverly & Wolf, 2019;Witherby & Tauber, 2019) reveal that 22-64% of college students record lecture notes using laptop computers instead of the more traditional longhand, paper and pencil, format. One upside of computer note taking is that typing notes is faster than handwriting (Brown, 1998), so laptop note takers can usually record more notes than longhand note takers (Bui et al., 2013;Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020;Luo et al., 2018). One downside of computer note taking is that students tend to record verbatim notes as they type, which is associated with shallow, non-meaningful processing. ...
... Second, longhand notes also contained more idea units than computer notes regardless of note-taking condition (i.e., taking notes with the aid of a complete organizer, a partial organizer, or no organizer). This finding was somewhat surprising given that previous studies (Bui et al., 2013;Luo et al., 2018;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014) found that computer note takers recorded more information than longhand note takers because typing is usually faster than handwriting (Brown, 1998). This disparity among studies might be partly due to how lessons were delivered in these studies. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine how graphic organizer completeness (complete, partial, or no organizer) and note-taking medium (longhand or computer) affect note-taking quantity and quality and affect computer-based learning. College students were presented with a computer-based PowerPoint lesson accompanied by complete, partial, or no graphic organizers. Throughout the lesson, students recorded notes using either longhand or computer mediums. Students were tested immediately following the lesson and again two days later following a review period during which graphic organizers and notes were studied. Finally, students completed a survey. Results revealed that organizer completeness affected achievement. Those given complete organizers generally achieved more than those with partial or no organizers across fact-, relationship-, concept-, and skill-based test items. Note-taking medium did not affect achievement differentially, but there were important note-taking findings. Longhand note takers recorded more lesson ideas in notes and had fewer verbatim strings in notes (reflective of more generative processing) compared to computer note takers. Moreover, longhand note takers reported more positive attitudes about their note-taking medium than did computer note takers. Results suggested that complete organizers aid germane load more than partial organizers and that longhand note taking results in deeper processing than does computer note taking. Therefore, instructors should provide complete organizers to promote student learning and should encourage students to take longhand notes when they learn in a computer-based learning environment.
... Recent studies have found that 72% (Patterson & Patterson, 2017) to 79% (Carter et al., 2017) of students report using laptops in the classroom. Although some studies have described the benefits of incorporating this technology in the classroom (e.g., Bui et al., 2013;Gulek & Demirtas, 2005), such as taking more organized and comprehensive notes, other work has highlighted the negative impact that laptop use has on academic performance (e.g., Fried, 2007;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;Patterson & Patterson, 2017). For example, Patterson and Patterson (2017) examined laptop use at a private liberal arts college in which teachers required laptops for class, allowed laptops in class, or prohibited laptops in class. ...
... In addition, the effect sizes for such differences were small. As will be discussed below, there is also evidence that taking notes using a computer may result in better performance than taking notes by hand (see Bui et al., 2013). Duran and Frederick (2013) examined the difference in comprehension ability between students who typed notes and students who wrote their notes by hand. ...
... Results indicated that participants not only preferred to take notes by hand, but they also scored better on the test compared to those who typed their notes on a laptop. Bui et al. (2013) examined whether taking notes on a computer resulted in better test performance, and whether taking organized lecture notes or transcribing notes influenced test scores. Participants either took notes by hand or on a computer. ...
Article
Background Many students use laptops in the classroom to take notes; however, even when laptops are used for the sole purpose of taking notes they can negatively impact academic performance. Objective The current study examined state-dependent effects, and the potential for a match in note taking and quiz taking methods to improve quiz performance. Method Participants were placed into a congruent (take notes by hand and complete the quiz by hand or take notes using a laptop and complete an online quiz) or an incongruent condition (take notes by hand and take an online quiz or take notes using a laptop and complete the quiz by hand). Results The results revealed that participants who took notes by hand performed better on the quiz overall, and better on conceptual questions, then students who took notes using a laptop. We failed to find evidence for state-dependent effects. Conclusions The current study suggests that taking notes by hand may improve how students encode material, and result in higher quality external storage used by students when studying for quizzes. Teaching Implications Reinforcing the notion that taking notes by hand may benefit quiz performance for lecture-style information and could improve student performance in class.
... To date, two studies have provided evidence in favour of typed notes. Bui, Myerson, and Hale (2013) found that the group of participants who typed notes while listening to a non-fiction text performed better on both free recall and short-answer tests, immediately after studying (without a chance to review their notes), compared with participants who had used pen and paper. This benefit for typed note taking was particularly strong for those groups of participants in the 'transcribe' condition who had been told to record as much of the lecture as possible. ...
... They attributed the negative impacts of laptop note-taking to higher level of verbatim overlap in typed notes, i.e. participants tend to transcribe/copy-and-paste contents when typing and thus shallower level of processing. This is in contrast with findings from Bui et al. (2013) that transcribing style of notetaking leads to best recall. However, Morehead, Dunlosky and Rawson (2019) conducted a direct replication of the Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014) study, and although some trends suggested longhand superiority, performance did not consistently differ between the groups. ...
... Here we focus on a third important variable that might explain the inconsistencies: participants expectations about the function of their notes. In the study by , participants were told that their notes will be taken away immediately after writing, whereas in other studies participants were either told that they would have opportunity to review their notes (Fiorella & Mayer, 2017) or information about the access of notes in the future was not clear (Bui et al., 2013;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;Luo et al., 2018). When viewed from a cognitive offloading perspective, these differences may have important consequences on subsequent memory performance. ...
Preprint
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The present study compared the effectiveness of typing on laptops to longhand writing when second language English learners took notes to help learn new vocabulary. The results showed that the benefit for longhand writing over typing was significantly modulated by participants’ expectations about the future availability of their notes: when participants were explicitly told that their notes would not be available to them in the future, there was a significant benefit for handwriting over typing. In contrast, in a ‘cognitive offloading’ condition, in which all participants expected to have full access to their notes in the future, no modality effect was observed. We explain this interaction by suggesting that participants in the typing conditions tended to offload due to strong pre-existing expectations about the pervasive accessibility of information typed into a laptop, and that this tendency to offload reduced future memory performance.
... According to this correlation, and the finding that proficient typists can type faster than they can write (e.g., Lee, 2020b;Connelly et al., 2007), one would expect typists to have an advantage as they can produce more notes than if they were writing. This was empirically observed by Bui et al. (2013), who in a series of experiments found that typists produced notes which contained a larger number of idea units than writers, recalled more, and scored better on immediate posttests. The study was set up so that participants were not able to review their notes afterward, which the researchers claim negated the external storage benefit of typists (i.e., having access to more material to review). ...
... In this sense, the current study is a successful replication of precursor research (Lee, 2020b), which also found significant speed advantages for Japanese EFL students writing English by hand. This result is of note, as it is typically thought that typing affords speed advantages over writing longhand (e.g., Brown, 1988;Bui et al., 2013;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). However, the current study hopes to elucidate that a) this is typical of typing on a keyboard, and not a smartphone and b) parity cannot/should not be assumed between L1 speakers and L2 learners. ...
... This is a novel finding, which hopefully contributes to our knowledge in the field. It should be remembered that other studies which compared handwriting to computer typing found either an advantage for typists (e.g., Bui et al., 2013) or no statistical difference in factual recall (e.g., Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). This is contradictory to the findings of the current study, possibly resulting from the differences between typing and tapping as previously described in Section 2.3. ...
Article
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As a result of the rushed transition to remote teaching because of the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers have suddenly been forced to design mobile-assisted language learning (MALL; m-learning) activities, mostly for the first time in their careers. However, it is imperative that instructors realize that the challenge is greater than simply converting paper-based assignments into a digital format. There has been very little research done examining the cognitive effects of writing on a smartphone, compared to writing on paper. The current study therefore sought to examine how recollection of content differed depending on the medium used for notetaking. A population of 138 Japanese university students of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) were asked to transcribe a short text, either by paper or by smartphone, and then quizzed on the content immediately afterwards. Students who wrote the text by hand were found to have significantly greater recollection of the content compared to those who had 'tapped' on smartphones. These results follow precursor research which indicated that Japanese students compose significantly slower on their phones in English (Lee, 2020b), and wrote significantly less in writing tasks (Lee, 2019, 2020a) than handwriting counterparts.
... Furthermore, the results of previous studies are inconsistent, which indicates that additional research is needed to clarify this critically important and widely prevalent phenomenon. Bui et al. (2013) reported that laptop note-taking resulted in better overall performance in comparison to longhand note-taking. Meanwhile, other research has shown that longhand note-taking is more effective than laptop note-taking at supporting students' achievement (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
... In this context, Schoen (2012) found that during a lecture laptop note-taking led to better performance on memory tests when compared to longhand notetaking. This view was supported by Bui et al.'s (2013) report that during short audio lectures laptop notetaking led to better performance compared to longhand note-taking. They indicated that laptop note-taking can assist students in taking greater quantities of notes and suggested that the more notes a student records, the stronger the influence on their learning as more information is being processed (Bui et al., 2013). ...
... This view was supported by Bui et al.'s (2013) report that during short audio lectures laptop notetaking led to better performance compared to longhand note-taking. They indicated that laptop note-taking can assist students in taking greater quantities of notes and suggested that the more notes a student records, the stronger the influence on their learning as more information is being processed (Bui et al., 2013). However, this is only one interpretation of the phenomena. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of note-taking styles on college students’ learning achievement and cognitive load in a 6-week lecture-based computer network course. Forty-two students were randomly assigned into one of three groups, which consisted of collaborative note-taking, laptop note-taking, and traditional longhand note-taking. The results showed that students in the collaborative note-taking group did better on learning achievement and cognitive load than students in the other two groups. Particularly, students in the collaborative note-taking group had a significantly higher rate of learning achievement and a significantly lower level of extraneous load than students in the longhand note-taking group. Implications for practice or policy: College students can improve their learning achievement more effectively through collaborative note-taking style than individual note-taking style. College students can reduce extraneous load and improve germane load levels through collaborative note-taking. Instructors and administrators should encourage college students to take more collaborative notes during classroom instruction.
... Digital notes can help students take more notes. It's believed that students can process more information as they record more notes, which has a stronger influence on their learning [21]. Digital notes are also superior to hand-written notes in many ways: being searchable, editable, easily sharable, more legible, more malleable, and easier to copy, organize, translate and relocate to support reflection, recall, synthesis and collaboration [22]. ...
... On one hand, some studies revealed the positive effects of digital note-taking on students learning achievements. For instance, [21] found that taking notes using a computer led to better overall test performance compared to longhand note-taking. While on the other hand, negative effects were found in several studies. ...
Chapter
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a collaborative learning approach with a digital note-taking method on college students’ learning achievement and cognitive load in computer network courses. An experiment was conducted using a sample of 42 students from a class of a university in central China. Students were randomly divided into three groups, with each group consists of 14 students. The experimental group A employed a collaborative learning approach with a digital note-taking method and the experimental group B that employed a conventional lecturing approach with a digital note-taking method, while the control group that employed a conventional lecturing approach and traditional note-taking with pen and paper. Students in the classes studied computer network courses for 6 weeks. The pre- and post-tests showed that the students with a collaborative problem-solving approach and employ the digital note-taking method in classroom instruction have a significantly higher learning achievement while significantly lower extraneous load than that of students with the conventional lecturing approach and traditional note-taking with pen and paper.
... While there was an increase of 3.4% in -2017over previous years (IIE, 2017, there is still a large percent of students who are not taking advantage of study abroad opportunities. In an effort to increase the number of students able and willing to travel internationally, many universities are increasing the number of short-term, faculty-led experiences (Hulstrand, 2006). Almost two-thirds (63%) of all study abroad experiences U.S. institutions of higher education offer are less than eight weeks in length (IIE, 2017). ...
... While conventional wisdom challenges us to go digital, research suggests that memory retention is improved with handwriting (Bui, Myerson, & Hale, 2013;Mueller, & Oppenheimer, 2014;Smoker, Murphy, & Rockwell, (2009). Three of us adopted the Full Focus Planner (FFP) (Michael Hyatt and Company, 2019). ...
... By comparing memory for words, experiments revealed that humans could better recall information if they produced it themselves rather than if they received it. Based on the generation effect, prior studies have shown that note-taking, a simple way to re-produce received information, can improve human memorability, particularly for text-based learning and comprehension [7,27]. However, the effects of note-taking in a classic information retrieval setup remain unexplored. ...
... A simple and direct application of the generation effect is the use of note-taking. Previous studies have shown that note-taking can improve human memorability in different scenarios [7,10,19,27]. Intons-Peterson et al. examined the use of internal and external memory aids in experiments with 489 undergraduates. It was found that at least one external aid, i.e. taking notes, can effectively facilitate remembering [14]. ...
... From the standpoint of external storage, the ability to take more notes provide students with obvious benefits. The more notes that students recorded, the greater the impact they may have on learning (Bui et al. 2013). This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2020 L.-K. Lee Due to its numerous advantages, digital note-taking has been rapidly popularized in various schools. ...
... For instance, Patterson and Patterson (2017) found that the process of traditional handwritten notes was considered to be closely related to coding, so traditional note-taking was generally considered to have better recall ability than notes on computers or other devices. However, Bui et al. (2013) found that taking notes with notebook computers had more advantages than handwritten note-taking, because digital note-taking could quickly, and easily store, search, access, and share information (Walsh and Cho 2013). ...
Chapter
As an essential part of classroom activities, note-taking can benefit students in learning the materials. Recently, the widespread use of electronic devices, such as laptops, tablet PCs, and smartphones in classroom instruction has gradually moved away from traditional notes such as pen and paper to digital note-taking based on portable electronic devices. Although note-taking with digital devices has been widely used in education, there has been a lack of systematic review on digital note-taking studies. The present study made a comprehensive analysis of relevant studies from four aspects, including theoretical studies, technical studies, studies on users, and empirical studies. Discussion and conclusion are also provided in this paper.
... Because individuals generally type notes faster than when writing (Aragón-Mendizábal et al., 2016), typed notes tend to be nongenerative and generally more comprehensive. Furthermore, given the speed benefit and association in general between the amount of notes taken and amount of encoded information (Bui et al., 2013;Fiorella & Mayer, 2017), some researchers (e.g., Bui et al., 2013;Schoen, 2012) have suggested that individuals do better on performance tasks with digital notetaking. However, there have been inconsistent findings in the literature, perhaps due to variations in class topics or assessment methods. ...
... Because individuals generally type notes faster than when writing (Aragón-Mendizábal et al., 2016), typed notes tend to be nongenerative and generally more comprehensive. Furthermore, given the speed benefit and association in general between the amount of notes taken and amount of encoded information (Bui et al., 2013;Fiorella & Mayer, 2017), some researchers (e.g., Bui et al., 2013;Schoen, 2012) have suggested that individuals do better on performance tasks with digital notetaking. However, there have been inconsistent findings in the literature, perhaps due to variations in class topics or assessment methods. ...
Article
The present meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the extant research on the influence of longhand (written) versus digital notetaking methods, unconfounded by distractions, on performance, and to identify key potential moderators of such effects. After a systematic literature search, we obtained 77 effect sizes from 39 samples in 36 articles and conducted a multilevel meta-analysis complemented with robust variance estimation. Overall, results showed a mean effect size (mean estimated g = -0.008, 95% CI: -0.18, 0.16) that was not significantly different from zero, suggesting no effect of notetaking approach. Moderator analyses, justified by effect sizes with significant heterogeneity, demonstrated only three significant moderators referring to the topic covered, the learning objectives, and the duration of the material. Overall, however, the present results suggest that an apparent advantage of longhand notetaking reported in some previous studies can be explained at least partially by distractions from notetaking by other applications that are present only with digital devices. Nevertheless, more research is required to identify moderators that might account for variability in the findings. Work using large representative samples of all ages is particularly needed.
... The art of note taking is crucial in academic studies but research on how students take notes with the digital technology is scarce [13]. While taking notes, learners interpret, filter and process the information at hand, make connections between new information and their prior knowledge and produce a format that enables them to retrieve information later. ...
... The research evidence on mobile note taking is limited [13]. Most studies focused on handwritten notes and emphasised that self-produced notes improved retention and the learning outcomes [15]. ...
Conference Paper
Background: The Manchester Medical School and the University of Helsinki are active in fostering mobile learning in medicine. The Manchester project has integrated iPads into clinical environment since 2011. The Helsinki project has incorporated mobile learning into biomedical studies since 2013 and is now fostering mobile learning in clinical studies. Both units have combined the flipped classroom model with mobile learning. This workshop provides an evidence-based and practical insight into incorporating mobile devices into health-care education. Who Should Attend: The projects in Manchester and Helsinki have been participatory and collaborative processes with students, teachers and experts in ICT and higher education. We invite all those who are at the outset or in the middle of similar projects in their units to share experiences and learn from and with us. The workshop is targeted to all health-care professions, both at graduate and postgraduate level, specialist training and continuing professional development
... However, no matter how fast a person can write longhand, it is unlikely that he or she will be able to write as fast as a skilled typist. For this reason, it may come as no surprise that Bui, Myerson, and Hale (2012) found that students using computers (in an L1 context) were able to take significantly more lecture notes than students writing by hand. They also found that students who typed their notes performed better on a test of lecture comprehension, but Beck, Hartley, Hustedde, and Felsberg (2014) were unable to replicate this finding. ...
... They also found that students who typed their notes performed better on a test of lecture comprehension, but Beck, Hartley, Hustedde, and Felsberg (2014) were unable to replicate this finding. Results from a similar study by Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014) also contradicted Bui et al. (2012). In their study, L1 students taking notes on a computer did not do as well on a recall task as peers who used pencil and paper. ...
Article
This paper provides an overview of research on lecture notetaking. Despite the importance of this academic skill, to date it has not received much attention from researchers working in L2 contexts. As the Japanese Ministry of Education moves towards encouraging universities to offer more lecture courses in English, it is important for teachers to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in notetaking, and how to help learners to develop their skills. To this end, the paper poses 8 questions that teachers may have about notetaking and provides answers from the research that has been done to date in both L2 and L1 contexts. Because the amount of research in L2 contexts is still small, the answers given are not meant to be definitive. However, it is hoped that they will provide some preliminary answers to questions that teachers may have. 本論はノートテイキング(講義をノートに書き写す)に関する研究を概観する。ノートテイキングは重要なアカデミックスキルであるにも関わらず、L2環境における研究はこれまであまり注目を浴びてこなかった。文部科学省が英語による大学講義科目の拡大を推進している昨今、教員がノートテイキングの過程及びその指導方法に関する知識を得る重要性が益々高まっている。この現状を受け、本論では、ノートテイキングに関して、教える側が持つ可能性のある8つの質問を提起し、これまでのL2及びL1環境で行われた研究の中から答えを導き出す。L2環境における研究が未だ少ないことから、導き出した答えは決定的とは言えないが、ノートテイキングに関する教師の疑問に少しでも答えられたことを願う。
... That is, there are contrasting conclusions in the literature regarding which form of notetaking is most beneficial for your students. For example, while the studies mentioned above found a benefit of notetaking by hand, research by Bui, Myerson, and Hale (2013) suggested that students who take notes on laptops outperform students who take notes by hand. Furthermore, various studies have found that students who take notes on a computer usually generate more words and ideas than students who take notes by hand. ...
... Furthermore, various studies have found that students who take notes on a computer usually generate more words and ideas than students who take notes by hand. Still, whether this demonstrates that taking notes on a laptop is better than notetaking by hand is presently strongly debated (Bui et al., 2013;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
Chapter
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This chapter inventories the essential components necessary to leverage theory and research in the deployment of effective instruction in higher education.
... It is also beneficial for students to have very well structured and organized notes as it is positively correlated to higher scores on exams and a more engaging, active kind of learning. Strategic-note taking is an important tool in learning which allows students to arrange information and construct mental representation of the material (Bui et al., 2013). This was posed as a Likert-type question which ask students if their notes are often organized structured. ...
... Furthermore, the relative merit of handwriting and typing may be affected by factors related to the timing of test and ability to revise. One study that compared the taking of strategic, organized notes, with transcription and handwriting, found that performance on test varied according to whether the test was immediate or delayed, and whether or not students were allowed to study their notes (Bui et al., 2013). In addition, the way in which different types of notes are reorganized while revising affects how much is recalled after a delay (Kiewra, 1983). ...
Article
The increasing adoption of educational technology in school classrooms has resulted in greater use of electronic devices to take lesson notes. Recent research comparing performance of adult students who recorded lecture notes using computer keyboards with that of students who handwrote their notes shows somewhat conflicting findings about their factual recall and conceptual understanding. There is very little, if any, research with children on the effect of note-taking mode on recall and understanding. The present study compared the recall and understanding of children taking handwritten notes to that of children typing their notes. Twenty-six boys age 10–11 years old participated in the study. Factual recall and understanding of a history and a biology lesson were assessed using multiple choice questions (MCQ). MCQ tests were carried out both immediately after each lesson and one week later. Factual recall was not affected by the note-taking mode but, in both lessons, children who handwrote notes had greater conceptual understanding one week after viewing their lesson, compared to those who typed notes.
... Some studies indeed found negative effects of taking notes computers, others found benefits, while in some cases longhand and computer note takers did not differ. For instance, Bui et al. (2013) observed that laptop note takers recalled more information than longhand note takers on an immediate performance test. Fiorella and Mayer (2017) examined student's retention and transfer of information and observed that the students who took notes with a computer outperformed those who used pen and paper. ...
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The present study investigated cognitive effort of handwriting and typing of undergraduate students. In Experiment 1, we used a secondary reaction time task to assess the cognitive effort required by undergraduates when carrying out handwriting and typing copying tasks. Students had longer reaction times, indicating greater cognitive effort, when typing than when handwriting. In experiments 2a and 2b, we investigated whether the additional cost of typing affected an ongoing activity. Participants performed a short-term memory task that required them to type or write by hand words to recall. As Experiment 1 suggested that typewriting was more effortful than handwriting, so it should leave fewer resources to devote to memorizing words, which would result in a better handwritten than typed recall. Overall, handwriting led to better recall than typing, particularly with the longest lists of words. This implies that, even in undergraduates, typing is still more effortful than handwriting and therefore has a negative impact on performance on an ongoing activity. The educational implications of the findings are discussed.
... keyboard (Morehead, Dunlosky and Rawson, 2019a) and digital ink (Kim, Henry Riche, Lee, Brehmer, Pahud, Hinckley and Hullman, 2019)). Studies have found digital note-taking to be ubiquitous, faster, and beneficial for learners' memory (Luo, Kiewra, Flanigan and Peteranetz, 2018;Fiorella and Mayer, 2017) and performance (Bui, Myerson and Hale, 2013). As compared to hand-written notes, digital notes offer some advantages such as they are easily searchable, editable, sharable and more malleable (Grahame, 2016). ...
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Though recent technological advances have enabled note-taking through different modalities (e.g., keyboard, digital ink, voice), there is still a lack of understanding of the effect of the modality choice on learning. In this paper, we compared two note-taking input modalities -- keyboard and voice -- to study their effects on participants' learning. We conducted a study with 60 participants in which they were asked to take notes using voice or keyboard on two independent digital text passages while also making a judgment about their performance on an upcoming test. We built mixed-effects models to examine the effect of the note-taking modality on learners' text comprehension, the content of notes and their meta-comprehension judgement. Our findings suggest that taking notes using voice leads to a higher conceptual understanding of the text when compared to typing the notes. We also found that using voice also triggers generative processes that result in learners taking more elaborate and comprehensive notes. The findings of the study imply that note-taking tools designed for digital learning environments could incorporate voice as an input modality to promote effective note-taking and conceptual understanding of the text.
... One explanation is longhand note-taking forces students to be more selective and put the material into their own words, whereas typing on a computer encourages students to transcribe the content of the lecture. However, Morehead et al. (2019) recently failed to replicate these findings, and other studies have reported benefits of computer-based note-taking (Bui et al. 2013;Fiorella and Mayer 2017). Regardless of the strengths or weaknesses of each method, an arguably more influential factor in authentic settings-when students have access to the Internet, phones, etc.-is students' existing habits. ...
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Habits are critical for supporting (or hindering) long-term goal attainment, including outcomes related to student learning and well-being. Building good habits can make beneficial behaviors (studying, exercise, sleep, etc.) the default choice, bypassing the need for conscious deliberation or willpower and protecting against temptations. Yet educational research and practice tends to overlook the role of habits in student self-regulation, focusing instead on the role of motivation and metacognition in actively driving behavior. Habit theory may help explain ostensible failures of motivation or self-control in terms of contextual factors that perpetuate poor habits. Further, habit-based interventions may support durable changes in students’ recurring behaviors by disrupting cues that activate bad habits and creating supportive and stable contexts for beneficial ones. In turn, the unique features of educational settings provide a new area in which to test and adapt existing habit models.
... However, students vary in the techniques they use during notetaking (Badger, 2001;Witherby and Tauber, 2019). Studies show mixed results about the influence of typed versus handwritten notes on student learning (Bui et al., 2013;Mueller and Oppenheimer, 2014). Luo et al. (2018) found that the benefits of typed versus handwritten notes may be context dependent. ...
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Addressing common student questions in introductory STEM courses early in the term is one way that instructors can ensure that their students have all been presented with information about how to succeed in their courses. However, categorizing student questions and identifying evidence-based resources to address student questions takes time, and instructors may not be able to easily collect and respond to student questions at the beginning of every course. To help faculty effectively anticipate and respond to student questions, we 1) administered surveys in multiple STEM courses to identify common student questions, 2) conducted a qualitative analysis to determine categories of student questions (e.g., what are best practices for studying, how can in- and out-of- course time be effectively used), and 3) collaboratively identified advice on how course instructors can answer these questions. Here, we share tips, evidence-based strategies, and resources from faculty that instructors can use to develop their own responses for students. We hope that educators can use these common student questions as a starting point to proactively address questions throughout the course and that the compiled resources will allow instructors to easily find materials that can be considered for their own courses.
... The question of which method -typing or handwriting -is the most efficient and effective in the study process and which method is better for the use in the course of a lecture has been investigated by several researchers. For example, Bui, Myerson and Hale (2013) claimed that typing is usually faster than handwriting. The experiments made (ibid.) ...
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The present article aimed at researching the prerequisites of success­ful note-taking by students, cognitive mechanisms involved in note-taking and the correlation of note-taking with listening skills; it describes both processes taking place while students listen to a lecture and the possible strategies that students use to take notes as well as explores the hindrances that prevent successful recording of the lecture material. It is evident that taking notes does not depend only on students’ abilities to listen and take notes, but directly depends on lecturers’ abilities and skills to deliver the information. The study carried out at Turiba University and St. Petersburg State University of Economics showed to what extent note-taking affects the process of lecture comprehension by students, whether it fosters understanding of the subject as well as to what extent note-taking of B1 – C2 English level students, according to Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), depends on students’ abilities to take notes and on lecturers’ skills to deliver information.
... If you have special classroom policies, such as no electronics during class, share the documentation that supports your policy. For example, there is now evidence that taking notes by hand rather than on laptops can increase student performance (Bui et al. 2013;May 2014;Smoker et al. 2009) and that being distracted by electronics decreases long-term retention (Glass and Kang 2018). ...
Chapter
The literature on active learning is full of success stories, but how many instructors have tried and failed to implement new teaching strategies? This chapter discusses the four main factors that impede successful adoption of active learning: student resistance, instructor reluctance, administrative roadblocks, and physical settings. Some of these barriers, such as institutional policies and underlying instructor beliefs about the role of teachers and students, are difficult to overcome. Most of the barriers can be eliminated through faculty development and course design that includes teaching students metacognition and the skills needed to be successful in self-directed learning environments. The chapter ends with suggestions for facilitating implementation of active learning.
... These results imply that the majority of the respondents believe that a control register for learners possessing gadgets should be enforced by schools for easy control. Regarding the aspect of whether a control register should be in place for learners who own gadgets, there were arguments where some felt that learners who use longhand for note taking comprehend better [30]. Others were of the view that those who use their laptops to take notes will have more within a short space of time [31]. ...
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In the 21 st century, technology has been known to play an important role in stimulating teaching and learning exercises. Conversely, technology is seen as a tool which tends to distract learners and hamper their academic performances. Thus, this study investigates strategies that can be adapted for the control of online gadgets in order to enhance learners' academic performances in the 21 st century. Quantitative method was adopted for the study. Rural and urban based secondary schools were purposively selected, while 144 educators were randomly selected across the schools. The selected schools comprised 10 rural and 10 urban secondary schools in King Cetshwayo District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Data were collected through the use of questionnaires which were administered to the 144 randomly selected educators. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS. The findings of the study showed amongst others that there is need for the use of online technological gadgets in schools to be legalized by the Department of Basic Education (DBE) under strict terms and conditions. Also, there is need for parents according to DBE to keep the gadgets during school hours and return them after school and weekends. The study recommends amongst others that strong alliance on control of learners' use of online gadgets should be formed amongst DBE, parents and educators.
... Participants demonstrated that making videos during their practical classes and reflecting on them afterwards contributed to their learning process. This supports findings by Anderson and Armbruster (1986), Boud, Keogh and Walker (1985), Bui, Myerson and Hale (2013), Bui and Myerson (2014) and Cohen et al. (2013). When students create their own videos, they need to incorporate them with their other notes when they summarise, add information and create links. ...
Article
In spite of reported benefits of mobile devices, educational institutions criticise the use of mobile devices for learning because they are considered a distraction in class. Furthermore, researchers claim that the apparent mechanistic use of videos in classes does not contribute to deeper learning. To explore the affordances of videos and the possibility of deeper learning, a group of veterinary science students volunteered to explore the use of videos while attending theoretical and practical lectures. In this qualitative study, the participants tried out a variety of devices to take short videos of procedures and were actively involved with the learning content as they organised and reflected on the self-made videos. In spite of the critique against the use of mobile devices and the apparent shallow learning contribution of videos, participants self-reported that watching the videos again and the processes that took place after the videos were made contributed hugely to their learning experience. Participants demonstrated that mobile devices can be used constructively, and through a process of reflection deepen their learning experience. How the participants use the videos for learning can give lecturers new ideas on how they can use videos in their classes.
... En este sentido Ward y Tatsukawa (2003) aportan datos sobre la toma de apuntes con dispositivos digitales, concluyendo la dificultad que supone su adaptación a las Ciencias Experimentales por las necesidades de la materia, así como la dificultad del acceso del alumnado a recursos. Otros estudios como los de Aragón Mendizábal et al. (2016), Beck (2014), Bui et al. (2012) o Schoen (2012), entre otros, realizan un análisis sobre los beneficios de esta forma de tomar apuntes y, en algunos casos, lo comparan con el hecho de tomar apuntes a mano; comprobándose las mismas dificultades en las materias que nos ocupan y el menor procesamiento del alumnado, pero indicando los beneficios que puede aportar en cuanto a la velocidad de recogida de información en casos particulares. ...
... Nearly one hundred years ago, Crawford (1925) conducted research on notetaking with L1 English users to empirically prove what many may consider to be common sense: that taking notes when listening helps to improve learning and retention of information. Since then, the positive impact of notetaking on performance has been reiterated both qualitatively (Badger, White, Sutherland, & Haggis, 2001) and qualitatively (e.g., Kobayashi, 2006;Boran & Yi, 2012), and the act of reviewing notes has also been emphasized (e.g., Bui, Myerson, & Hale, 2013;Luo, Kiewra, Flanigan, & Peteranetz, 2018). Thus, it goes without saying that notetaking is recognized as a component crucial to learning in academic contexts. ...
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This paper reviews and discusses research on notetaking during academic listening conducted in both first (L1) and second language (L2) contexts and is organized into two main categories: research that is beginning to impact English for academic purposes (EAP) classrooms and that which has yet to make an impact on EAP, but should. Overall, I assert that, while some relevant research on notetaking is reaching EAP classrooms, there is an abundance of knowledge from L1 contexts as well as a number of unexplored areas that have potential to improve instruction and student ability. Throughout the paper, I hypothesize why certain research findings are not being applied in classrooms. In concluding, I provide suggestions for how researchers and teachers might further support colleagues in applying research findings.
... The question of which method -typing or handwriting -is the most efficient and effective in the study process and which method is better for the use in the course of a lecture has been investigated by several researchers. For example, Bui, Myerson and Hale (2013) claimed that typing is usually faster than handwriting. The experiments made (ibid.) ...
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Abstract. Interest in ‘unconventional’ sections of research articles has lately increased, as it is necessary to reveal more information about their generic structure. These studies are especially vital for non-native novice researchers. The present paper continues the investigation of move-step distribution in the Conclusion section (e.g. Yang and Allison, 2003; Moritz, Meurer and Kuerten Dellagnelo, 2008). This time thirty-six research articles were chosen from two journals in applied linguistics. The two-level analysis demonstrates that there is only a slight difference between move-step distribution in the sections labelled with different headings – Conclusion and Conclusions. It was confirmed that applied linguists employ a variety of move-step sequences in the Conclusion(s) sections, and therefore it is necessary to devote more attention to acceptable varieties in ‘unconventional’ sections in academic writing classes at the tertiary level. Key words: applied linguistics, research articles, ‘unconventional’ sections, Conclusion, Conclusions, move-step analysis
... Our results suggest that performing an additional task while handwriting will reduce your ability to remember information and reduce the fluency of handwriting. Given that the revision of notes is important for comprehension and learning (Bui et al., 2013;Choi, 2016;Flower & Hayes, 1981;Piolat et al., 2005;Van Kleek, 2012), reducing distractions while notetaking will help immediately store, maintain, and retrieve information and ensure that handwritten notes are fluent, legible, and coherent. Our results indicate that taking notes will not only reduce your ability to immediate remember information but will also contribute to producing more dysfluent and jerky handwriting movements. ...
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Working memory and writing share a common resource. The authors investigated whether increasing the complexity of a finger-tapping task while simultaneously performing a serial verbal recall task while writing would decrease performance for recall, writing fluency, and tapping speed. Participants completed three verbal serial recall tasks which incrementally increased attentional load. Participants recalled word lists after listening to words while, (1) producing pseudo-handwriting movements without finger tapping (no-tapping), (2) producing pseudo-handwriting movements while tapping with a single finger (single-tapping), (3) producing pseudo-handwriting movements while tapping with two fingers (double tapping). The results showed that the double tapping condition caused a decrease in performance for recall, handwriting fluency, and tapping speed compared to the no-tapping condition and the single tapping conditions. However, no differences occurred between the no-tapping condition and the single tapping conditions. The authors concluded that by incrementally increasing the complexity of a concurrent tapping task we can achieve a decrease in performance across multiple cognitive processes. The results provided support for a central pool of shared resources that are utilised by non-working memory tasks and those reliant on working memory. The observed decreases in cognitive performance were dependent on task complexity rather than just performing a secondary task. The findings have implications for how multi-tasking while taking notes is detrimental for memory retention and handwriting fluency.
... However, some research has shown that simple transcription of contents (which would be akin to high completeness) may lead to lower levels of learning in some cases as students are overly focused on recording notes and not on learning (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). However, this is disputed by other research suggesting that cases where learners have access to their notes, which are complete transcriptions, lead to better performance (Bui, Myerson, & Hale, 2013). In terms of comparing group (or collaborative) note-takers to individual notetakers, there is evidence that collaborative note-takers retain more information from their notes than individual note-takers (Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 2014;Orndorff III, 2015). ...
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There is research showing benefits to both collaboration and note-taking, but a lack of research into how they may both work together in an online context. More specifically, there is a gap in the research looking at how collaborative note-taking and individual note-taking can be compared when considering the quality of the notes taken, and how note-quality can impact student performance. The present study looks at the online note-taking behavior and performance of 186 graduate students studying at a Korean university. The results indicate that students who collaborate perform better than individual note-takers on measures of recall of course content, but that individual note-takers perform better on tasks focused on academic writing. Furthermore, the findings suggest that note-quality has no effect on collaborative note-takers' recall of course content, and a slight negative impact on their writing, while individual note-takers benefit from higher quality notes for both recall and writing.
... In a video context, this may mean creating the notes as the video plays or pausing the video so that note-taking and viewing can be synchronized. Existing work has highlighted the lack of effective note-taking strategies, challenges to transcription, and self-regulation while taking linear notes from videos [9,16]. In contrast, non-linear note-taking can involve moving between points in the linear material. ...
Article
Taking good notes is linked to success in college. However, increased use of computers to take notes necessitates reconsideration of the linkages between note-taking and learning. One difficulty is disentangling the latent student characteristics that may correlate with computer use from the actual effect of computer note-taking on information retention. The authors employ a within-subject, random control experiment to distinguish whether the commonly perceived negative correlation between digital note-taking and performance is due to the note-taking process itself, or is instead due to the characteristics of students who choose to use computers. Their findings suggest that digital note-taking does not have a statistically meaningful impact on student performance; rather, the problem likely lies in the students’ choice to use the computer.
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The machinery of the stock market can be a great source of perplexity for many people. Some people believe investing is a form of gamble; and feel that if you devote, you will more than likely end up losing your money. Other people believe that they should invest for the long run but don‘t know where to begin. Before learning about how the stock market works, they look at invest like some sort of black magic that only a few people identify how to use. Growing a Business with Equity-When learning how to value a company, it helps to understand the nature of a business and the stock market. Almost every large corporation started out as a small, mom-and-pop operation, and through growth, became financial giants. Trust Wall-Mart, Amazon and McDonald's. Wall-Mart was originally a single-store business in Arkansas. Amazon.com began as an online bookseller in a garage. McDonald's was once a small restaurant of which no one outside of San Bernardino, California had ever heard. a company grows, it continues to face the hurdle of raising enough money to fund on�going expansion. Owners generally have two options to overcome this. They can either borrow the money from a bank or venture capitalist or sell part of the business to investors and use the money to fund growth
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Studies have shown that lecture note-taking is very effective for students’ learning. Research on Swedish pupils, however, is scant. The aim of the present study was to explore note-taking practices in Swedish upper secondary school and examine whether the school supports students in their practice. A survey with both closed-ended and open-ended questions was administered to 120 pupils from two schools in Västra Götaland County. Most pupils reported taking notes during lectures and doing so for mainly two reasons: to learn the material and to study the notes for future exams. However, only 15 % of participants had received guidance on how to take notes during their school years. A metacognitive framework is applied in interpreting the results. Whether a note-taking practice can be considered metacognitive depends on the underlying motives for choosing that strategy. A well-chosen strategy seems dependent on contextual and individual circumstances. It is suggested that pupils be taught both the advantages and the disadvantages of different note-taking practices, so that they can evaluate different strategies for themselves.
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There are 3 unique cognitive mechanisms during note taking: generative processing, summarization, and sustained attention. Generative processing is active construction of associations between novel information and prior knowledge and experiences. Summarization forces identification of the most pertinent information to create a coherent synopsis. Sustained attention is selectively concentrating on novel information while ignoring irrelevant distraction. This investigation compared the operation of the 3 cognitive mechanisms in relation to the note‐taking effect—the advantage of note taking when there is no opportunity to review the notes. Experiment 1, through measurement of task‐relevant and task‐irrelevant distraction, showed that sustained attention is positively related and generative processing negatively related to retention. Experiment 2, through an instruction manipulation, showed that generative processing impeded and summarization facilitated retention. Therefore, generative processing cannot account for the note‐taking effect. Instead, these results suggest that summarization and sustained attention are the primary cognitive processes underlying the note‐taking effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Students in health science programs must implement effective learning strategies to address the fast pace and high volume of complex curricula. The intense demands of health science learning environments present barriers for students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accommodations can mitigate learning barriers for students with learning and attention disabilities, but additional supports should be put in place to assist students in developing effective learning strategies. Learning specialists can work with students with disabilities to offer compensatory learning techniques and strategies for leveraging strengths and mitigating deficits. In this chapter, foundational learning principles and the process of learning will be highlighted. Barriers to learning faced by students with learning and attention disabilities in health science programs will be identified and strategies will be presented to help address these barriers. Methods for advising students with disabilities are also discussed.
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Client inquiry is a foundational financial statement audit procedure. However, the literature offers little evidence regarding how auditors perform client inquiry and how note taking during client inquiry is associated with audit quality. We conduct a mixed-methods study to examine these issues. First, we conduct interviews with seven highly-experienced auditors and five staff auditors to understand current practices regarding client inquiries, as well as evaluating and documenting evidence gathered from client inquiries. These interviews provide a thorough description of inquiry, highlighting that auditors routinely take notes during inquiry but can have difficulty with the interrelated, complex cognitive tasks of asking questions, processing client answers, and taking notes during inquiry. Second, we conduct two experiments to examine the impact of note taking during inquiry on skeptical judgments. Results from both experiments indicate that auditors taking note of more ideas during the inquiry is positively associated with memory accuracy. However, this does not improve skeptical judgments, and may lead to less skeptical judgments. Our second experiment indicates a prompt to develop expectations prior to the inquiry improves identification of inconsistencies in the inquiry, leading to more skeptical judgments. We offer contributions to the academic literature and practice, and suggestions for future research.
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Phenomenon: While technology is useful and encouraged in medical school, the effect of media multitasking on academic performance remains concerning. Past research has investigated performance and cognitions associated with college students' in-class media multitasking behavior, but the extent and correlates among medical students is relatively unknown. Approach: We surveyed medical students at our institution to quantify media multitasking behaviors and related beliefs, and we collected corresponding course grades. Our research applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction theory to analyze course and cognitive factors influencing media multitasking behavior in medical students. Correlation of media multitasking behavior with average and block grades assessed potential academic impact of the behavior. Findings: Media multitasking was common among medical students. Reported extent of media multitasking among medical students (N = 119) was not related to course grades but was driven by an interplay of beliefs about the behavior and specific course factors. Based on our hierarchical regression model, concerns about boredom appear to be the major cognitive belief underlying behavior. Insights: Our findings, in the context of the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction theory, show influential factors that impact medical students' behavior regarding media multitasking. A campaign targeting these factors influencing behavior may be the most effective approach to limit students' media multitasking and its potential impact on performance. Though our research did not find an association between the extent of media multitasking and course grades, our study was limited by self-report of media multitasking and relatively crude measures of academic performance. Further research is required to measure these behaviors and potential outcomes. Supplemental data for this article is available online at.
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Students are distracted by mobile technology in the classroom when learning from lectures and outside the classroom when studying. Students are susceptible to distractions because they are not fully engaged in learning. In the classroom, they record notes mindlessly that capture just one-third of important lesson ideas. When they study outside the classroom, they study information in a piecemeal fashion and employ mindless repetition strategies. These weak and unengaging learning strategies open the door for digital distractions. One potential means to engage students in meaningful learning and to offset digital distractions is an integrated strategy system called SOAR, which stands for select, organize, associate, and regulate. This chapter describes SOAR and how instructors can maximize SOAR's components to curb digital distractions by improving student note taking in the classroom and study behaviors outside the classroom. The chapter concludes by specifying how instructors can teach students to SOAR on their own.
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Organizations and individuals usually have well defined objectives at any given point of time and invest their resources systematically to fullfill the objectives by setting their goal and formulating and following a strategy to chase their goal. Various strategies are used to chase the goal in both organizational and individual cases include competitive strategies or red ocean strategies, monopoly or blue ocean strategies, sustainability or green ocean strategies, survival or black ocean strategies, and mixed or white ocean strategies. The complexities of business decisions after globalization of business and technification of business processes, winning or sustaining or even surviving in current business is considered as an intensive challenge for organizations and also to individuals. In such environment called the turbulent business or social environment for organizations and individuals respectively, a new strategy for survival called “Alternative Strategy” is proposed in this paper and the concept of the strategy, its importance in the current business environment for organizational decisions are discussed. The paper also looks into the understanding of the Generic strategies, their applicability and constraints while identifying the importance of alternative strategy. Eight postulates are developed to support the concept of alternative strategy, and an alternative strategy model is suggested using lateral thinking techniques. The model consists of evaluating and comparing the alternative strategy with primal strategy using ABCD analysis framework. Such model of alternative strategy can be used at operational level, tactical level, and strategic level of any organization to realize its objectives.
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Background: Technological advances have provided alternatives to traditional handwritten note taking that are changing the classroom learning environment in higher education for nursing students.Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore nursing student attitudes and preferences for note taking and the relationship of note taking methods on academic performance. Design: The mixed method approaches collected data from 217 nursing students in a baccalaureate program of study in spring and fall of 2017.Methods: Nursing students at the junior and senior level in the academic program voluntarily participated by completing a survey using a Likert-type scale and open-ended questions.Findings: The majority of students (69.3%) reported taking notes by electronic methods. No significant difference was found between the method of note taking and GPA (p = .139).Conclusions: Findings suggest that multiple variables influence learning in the classroom environment and note taking method has little impact on academic performance. Impact Statement: Educators should consider this finding when implementing policies on classroom electronics, including note taking. Understanding that the preferred method of note taking whether handwritten or electronic has little impact on overall academic performance should inform evidence based teaching and learning.
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In recent years, the government has actively set up computer programming courses to train those with the relevant talent; however, the learning performance of the students is not ideal. Therefore, in order to learn programming skills, students usually adopt note-taking strategies because, due to the pressure of the course, the teachers do not have sufficient time to help the students to fully understand the course content. This means that some students take notes without thinking, so their academic performance is usually poor. This study, therefore, proposes an innovative curriculum design that is based on the “Note-taking System and Teaching Strategy’’ (NSTS), which combines learning style concepts and peer learning concepts to achieve student interaction and promote their thinking skills. In the learning activity, students are asked to search for additional supplementary material and to write their own notes, and then the members of group can read their notes and learn from them. However, the results of the study show that the NSTS curriculum design exhibits significant differences for improving the students' academic performance, and that it also has a certain influence on their learning motivation.
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The aim of this study was to explore the note-taking experiences of university students using paper-based (non-electronic) and paperless (electronic) resources. By means of a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, the note-taking experiences of 18 students from an international program at a university in Belgium were examined throughout a semester. In order to document these students’ practices with paper-based and paperless resources, four data collection methods were used: (a) in-depth interviews (b) observations (c) focus group discussions and (d) document analysis of students’ lecture notes. The results showed that students experience note-taking as a complex phenomenon in which lived body, lived human relations, lived space and lived time come into play, and in which they try to find a balance between multiple engagements, between autonomy and authority, between attention and distraction, and between being original and mirroring others. This struggle for balance occurs irrespective of which medium (paper-based or paperless) they choose to use. These results provide an in-depth view of the phenomenon, and also highlight the complexity of the note-taking experience.
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examine 2 . . . contributors to nonoptimal training: (1) the learner's own misreading of his or her progress and current state of knowledge during training, and (2) nonoptimal relationships between the conditions of training and the conditions that can be expected to prevail in the posttraining real-world environment / [explore memory and metamemory considerations in training] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Note taking is a complex activity that requires comprehension and selection of information and written production processes. Here we review the functions, abbreviation procedures, strategies, and working memory constraints of note taking with the aim of improving theoretical and practical understanding of the activity. The time urgency of selecting key points and recording them while comprehending new information at the same time places significant demands on the central executive and other components of working memory. Dual-and triple-task procedures allow the measurement of the momentary cognitive effort or executive attention allocated to note taking. Comparative data show that note taking demands more effort than reading or learning. However, it requires less effort than the creative written composition of an original text.
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Previous research has shown better text learning after rereading versus 1 reading of a text. However, rereading effects have only been explored using immediate tests, whereas most students face delays between study and test. In 2 experiments, 423 college students read a text once, twice in massed fashion, or twice with 1 week between trials. Students were tested either immediately or 2 days after study. On an immediate test, performance was greater after massed versus single reading, whereas performance for distributed rereading was not significantly greater than after single reading. On a delayed test, performance was greater after distributed versus single reading, whereas performance for massed rereading and single reading no longer differed significantly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite the importance of good lecture notes to test performance, very little is known about the cognitive processes that underlie effective lecture note taking. The primary purpose of the 2 studies reported (a pilot study and Study 1) was to investigate 3 processes hypothesized to be significantly related to quality of notes: transcription fluency, verbal working memory, and the ability to identify main ideas. A 2nd purpose was to replicate the findings from previous research that notes and verbal working memory were significantly related to test performance. Results indicated that transcription fluency was the only predictor of quality of notes and that quality of notes was the only significant predictor of test performance. The findings on transcription fluency extend those of the children's writing literature to indicate that transcription fluency is related to a variety of writing outcomes and suggest that interventions directed at transcription fluency may enhance lecture note taking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Many students from elementary school through college encounter difficulty understanding their science textbooks, regardless of whether they have language disorders. This article discusses some of the particular difficulties associated with science text comprehension and possible remedies for facilitating and enhancing comprehension of challenging expository text materials. Specifically, we focus on the difficulties associated with generating inferences needed to comprehend science texts. The successful generation of inferences is affected by factors such as students' prior knowledge and reading strategies, and the manner in which science texts are written. Many students lack the necessary prior knowledge and reading strategies to generate inferences and thus comprehend science texts only poorly. Further, science texts are typically low-cohesion texts, which means that they require readers to generate many inferences and fill in conceptual gaps. Remedies for overcoming comprehension difficulties include matching texts to students' knowledge level and providing explicit instruction aimed at teaching students to use reading comprehension strategies for comprehension monitoring, paraphrasing, and elaborations. The computer-supported tool iSTART (Interactive Strategy Training for Active Reading and Thinking) is introduced as a technological support to assist students and teachers in the teaching/learning enterprise.
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This study examined the effects of providing reading strategy instruction to improve the effectiveness of self-explanation (i.e., explaining the meaning of information to oneself while reading). The effects of the reading strategy instruction, called Self-Ex-planation Reading Training (SERT), were examined both in terms of comprehension scores and self-explanation quality. Half of the participants (n = 42) received SERT, which included reading strategy instruction and self-explanation practice with 4 sci-ence texts (SERT condition). The remaining participants read aloud the 4 science texts (control condition). During this training phase, self-explanation, as compared to reading aloud, only improved comprehension for the most difficult of the 4 texts. Prior domain knowledge consistently improved comprehension performance, whereas reading skill and reading span had minimal effects. After training, both SERT and control participants self-explained a difficult text about cell mitosis. SERT improved comprehension and self-explanation quality only for participants with low domain knowledge. However, the effects of SERT on low-knowledge participants' comprehension emerged only for text-based questions and not for bridging-inference questions. Protocol analyses indicated that SERT helped these participants to use logic, or domain-general knowledge, rather than domain-specific knowledge to make sense of the text. Understanding and learning from written material is one of the most important skills to possess in modern society. The importance of understanding text ranges from being able to decipher the "three easy steps" for setting up your computer to understanding the ever-dreaded physiology textbook. Indeed, the ability to com-prehend the challenging textbooks confronted in typical classrooms is one of the DISCOURSE PROCESSES, 38(1), 1–30 Copyright © 2004, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
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Previous research investigating the encoding, encoding-plus-storage, and extermal-storage functions of note taking has failed to equate processing opportunities among the groups. The present studies did so by having the encoding group take notes on two occasions without review, the encoding-plus-storage group take notes one time and review notes the next, and the external-storage group twice review a set of borrowed notes. Three forms of note taking were used: conventional, and note taking on skeletal and matrix frameworks. In both Experiment 1, involving lecture learning, and Experiment 2, involving text learning, an advantage was found for the encoding-plus-storage function on tests involving factual-recall and recognition performance but not on tests measuring higher-order performance. With respect to note-taking forms, no advantage existed for any form when information was acquired from lecture. When text material was used there was some advantage for conventional notes and a clear advantage for not taking notes at all, but instead twice reading the material. These findings were explained relative to observed note-taking behaviors, the opportunity for review, and the processing demands proposed by the combination of reading and note taking, particularly when notes must be classified into an existing framework.
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Previous meta-analyses indicate that the overall encoding effect of note-taking is positive but modest. This meta-analysis of 57 note-taking versus no note-taking comparison studies explored what limits the encoding effect by examining the moderating influence of seven variables: intervention, schooling level, presentation mode and length, test mode, and publication year and source. It was found that (a) either positive interventions or rise in schooling level did not enhance the benefits of note-taking; (b) visual presentation of learning material interfered with the note-taking process, whereas longer presentation did not; (c) recall test detected the encoding effect more than recognition and higher-order performance tests; and (d) publication year and source contributed to the variation in effect sizes. These results suggest that the modest encoding effect is not due to the incompleteness of students’ spontaneous note-taking procedures, but mechanical demands of note-taking, type of learning outcome measure, and publication characteristics.
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This paper briefly reviews the evidence for multistore theories of memory and points out some difficulties with the approach. An alternative framework for human memory research is then outlined in terms of depth or levels of processing. Some current data and arguments are reexamined in the light of this alternative framework and implications for further research considered.
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The goal of this experiment was to investigate the role of visual feedback during written composition. Effects of suppression of visual feedback were analyzed both on processing demands and on on-line coordination of low-level execution processes and of high-level conceptual and linguistic processes. Writers composed a text and copied it either with or without visual feedback. Processing demands of the writing processes were evaluated with reaction times to secondary auditory probes, which were analyzed according to whether participants were handwriting (in a composing and a copying task) or engaged in high-level processes (when pausing in a composing task). Suppression of visual feedback increased reaction time interference (secondary reaction time minus baseline reaction time) during handwriting in the copying task and not during pauses in the composing task. This suggests that suppression of visual feedback only affected processing demands of execution processes and not those of high-level conceptual and linguistic processes. This is confirmed by analysis of the quality of the texts produced by participants, which were little, if at all, affected by the suppression of visual feedback. Results also indicate that the increase in processing demands of execution related to suppression of visual feedback affected on-line coordination of the writing processes. Indeed, when visual feedback was suppressed, reaction time interferences associated with handwriting were not reliably different in the copying task or the composing task but were significantly different when visual feedback was not suppressed: They were lower in the copying task than in the composition task. When visual feedback was suppressed, writers activated step-by-step execution processes and high-level writing processes, whereas they concurrently activated these writing processes when composing with visual feedback.
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Five experiments are reported comparing memory for words that were generated by the subjects themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance in the generate condition was superior to that in the read condition. This held for measures of cued and uncued recognition, free and cued recall, and confidence ratings. The phenomenon persisted across variations in encoding rules, timed or selfpaced presentation, presence or absence of test information, and between- or within-subjects designs. The effect was specific to the response items under recognition testing but not under cued recall. A number of potential explanatory principles are considered, and their difficulties enumerated. It is concluded that the generation effect is real and that it poses an interesting interpretative problem. This is an empirically oriented article whose purpose is to report a set of simple experiments that establish the existence of a robust and interesting phenomenon of memory. This phenomenon, called the generation effect, is robust in that it manifests itself across a variety of testing procedures, encoding rules, and other situational changes. It is interesting in that it does not seem to be easily or satisfactoril y accommodated by any of the currently familiar explanatory notions. We expect that once the phenomenon is described in its initial form, it will be the subject of wider experimental analysis and will eventually become better understood. In contrast to the usual objective reasons for embarking upon a line of research, the present work was neither initiated by any extant theoretical issue nor inspired by any previously published findings. It was carried out with the sole purpose of arriving at a
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The importance of notetaking techniques and working memory are explored in the learning of economics in a college principles course at the University of South Carolina. Instructor-supplied notes are found to be a good substitute for a classroom lecture.
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The effect of note-taking instruction on ninth graders' comprehension of high- and low-interest passages on teacher-made, objective tests was explored. A sample of 115 World Cultures students, aged 13-15 (48 females. 67 males; 6 Blacks, 109 Whites) from a suburban junior high school participated. The treatment group (N= 61) received 9 weeks of instruction and practice in the Cornell method of note taking, and the control group (N= 54) did not. The effects of treatment, ability level, and passage type (low-interest or high-interest) were investigated. A 2 × 2 MANOVA revealed a statistically significant main effect for note-taking training, F(2, 110) = 5.88, p < .01. In addition, a statistically significant interaction, F(1,111) = 7.57, p < .005, between note-taking training and passage type suggested that the training was more effective for the low-interest than the high-interest passage. There was no statistically significant interaction between ability level and passage type.
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The generation effect was examined in a series of experiments in which subjects were required to read or generate target words in the presence of cues. Memory was assessed via cued recall tests in which the relationship between the cue and the information present at encoding was varied. When targets were generated in the presence of associatively related cues of rhyme cues, a generation effect was observed when these same, or similar, cues were present at retrieval, but not when the retrieval cues tapped qualitatively different types of information. A generation effect was not obtained with identical cues when the cues were only weakly related to the generated words, but did emerge when cues which tapped general semantic information were used. It is suggested that generation can be guided by different types of information, and that it is the information used to guide the generation process that is enhanced by generation. A generation effect is observed only when this information is tapped at test.
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Much of the research on notetaking has distinguished and compared its process and product functions. Conclusions are that the act of notetaking is beneficial independent of review (the process function), and that the review of notes is additionally beneficial (the product function). Although such research informs us that these activities are effective, it fails to explain how learners should take notes and how notes should be reviewed. A depth of processing framework that can lead to more functional implications is proposed for reassessing and for redirecting the investigation of notetaking and review. Essentially, the framework specifies that levels of notetaking and/or review should be manipulated and examined with regard to levels of learning outcomes. Presently, few studies conform to these guidelines, but those that do provide more specific instructional implications. This article concludes with an account of these implications and with guidelines for investigating depth of processing during notetaking and review.
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Twelve subjects who are not touch typists, but have a median of ten years experience using computer keyboards performed two writing tasks: writing a short memorized passage and copying a four paragraph passage. Subjects performed each task once using a pen and paper and once using a display oriented text-editor. Typing speed was over five words per minute (wpm) faster than handwriting for both memorized and copied passages. Typing and writing were each about ten words per minute faster from memory than from copy. The number of errors was greater when typing from copy than in any other condition. These results suggest that for experienced two-finger typists, typing from a display-oriented document processor can be faster than handwriting.
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This study examined the relationship between lecture notetaking behaviors and academic ability and the relationship among lecture notetaking behaviors, information-processing ability, and more global measures of ability (i.e., GPA and ACT scores). Previous research had not investigated working-memory ability and specific notetaking behaviors. Four types of information were gathered from the 32 undergraduate students participating in this experiment: (a) score on a test of information-processing ability, (b) analyses of notes taken during a designated lecture, (c) score on a test pertaining to that lecture, and (d) score on a course exam covering several other lectures. In addition, GPA and ACT scores were drawn from each student's records. Results confirmed that amount of notetaking is related to academic achievement and established that ability to hold and manipulate prepositional knowledge in working memory is related to the number of words, complex propositions, and main ideas recorded in notes. In fact, stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that this information-processing ability was a more significant predictor of complex propositions and words recorded in notes than were global measures of ability such as GPA or ACT scores. This research is of practical importance because pedagogical activities may reduce cognitive strain associated with notetaking and because information-processing ability is, in part, controllable.
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This article provides an integration of the research literature on the nature and effectiveness of student notetaking/reviewing options in college classes, particularly courses using a lecture format. Addressed are the cognitive and behavioral skills involved in notetaking, the predictive potential of notetaking versus reviewing, student characteristics related to notetaking effectiveness, and instructional strategies that promote effective notetaking/reviewing.
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This volume presents indicators of important developments and trends in American education in 2003. Recurrent themes underscored by the indicators include participation and persistence in education, student performance and other outcomes, the environment for learning, and societal support for education. In addition, this volume contains a special analysis of children's reading achievement and classroom experiences in kindergarten and first grade, with a focus on the school, classroom, and home factors associated with the likelihood of children becoming good readers. Each section in the volume begins with a summary that presents the key point in the indicators to follow. All indicators contain a discussion, a single graph or table on the main indicator page, and one or more supplemental tables. All use the most recent national data available from the National Center for Education Statistics or other sources serving the purpose of the indicators. The volume's many topics are divided into six sections: (1) "Participation in Education"; (2) "Learner Outcomes"; (3) "Student Effort and Educational Progress"; (4) "Context of Elementary and Secondary Education"; (5) "Context of Postsecondary Education"; and (6) "Societal Support for Learning." Appended are supplemental tables, supplemental notes, standard error tables, and a glossary. (WFA)
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Examines the emergence of cognitive approaches to instruction, with hope that an understanding of the origins of this field will yield perspective on where it is going. First, a historical analysis of the relation between psychology and education, especially cognitive psychology and instruction, is undertaken. Then, an historical overview is provided of the progression of 3 views of learning and instruction: learning as response acquisition, learning as knowledge acquisition, and learning as knowledge construction. Next, cognitive theory is examined in more detail, with a particular focus on cognitive processes involved in learning. Finally, examples of progress and potential progress in the area of cognition and instruction are provided, through a focus on the emergence of psychologies of subject matter and on the cognitive analysis of individual learning strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated quantitative and qualitative aspects of note taking in relation to ability variables and academic achievement. Data were acquired by scoring the notes of 55 undergraduates who attended a 50-min lecture. Assessments were made on the total number of words and ideas contained in notes and on the relative subordination of each recorded idea based on a scale of 1 to 4. Achievement variables included scores on a test specific to the 50-min lecture and scores on a course examination. Ability variables were American College Test English usage scores, current grade point averages (GPAs), and performance on a test of information processing. Analyses indicated that note taking was related to academic achievement, particularly those ideas representing middle levels of subordination. Information-processing ability was related to note taking behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Randomly assigned 29 male and 83 female college students to 5 treatment groups combining different note-taking and review combinations. Recall was measured immediately and 3 wks later. A combination of taking notes and reviewing them produced the most recall; not taking notes and reviewing the lecture "mentally" produced the least recall. Females recalled significantly more data than males, but opinions concerning note taking and efficiency of notes were not related to recall outcome. Quality of notes was positively correlated with free-recall score and with short-term objective test score for 2 of the 3 note-taking groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There is general consensus among American college students and professors alike that taking notes on lecture information assists in the process of learning and retaining the information; however, it is uncertain whether this perception of the value of notetaking is a universal one. Do students from other cultures also perceive notetaking to be a valuable strategy to adopt while they are listening to lectures (1) in their native language, (2) in a language other than their native language (e.g., English)? Previous research suggests that cultural differences exist between the perceptions of American and British students regarding the value and practice of notetaking, and it was the purpose of this study to determine whether differences of opinion exist between American students and their international peers concerning the usefulness and methods of notetaking. One-hundred-sixty-four American and international students enrolled at a research university in the East responded to a questionnaire assessing their attitudes toward the usefulness of taking notes during English-lecture presentations. Results revealed that significant differences exist in the perceptions of the American and international students regarding: (1) their estimations of the adequacy/inadequacy of their notetaking skills, (2) the sense of time pressure experienced during listening and notetaking, and (3) the amount of notes taken during lecture presentations. However, many similarities of opinions also surfaced in the data. Implications of the findings for lecturer presentations and notetaking study skills programs are suggested.
Article
Individual differences in reading comprehension may reflect differences in working memory capacity, specifically in the trade-off between its processing and storage functions. A poor reader's processes may be inefficient, so that they lessen the amount of additional information that can be maintained in working memory. A test with heavy processing and storage demands was devised to measure this trade-off. Subjects read aloud a series of sentences and then recalled the final word of each sentence. The reading span, the number of final words recalled, varied from two to five for 20 college students. This span correlated with three reading comprehension measures, including verbal SAT and tests involving fact retrieval and pronominal reference. Similar correlations were obtained with a listening span task, showing that the correlation is not specific to reading. These results were contrasted with traditional digit span and word span measures which do not correlate with comprehension.
Article
Four levels of notetaking (summary, paraphrase, verbatim, and letter search) were used to control depth of processing of a prose passage with 180 high school students, who then either reviewed their notes or read an interpolated text. A separate control group took no notes. On immediate and delayed post-tests, post hoc analyses with the depth (notetaking) condition showed the following ranking: summary = paraphrase > control = verbatim > letter search. A paraphrase notes × review × test-position interaction was significant, indicating that less forgetting occurred on a delayed post-test when students reviewed their paraphrase notes than when they read an interpolated text. Analysis of reading times showed that the additional time required for notetaking was only worthwhile when meaningful notes were taken.
Article
Pretested 120 students on a battery of personality tests, including the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale and Internal-External Control Scale. Ss listened to a set of 3 5-min passages with 4 orthogonally crossed variables: position of the criterion passage on an imaginery scientific system in the set, note taking while listening, rehearsal immediately after listening, and testing. A free-recall test scored for number of words and ideas, and a multiple-choice test were then administered. It was found that there were more words generated and higher multiple-choice test scores when the study interval was used for review than for other activities. The number of ideas recalled was favorably influenced by note taking, rehearsal, and testing. There were no significant effects due to position of the passage in the set. Significant correlations were obtained between performance and the individual difference variables of anxiety and tolerance of ambiguity. A significant interaction between social desirability and performance was obtained for certain treatments. Implications for a minitheory of listening and note taking are discussed. (20 ref.)
Article
This study examined the relationships between sixth-grade students' handwriting speed and legibility and their keyboarding speed and error rate. A second purpose was to examine how well handwriting performance discriminates students as slow or fast in computer keyboarding. After participation in a school-required keyboarding class, 40 sixth-grade students were asked to copy a familiar poem using handwriting and keyboarding. Handwriting legibility and speed and keyboarding speed and errors were measured. Relationships among these variables were analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlations and discriminant analysis. Keyboarding speed correlated with handwriting legibility (n = 38, r = .361, p = .026), suggesting that handwriting performance accounts for 12% to 13% of the variance in keyboarding performance. Handwriting speed and legibility together accurately categorized 71% of students as slow or fast in keyboarding. On average, students were able to keyboard faster than handwrite. Of the 20 slowest handwriters, 75% achieved more text production with keyboarding than with handwriting. Keyboarding performance demonstrated low to moderate correlation with handwriting performance, suggesting that these forms of written expression require distinctly different skills. Most students who were slow at handwriting or had poor legibility increased the quantity and overall legibility of text they produced with a keyboard. These results suggest that keyboarding has the potential to increase and improve a student's written output.
The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology Available from http Notetaking in college classes: Student patterns and instructional strategies
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Individual differences in working memory and reading Listening and note taking The heuristic of lecture notetaking: Per-ceptions of American & international students regarding the value & practice of notetaking
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