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0277 Environmental exposure to nanoparticles in Sardinia, Italy: a pilot study of residential exposure nearby an industrial area and a military shooting range

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Abstract

Objectives Objective of our pilot study was to explore the airborne ultrafine particle count in residential areas nearby industrial and military settings with reference to urban and rural areas. Method We monitored airborne ultrafine (ranging 7nm - 10 microm) particles in residential areas nearby a large oil refinery, a military shooting range, in the largest urban area in the region and in a rural area. We conducted eight samplings (6 h each) using a Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI plus - Dekati, Tampere, FInland). Wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity during each sampling were registered. Data on other potential sources of ultrafine particles, from both anthropic and natural origin, were also resigeterd. The airborne nanoparticle concentration was expressed as particle count/ cm3. Results The median ultrafine particle count was 7408 (max 179605)/cm3 in the residential area nearby the oil refinery, 9079 (max 114281)/cm3 nearby the military shooting range, 19040 (max 142324)/cm3 in the urban area and 25419 (max 373434) in the rural area. Conclusions Our results show that ultrafine particles were ubiquitous in the sampling sites. Median counts were higher in the rural area than nearby industrial and military settings. We speculate that anthropic activities, including widespread use of wood burning fireplaces in rural areas, as well as technical measures to control industrial particulate emissions implemented in the past years, might have contributed. Further studies and additional sampling will allow a more detailed picture of exposure levels to better characterise risk of possible adverse health outcomes associated with environmental exposure to nanoparticles.
0276 THE ROLE OF VARIOUS PREDICTORS OF SEIZURE
RECURRENCE IN ASSIGNMENT OF YOUNG MEN TO
PROFESSIONS WITH ASSOCIATED EXPOSURE TO
(SEIZURE) RISK FACTORS
1,2
Michal Tavor,
3
Miri Y Neufeld,
2,4
Gabriel Chodick,
2,5
Oren Zack,
1,2
Shlomo Moshe.
1
Maccabi Healthcare Services, The Occupational Clinic, Holon, Israel;
2
Sackler Faculty of
Medicine, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational
Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel;
3
EEG and Epilepsy Unit, Tel Aviv, Israel;
4
Maccabi Healthcare
Services, Central Headquarter, Tel Aviv, Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel;
5
Israel Defence Force,
Medical Corps, Israel, Ramat Gan, Israel
10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.309
Objectives To study the risk of epileptic seizures as a function of
disease severity and occupational stress (physical and mental) in
new military recruits in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
Method The medical records of over 145 000 18-year old men,
recruited to the IDF between the late-nineties and early two-
thousands, were used to assemble a cohort, which was followed
for a period of 36 months. The severity of the disease was deter-
mined according to 5 categories. Recruits were subdivided
according to the following occupational categories: Combat
Units (CU), Maintenance Units (MU) and Administrative Units
(AU).
Results The annual incidence rate for a first seizure was 26/100
000. The rates in CU and MU were lower than AU (0.41 and
0.81 vs. 1 respectively, p <0.01). Similar findings were found in
other disease categories.
Conclusions The low rate for a first seizure and the lower over-
all seizure rate in CU compared to MU and AU may be
explained by the recruiting of a healthy population, higher moti-
vation than before, and meticulous adherence to diagnostic crite-
ria. The higher recurrence rate in our research as compared to
the previous follow up, may be attributable to the modification
of disease categories. Our findings suggest moderating occupa-
tional restrictions for epilepsy patients and using EEG and
relapse-free periods of 26 years as fitness for work criteria. We
propose the reassessment of severity criteria currently used by
the IDF.
0277 ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO NANOPARTICLES IN
SARDINIA, ITALY: A PILOT STUDY OF RESIDENTIAL
EXPOSURE NEARBY AN INDUSTRIAL AREA AND A
MILITARY SHOOTING RANGE
Marcello Campagna, Gabriele Marcias, Natalia Angius, Daniele Fabbri, Marcello Noli,
Sergio Pili, Ilaria Pilia, Giuseppe Avataneo, Pierluigi Cocco. University of Cagliari,
Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.310
Objectives Objective of our pilot study was to explore the air-
borne ultrafine particle count in residential areas nearby indus-
trial and military settings with reference to urban and rural
areas.
Method We monitored airborne ultrafine (ranging 7nm - 10
microm) particles in residential areas nearby a large oil refinery,
a military shooting range, in the largest urban area in the
region and in a rural area. We conducted eight samplings (6 h
each) using a Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI plus -
Dekati,Tampere,FInland).Windspeed and direction, tempera-
ture and humidity during each sampling were registered.
Data on other potential sources of ultrafine particles, from
both anthropic and natural origin, were also resigeterd. The
airborne nanoparticle concentration was expressed as particle
count/ cm
3
.
Results The median ultrafine particle count was 7408 (max
179605)/cm
3
in the residential area nearby the oil refinery, 9079
(max 114281)/cm
3
nearby the military shooting range, 19040
(max 142324)/cm
3
in the urban area and 25419 (max 373434)
in the rural area.
Conclusions Our results show that ultrafine particles were
ubiquitous in the sampling sites. Median counts were higher in
the rural area than nearby industrial and military settings. We
speculate that anthropic activities, including widespread use of
wood burning fireplaces in rural areas, as well as technical
measures to control industrial particulate emissions imple-
mented in the past years, might have contributed. Further stud-
ies and additional sampling will allow a more detailed picture
of exposure levels to better characterise risk of possible adverse
health outcomes associated with environmental exposure to
nanoparticles.
0279 HEAD AND NECK CANCER AND OCCUPATIONAL
EXPOSURE TO CHLORINATED SOLVENTS: RESULTS
FROM THE ICARE STUDY
1
Aurore Fayossé,
2
Gwenn Menvielle,
2
Diane Cyr,
2
Marie Sanchez,
2
Isabelle Stucker,
1
Danièle Luce.
1
INSERM U1085, Pointe À Pitre, Guadeloupe, France;
2
INSERM U1018,
Villejuif, France
10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.311
Objectives To investigate the associations between head and
neck cancer risk and occupational exposure to chlorinated
solvents.
Method ICARE is a population based case-control study con-
ducted in France. Analyses were restricted to men and included
1833 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas
(HNSCC) and 2747 controls. Complete occupational history
was collected. Job-exposure matrices allowed to assess exposure
to five chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene, perchloroethy-
lene, methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride).
Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for smoking, alcohol drinking and
other potential confounders and 95% confidence intervals (CI)
were estimated with logistic models.
Results No association was found for occupational exposure
to trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, chloroform and car-
bon tetrachloride, and no dose-response relationships were
observed. A non-significantly increased risk of HNSCC was
observed for perchloroethylene (OR=2.1, CI 0.76.3), when
comparing the highest tertile of cumulative exposure with no
exposure. Analysis by cancer site showed that this increased
risk was limited to laryngeal cancer. The risk of laryngeal can-
cer increased with cumulative exposure to perchloroethylene
(p for trend=0,03), with a significantly elevated OR
(OR=5.0, CI 1.615.6) for the highest tertile of cumulative
exposure. Exposure to perchloroethylene was not associated
with the risk of oral or pharyngeal cancer. No associations
were found between other chlorinated solvents and any of the
cancer sites.
Conclusions These findings suggest that high levels of exposure
to perchloroethylene may increase the risk of laryngeal cancer.
Our study does not provide evidence that other chlorinated sol-
vents are risk factors for HNSCC.
Poster presentation
Occup Environ Med 2014;71(Suppl 1):A1A132 A99
group.bmj.com on July 28, 2017 - Published by http://oem.bmj.com/Downloaded from
nearby an industrial area and a military shooting range
Sardinia, Italy: a pilot study of residential exposure
Environmental exposure to nanoparticles in 0277
Sergio Pili, Ilaria Pilia, Giuseppe Avataneo and Pierluigi Cocco
Marcello Campagna, Gabriele Marcias, Natalia Angius, Daniele Fabbri, Marcello Noli,
doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102362.310
2014 71: A99 Occup Environ Med
http://oem.bmj.com/content/71/Suppl_1/A99.2
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... Frequent SD of these military personnel could, conceivably, affect brain function and reduce their ability to perform at optimal levels [8][9][10][11]. However, whether or not disturbances in brain functions following SD may be further affected by additional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) from the environment or work-related activity remains to be explored [12][13][14]. In combat situations, these military personnel are often exposed to a variety of NPs emanating from missile or gunpowder explosions as well as from the environment, e.g., silica dust exposure [12,13]. ...
... However, whether or not disturbances in brain functions following SD may be further affected by additional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) from the environment or work-related activity remains to be explored [12][13][14]. In combat situations, these military personnel are often exposed to a variety of NPs emanating from missile or gunpowder explosions as well as from the environment, e.g., silica dust exposure [12,13]. Thus, it is important to understand if NPs are able to modulate SD-induced brain dysfunction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Military personnel are often subjected to sleep deprivation (SD) during combat operations. Since SD is a severe stress and alters neurochemical metabolism in the brain, a possibility exists that acute or long-term SD will influence blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and brain pathology. This hypothesis was examined in young adult rats (age 12 to 14 weeks) using an inverted flowerpot model. Rats were placed over an inverted flowerpot platform (6.5 cm diameter) in a water pool where the water levels are just 3 cm below the surface. In this model, animals can go to sleep for brief periods but cannot achieve deep sleep as they would fall into water and thus experience sleep interruption. These animals showed leakage of Evans blue in the cerebellum, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate cerebral cortices, and brain stem. The ventricular walls of the lateral and fourth ventricles were also stained blue, indicating disruption of the BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Breakdown of the BBB or the BCSFB fluid barrier was progressive in nature from 12 to 48 h but no apparent differences in BBB leakage were seen between 48 and 72 h of SD. Interestingly, rats treated with metal nanoparticles, e.g., Cu or Ag, showed profound exacerbation of BBB disruption by 1.5- to 4-fold, depending on the duration of SD. Measurement of plasma and brain serotonin showed a close correlation between BBB disruption and the amine level. Repeated treatment with the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (1 mg/kg, s.c.) 4 and 8 h after SD markedly reduced BBB disruption and brain pathology after 12 to 24 h SD but not following 48 or 72 h after SD. However, TiO2-nanowired ondansetron (1 mg/kg, s.c) in an identical manner induced neuroprotection in rats following 48 or 72 h SD. However, plasma and serotonin levels were not affected by ondansetron treatment. Taken together, our observations are the first to show that (i) SD could induce BBB disruption and brain pathology, (ii) nanoparticles exacerbate SD-induced brain damage, and (iii) serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron is neuroprotective in SD that is further potentiated byTiO2-nanowired delivery, not reported earlier.
... Shooting ranges have been identified as places with high levels of submicrometer and UFPs [32,34,35]. The measurements were conducted at 5 modern police shooting ranges (designated as "A", "B", "C", "D" and "E"), where UFPs arise from combustion of the explosion in the percussion-cap and metal fumes originating from the metal coat of the bullets (lead, barium, copper and antimony). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Inhalation exposure to fine and ultrafine particles (UFPs) has been associated with respiratory diseases. However, little is known on the quality, threshold levels and concentration of these particles causing adverse health effects. Methods The impact of occupational exposure to submicrometer and UFPs was assessed in 30 healthy police shooting instructors by clinical investigation, self-assessment questionnaire, sputum and spirometry and compared to a control group. General laboratory chemistry parameters, circulating cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-gamma [IFN-γ]), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in serum were measured. UFP exposure was recorded by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. Results Concentrations of submicrometer sized airborne particles (< 700 nm) measured between 3.34 × 10⁵/cm³ and 7.58 × 10⁵/cm³ at shooting sites, with highest concentrations found in the UFP range (< 100 nm). The size of the monodispersed particles ranged from 54.74 ± 16.25 nm to 98.19 ± 22.83 nm. Short term exposure (4 h) to high levels of UFPs caused an increase of IFN-γ in exposed subjects (p = 0.022). 24 h after exposure a significant decrease of IgG, albumin fibrinogen and factor VII was found. Neither directly after 4 h of high levels UFPs exposure nor 24 h after exposure subjective complaints or objective measurements indicating adverse respiratory effects in exposed subjects were found. Conclusions No consistent indications for adverse respiratory or inflammatory effects directly following exposure and 24 h after exposure to high levels of UFPs in our study group were detected. However we showed the assessment of short-term exposure effects at a genuine occupational setting, which might is relevant when a risk assessment of high level occupational exposures to UFPs is considered.
Article
Increased levels of ubiquitin and heat shock protein (HSP) 72 kD are often seen in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, their roles in cell injury or survival are not well known. Thus, we have investigated the possible relationship between ubiquitin and HSP expressions in relation to cell injury in healthy animals, or following nanoparticle (NP) intoxication in SCI animals. A focal SCI was inflicted on the T10-11 segments over the right dorsal horn; animals were allowed to survive from 5 to 8 h after trauma. Separate groups of rats were exposed to SiO2, Ag, or Cu NPs for 7 days and subjected to SCI on the eighth day. A marked increase in ubiquitin or HSP immunoreactive cells occurred in the T9 to T12 segments 5 h after the injury, which further extended to the T4 and L5 after 8 h of survival. At this time, a marked increase in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability to Evans blue and radioiodine, accompanied by an intense edema formation, was observed. Changes were further exacerbated in NP-treated traumatized rats. The most marked expressions of ubiquitin and HSP in SCI were seen in rats treated with SiO2, followed by Ag, and Cu NPs. Treatment with H-290/51 (50 mg/kg p.o., 30 to 60 min after injury) or carfilzomib (1 mg/kg, i.v., 30 to 60 min after trauma) significantly reduced the ubiquitin or HSP expressions, as well as the BSCB breakdown, the edema formation, and the cell injury in the cord both 5 and 8 h after the injury, in normal animals. However, a double dose of H-290/51 (100 mg/kg) or carfilzomib (2 mg/kg) is needed to reduce cord pathology or ubiquitin and HSP expressions in traumatized animals treated with NPs. H-290/51 showed superior beneficial effects in reducing cord pathology in SCI than carfilzomib. These observations are the first to demonstrate that (i) NP-treated traumatized animals induce a widespread BSCB leakage, edema formation, and cord pathology as well as an overexpression of ubiquitin and HSP, (ii) high doses of antioxidant compounds or proteasome inhibitors are required for neuroprotection in the NP-exposed traumatized group, and (iii) ubiquitin and HSP expressions play a key role in neuronal injury in SCI, not reported earlier.
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