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The Paleogeographic Atlas of Northern Eurasia

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1998.13 Paleogeographic Maps on Palinspastic Reconstruction, (orthographic projection), 26 Maps: Devonian , Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene (380.8 Ma - 6.7 Ma)
... This ancient ocean basin is thought to be represented by the ophiolites of the South Anyui Terrane of northeastern Siberia . The hypothetical ocean is termed the ''South Anyui Ocean,'' and the paleogeographical feature is the ''South Anyui Ocean Gulf'' [Kazmin and Napatov, 1998] ...
... Although magnetic lineations exist, their interpretation is controversial. Estimates for the age of the opening range from 119 Ma (earliest Aptian) to 97 Ma (latest Albian) [Tailleur and Brosgé, 1970], 120 Ma (early Aptian) to 80 Ma (early Campanian) [Sweeney, 1985], 125 Ma (Barremian) to 80 Ma (early Campanian) [Lawver and Baggeroer, 1983], 130 Ma (Hauterivian) to 100 Ma (late Albian) [Halgedahl and Jarrard, 1987], 134 Ma (Valanginian) to 90 Ma (Turonian) [Rowley and Lottes, 1988], 140 Ma (Berriasian) to final cessation of spreading about 50 Ma (Early Eocene) [Lane, 1997], and 150 Ma (Kimmeridgian) to 90 Ma (Turonian) [Kazmin and Napatov, 1998]. [43] There are four very different groups of models for the opening of the Canada Basin, most of which also constrain the nature of Mendeleev-Alpha Ridge and the Makarov Basin (see review by Lawver and Scotese [1990]. ...
... Norwegian seaway. The shape and depth of the seaway may have changed during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous [Kazmin and Napatov, 1998] ...
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1] The paleoclimatology and paleoceanology of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous are of special interest because this was a time when large amounts of marine organic matter were deposited in sediments that have subsequently become petroleum source rocks. However, because of the lack of outcrops, most studies have concentrated on low latitudes, in particular the Tethys and the ''Boreal Realm,'' where information has been based largely on material from northwest Germany, the North Sea, and England. These areas were all south of 40°N latitude during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. We have studied sediment samples of Kimmeridgian ($154 Ma) to Barremian ($121 Ma) age from cores taken at sites offshore mid-Norway and in the Barents Sea that lay in a narrow seaway connecting the Tethys with the northern polar ocean. During the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous these sites had paleolatitudes of 42–67°N. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous sequences at these sites reflect the global sea-level rise during the Volgian-Hauterivian and a climatic shift from warm humid conditions in Volgian times to arid cold climates in the early Hauterivian. The sediments indicate orbital control of climate, reflected in fluctuations in the clastic influx and variations in carbonate and organic matter production. Trace element concentrations in the Volgian-Berriasian sediments suggest that the central part of the Greenland-Norwegian Seaway might have had suboxic bottom water beneath an oxic water column. Both marine and terrigenous organic matter are present in the seaway sediments. The Volgian-Berriasian strata have unusually high contents of organic carbon and are the source rocks for petroleum and gas fields in the region. The accumulation of organic carbon is attributed to restricted conditions in the seaway during this time of low sea level. It might be that the Greenland-Norwegian segment was the deepest part of the transcontinental seaway, bounded at both ends by relatively shallow swells. The decline in organic matter content of the sediments in the Valanginian-Hauterivian indicates greater ventilation and more active flow through the seaway as the sea level rose. The same benthic foraminifera assemblages are encountered throughout the seaway. Endemic assemblages of arenaceous foraminifera in the Volgian-Berriasian give way to more diverse and cosmopolitan Valanginian-Hauterivian benthic communities that include calcareous species. The foraminiferal assemblages also suggest low oxygen content bottom waters during the earlier Cretaceous, changing to more fully oxygenated conditions later. The calcareous nannoplankton, particularly Crucibiscutum salebrosum, which is rare at low latitudes and abundant in high latitudes, reflect the meridional thermal gradient. They indicate that the Greenland-Norwegian segment of the seaway was north of a subtropical frontal zone that acted as a barrier between the Tethyan and Boreal Realms. This implies the existence of stable climatic belts during the early Valanginian and Hauterivian, significant meridional temperature gradients, and moderate ''ice house'' conditions. INDEX TERMS: 1050 Geochemistry: Marine geochemistry (4835, 4850); 3022 Marine Geology and Geophysics: Marine sediments—processes and transport; 3030 Marine Geology and Geophysics:
... Locations of studied sections are shown on the basin reconstructions (Figs 4 & 15). Turan occurred during the Pennsylvanian and early Permian (Scotese & McKerrow 1990;Zonenshain et al. 1990;Golonka et al. 1994;Mossakovsky et al. 1994;Kazmin & Natapov 1998;Brookfield 2000;Filippova et al. 2001;Heubeck 2001;Bykadorov et al. 2003;Windley et al. 2007). ...
... Non-depositional land areas that existed in the Tourghai-Middle Tien Shan region since the Late Ordovician subsided and became occupied by sedimentary basins during Givetian and Frasnian time. These basins were dominated by fluvial sandstone and conglomerate deposits, which changed laterally to lagoon and shallow marine deposits in the most external areas to the west and south (Kazmin & Natapov 1998;Bykadorov et al. 2003). Sedimentary thicknesses of the Givetian and Frasnian siliciclastics, broadly ranging from tens of metres to 2-3 km, imply that basin subsidence was controlled by tectonic extension and normal faulting, rather than by eustatic sealevel rise. ...
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The passive margin carbonate platform in the Middle Tien Shan rests on Givetian– Frasnian red siliciclastic strata. It evolved from an attached carbonate platform in the Famennian and early Tournaisian to an isolated carbonate platform in the late Tournaisian to early Bashkirian. The open-ocean side of the platform was reef-rimmed, whereas the continental side was both reefand shoal-rimmed. Platform interiors exhibit low-energy facies during the Famennian to early Visean and high-energy facies during the late Visean to Bashkirian. Eustatic sea-level rises in the middle Tournaisian, early Visean and near the Visean and Serpukhovian boundary caused major reorganizations in platform architecture. Deformation in the middle Bashkirian reflects the onset of a convergent margin. Flexural loading by an orogenic thrust wedge controlled basin subsidence along the southern edge of the Middle Tien Shan in the Late Pennsylvanian to Asselian. Cessation of deposition in the Asselian followed by folding and granitoid plutonism reflects the onset of a rigid collision. Devonian to Permian carbonates represent outcrop analogues of coeval oil- and gas-rich carbonate platforms in the North Caspian basin and can be used for comparative and predictive sedimentological studies. Palaeozoic carbonate reservoir facies may host subsurface Cenozoic oil fields in the Fergana Basin.
... The presence of Ordovician ophiolites in the STS implies that Tarim had already separated from Middle Tian-Shan (then the Syrdar'ya continent) and the Turkestan Ocean (Burtman, 1976) had already formed by that time. If we accept that the ancient continental crustal fragments in the Tian-Shan represent parts of Gondwana (Kheraskova et al., 2003), reconstruction of the Early Paleozoic environment to the north (west in ancient coordinates) of Eastern Gondwana as a group of detached microcontinents would be the same as that for the European segment of the Gondwanan border (Kazmin and Natapov, 1998; Matte, 2002). Later tectonic events in the Central Asian region developed within a convergent regime and their sequence may be reconstructed satisfactorily in the Tian-Shan segment.2. ...
... Most reconstructions (e.g., Burtman et al., 1998; Kazmin and Natapov, 1998; Heubeck, 2001) support a sub-meridional Turkestan Ocean, and a low northern latitude position for Tarim in the Devonian based on paleomagnetic data (Li, 1990). Such a reconstruction requires later clockwise rotation and northward drift of Tarim. ...
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The Upper Paleozoic orogenic belt of South Tian-Shan (STS) in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan consists of two structural domains: the south-vergent Bukantau–Kokshaal (BK) in the north and continuing into Xinjiang (China), and the north-vergent Zeravshan–Hissar (ZH) in the south, in Tajikistan. The Bukantau–Kokshaal fold belt was thrust south onto the Kyzylkum–Alai and Tarim continents in the Late Carboniferous. The BK belt is the most prominent collision-related, alpine-type part of the Paleozoic Tian-Shan and, as a prolongation of the Tian-Shan structure, shows close resemblance to the western (outer, west-vergent) part of the Urals. The Kazakhstan continent acts as a hinterland to the BK collision belt. Kazakhstan was constructed by accretion processes in which ancient (presumably Gondwanan) continental terranes and ocean-derived crustal elements of the Early Paleozoic to Early Carboniferous age played a role. The main episode of terrane amalgamation took place during the Middle and Late Ordovician. This appears to reflect active margin development in the Paleoasiatic Ocean, and resembles processes occurring in the recent Western Pacific. Geological differences in construction and protolith age of continental crust in the region are in general agreement with Pb– and Sm–Nd isotopic data. Relatively early (Visean) north-vergent thrust structures in Zeravshan–Hissar and eastern Alai (southwestern STS) bear some resemblance to the Central European Hercynides of Rheic origin, although this region became the location of active margin tectonic processes associated with the closure of the Paleotethys Ocean during the Carboniferous. Post-collisional magmatism occurred from ca. 300 to 270Ma and is represented by a variety of magma types from A-type granites to nepheline syenites. The spatial distribution of plutons appears to be controlled by transtensional structures associated with east–west, left-lateral wrench faulting. The presence of coeval alkali intrusions and plateau basalts in adjacent areas suggests that this magmatism may have been associated with a mantle plume.
... Global palaeotectonic sketch maps presented by Scotese (2004) permit to trace a connection between Laurussia and Gondwana as far as to ∼ 400 Ma, i.e., to the Early Devonian, although this author depicts a complete frontal contact of landmasses somewhen in the Viséan. According to the available paleogeographical reconstructions (Scotese et al., 2000), floras of the Northern European and the Southern European provinces were separated by a marine basin in the beginning of Viséan, whereas the endemic flora of North Wales evolved on a small island within this basin (Fig. 8). The latter served as a natural barrier that prohibited floristic exchanges. ...
... As a result, the Donets palaeofloristic province appeared on the basis of the West European migrants (evidently, from Moravia) and the early Viséan plants of the Pripyat Trough. Apparently, the gulf reconstructed northward of the Voronezh High in the late Viséan (Scotese et al., 2000) hindered from the migration of Southern European plants to the Moscow Coal Basin (Fig. 8). Further gradual enlargement of this gulf led to the almost total destruction of the Viséan flora in the latter. ...
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Global-scale palaeoenvironmental perturbations during the Viséan Stage affected all regional plant communities within the Equatorial Belt. The Moscow Coal Basin, which occupies the central part of the present-day Russian Platform, provides an exceptional palaeobotanical record permitting to document the patterns of floral responses to the noted perturbations. A careful study of macroplant remains allowed to identify 28 species and to establish their stratigraphic ranges. Five types of plant communities evolved on the southern margin of the basin, namely flood-plain peat bogs with lycopods, semi-aquatic sphenopsids, mesophilic communities of river valleys with fern-like plants, lepidophytic communities of flood-plain clastic swamps, and coastal communities of lycopods. These communities developed on the western basin margin: peat bogs of freshwater lakeshores and flood-plains dominated by lycopsids and gymnosperms with Cordaites sp. leaves, flood-plain clastic swamps with lepidophytes, semi-aquatic sphenopsids, mesophilic communities of river valley and lake depression sides formed by plants with fern-like leaves, and coastal communities of lycopods. Two Viséan palaeophytogeographic units such as the Southern Moscow District and the Western Moscow District can be distinguished. Each belonged to the particular palaeo-river valley. In the local stratigraphic record, the Gryzlovia meyenii Assemblage Zone (Bobrikian–lower Tulian) and the Sublepidodendron shvetzovii Assemblage Zone (upper Tulian–Venevian) are delineated. A boundary between them correlates with vegetation changes traced through the entire Equatorial Belt. Thus, this boundary corresponds to a major floristic turnover. The Viséan climate does not provide an unambiguous explanation of the latter. Dynamics of the shorelines linked to the eustatic fluctuations was able, however, to affect the local plant communities. Specific “stigmarian limestones” were formed in regressive conditions, when plant colonized rapidly the coastal carbonate mud. The plate tectonics was a very important factor of plant migrations within Euramerican Floristic Realm. Pre-existed separation of the Hunic terranes and the Laurussian margin might have been responsible for differences between the Northern and Southern European palaeophytogeographic provinces.
... Other published sources of paleogeographic maps were consulted when producing the initial set of maps. Some of the key sources include Barrier & Vrielynck (2008); Blakey (2002Blakey ( , 2008, Blakey & Ranney (2018), Bozhko & Khain (1987), Cook (1990), Cook & Bally (1975), Cope et al. (1992), Dercourt et al. (1985Dercourt et al. ( , 1993Dercourt et al. ( , 2000, Evans et al. (2003), Fensome & Williams (2001), Golonka (2000Golonka ( , 2007, Kazmin & Natapov (1998), Kiessling et al. (2002), Ma et al. (2009), Mallory (1972), McCrossan et al. (1964), Ronov et al. (1984Ronov et al. ( , 1989, Schandelmeier & Reynolds (1997), Scotese (1998Scotese ( , 2001Scotese ( , 2004Scotese ( , 2009, Scotese et al. (1979), Şengör & Natal'in (1996), Şengör et al. (2014a,b), Smith et al. (1994), Stampfli 2000, Stampfli & Borel (2002, Stampfli & Kozur (2006), Stampfli & Pillevuit (1993), Stampfli et al. (2001Stampfli et al. ( , 2013, Ulmishek & Klemme (1990), Veevers (1984Veevers ( , 2000, Vinogradov et al. (1967Vinogradov et al. ( , 1968aVinogradov et al. ( ,b, 1969, Wang (1985), Yilmaz et al. (1996), Zheng & Hu (2010), A.M. Ziegler et al. ( , 1979Ziegler et al. ( , 1983Ziegler et al. ( , 1985Ziegler et al. ( , 1997, P.A. Ziegler (1982Ziegler ( , 1988Ziegler ( , 1989Ziegler ( , 1990, P.A. Ziegler et al. (2001), Ziegler & Horvath (1996), and Zonenshain et al. (1990). In addition to these key references, for an annotated bibliography of more than 100 sources of primary paleogeographic information, refer to Supplemental Appendix 1. Also, Torsvik & Cocks (2017) provide an excellent summary of the information that goes into making plate tectonic and paleogeographic maps in their book Earth History and Paleogeography. ...
Article
Paleogeography is the study of the changing surface of Earth through time. Driven by plate tectonics, the configuration of the continents and ocean basins has been in constant flux. Plate tectonics pushes the land surface upward or pulls it apart, causing its collapse. All the while, the unrelenting forces of climate and weather slowly reduce mountains to sand and mud and redistribute these sediments to the sea. This article reviews the changing paleogeography of the past 750 million years. It describes the broad patterns of Phanerozoic paleogeography as well as many of the specific paleogeographic events that have shaped the modern continents and ocean basins. The focus is on the changing latitudinal distribution of the continents, fluctuations in sea level, the opening and closing of oceanic seaways, mountain building, and how these paleogeographic changes have affected global climate, ocean circulation, and the evolution of life. This review presents an atlas of 114 paleogeographic maps that illustrate how Earth's surface has evolved during the past 750 million years. During that time interval, Earth has witnessed the formation and breakup of two supercontinents: Pannotia and Pangea. The continents have been transformed from low-lying flooded platforms to high-standing land areas crisscrossed by the scars of past continental collisions. Oceans have opened and closed, and then opened again in a seemingly never-ending cycle. ▪ The changing configuration of the continents and ocean basins during the past 750 million years is illustrated in 114 paleogeographic maps. ▪ These maps describe how the surface of Earth has been continually modified by mountain building and erosion. ▪ The changing paleogeography has affected global climate, ocean circulation, and the evolution of life. ▪ The data and methods used to produce the maps are described in detail.
... One of the earliest works, Schuchert's (1910Schuchert's ( , 1955 atlas the "Paleogeography of North America", was illustrated by 50 maps describing the flooding of North America by vast epeiric seas from the Cambrian to the Pliocene. State-of-the-art paleogeographic (paleocoastline) reconstructions follow and incorporate key sources, including the work of Bozhko and Khain, 1987;Cook (1990); Cook and Bally, 1975;Cope et al. (1992); (Dercourt et al., 1985(Dercourt et al., , 1993(Dercourt et al., , 2000; Golonka (2000); Kazmin and Natapov (1998); Mallory (1972); McCrossan et al. (1964); (Ronov et al., 1984(Ronov et al., , 1989; Scotese (2004Scotese ( , 2009); Scotese, 2016); Scotese et al., (1979), Scotese and Wright (2018) ;Stampfli, (2000); Stampfli and Borel, (2002) ;Veevers, 1984Veevers, , 2000Vinogradov et al. (1967Vinogradov et al. ( , 1968aVinogradov et al. ( , 1968bVinogradov et al. ( , 1969, Wang (1985), Ziegler et al. (1977Ziegler et al. ( , 1979Ziegler et al. ( , 1983Ziegler et al. ( , 1985Ziegler et al. ( , 1997; Ziegler (1982Ziegler ( , 1988Ziegler ( , 1989Ziegler ( , 1990; Zonenshain et al. (1990). The maps produced by these paleogeographers are based on surface outcrops and sometimes extensive well data. ...
Article
Sea levels shape the face of the Earth, define processes of sedimentation, and influences the evolution of life via the distribution of habitats. Ancient topographies can be reconstructed using the history and understanding of tectonic processes, lithological evidence, and present-day topographies. Paleogeographic reconstructions must accommodate ever newer sources of geological data, so we can refine and improve our model of ancient topography and bathymetry. Here, we assess the accuracy of a Phanerozoic set of digital paleogeographic maps by testing the proposed distribution of flooded shallow seas and land using fossil occurrence data from the Paleobiology Database. After noting a moderate match, we modified the positions of the coastlines and continental margins of these topographic models to reflect times of maximum transgression. Using the updated paleogeographic maps, we outline the changes of land and shallow marine areas over time and suggest ways they can be used for further investigations of our planet's history.
... During the Late Jurassic, the low sea level and the formation of structural highs and landmasses within the seaway (Doré, 1991; Brekke, 2000) probably limited large current systems. In the Early Cretaceous new seaways opened to the Boreal Sea in the southeast, to the northwest-Tethys, to the Barents Sea and to the South Anyui Gulf due to increased sea-level (Surlyk, 1990 ), which may have initiated effective current systems (e.g. Kazmin and Napatov, 1998). The South Anyui Gulf is a potential source for cold polar deep waters, being a possible driving force for the ocean current system of the North Atlantic. ...
Article
Reconstructions of the palaeoclimate of the Early Cretaceous are controversial, varying from a warm-temperate greenhouse world to icehouse conditions. We studied calcareous nannofossil assemblages of sediments from North-East Greenland (Wollaston Forland and Kuhn Ø) of Late Ryazanian-Barremian age in order to better understand the palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography of the high latitudes. The calcareous nannofossil assemblages are characterized by abundant Crucibiscutum spp. and Watznaueria spp., Biscutum constans and other Boreal taxa. They show also influxes of Tethyan and low to mid latitudinal taxa like nannoconids (e.g. Nannoconus bermudezii, Nannoconus dolomiticus, Nannoconus steinmannii), pentaliths (Micrantholithus hoschulzii, Micrantholithus obtusus), conuspheres, Speetonia colligata and Cruciellipsis cuvillieri in the Upper Ryazanian and Lower Hauterivian. Reconstructed surface water conditions, indicated by fluctuations in the assemblage compositions, suggest cool conditions for the Late Ryazanian, a cold climate for the Valanginian, and warm climatic conditions for the Hauterivian-Barremian. High meridonial temperature gradients and cool-cold climatic conditions in the high latitudes caused supposedly the formation of deep water in the South Anyui Gulf in the Late Ryazanian-Valanginian. Palaeoceanographic changes, reflected in a counter-balanced ocean current system in the Greenland-Norwegian Seaway, allowed Tethyan biota to spread as far north as North-East Greenland during the Late Ryazanian.
... The evolution history of the region with corresponding paleogeodynamical reconstructions (and, correspondingly, plate boundary motions) was considered in many publications. Here, we refer to the most important of them [12,13,17,22,24,29,31,36,37,65,66,70]. Due to the limitations of this paper, the authors do not assess the details of the geological evolution of the region. ...
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Geophysical data on the northern part of the Pacific Ocean were systematized to compile a map of geomagnetic and geothermal studies of the Bering Sea. The absence of reliable data about the formation time of the Bering Sea structures of oceanic and continental origins is noted; this hampered the assessment of the geodynamical processes in the North Pacific. Based on the geophysical data, we estimated the age of the structures of the Bering Sea floor such as the Commander Basin (21 My), the Shirshov Ridge (95 and 33 My in the northern and southern parts, respectively), the Aleutian Basin (70 My), the Vitus Arch (44 My), the Bowers Ridge (30 My), and the Bowers Basin (40 My). These values are confirmed by the geological, geophysical, and kinematic data. A numerical modeling of the formation of extensive regional structures (Emperor Fracture Zone, Chinook Trough, and others) in the Northern Pacific is carried out. A conclusion was made on the basis of the geological and geothermal analysis that the northern and southern parts of the Shirshov Ridge have different geological ages and different tectonic structures. The northern part of the ridge is characterized by an upthrust-nappe terrain origin, while the southern part has originated from a torn-away island arc similar to the origin of the Bowers Ridge. The sea floor of the Aleutian Basin represents a detached part of the Upper Cretaceous Kula plate, on which spreading processes took place in the Vitus Arch area in the Eocene. The final activity phase in the Bering Sea began 21 My B.P. by spreading of the ancient oceanic floor of the Commander Basin. Based on the age estimations of the structures of the Bering Sea floor, the results of the modeling of the process of formation of regional fracture zones and of the geomagnetic, geothermal, tectonic, geological, and structural data, we calculated and compiled a kinematic model (with respect to a hot spot reference system) of the northern part of the Pacific Ocean for 21 My B.P.
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Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are widely distributed and a high degree of morphometric and genetic differentiation has been found among both allopatric and parapatric populations. We analysed 145 samples along a contiguous distributional range from the Black Sea to the eastern North Atlantic for mitochondrial and nuclear genetic diversity, and found population structure with boundaries that coincided with transitions between habitat regions. These regions can be characterized by ocean floor topography, and oceanographic features such as surface salinity, productivity and temperature. At the extremes of this range there was evidence for the directional emigration of females. Bi-parentally inherited markers did not show this directional bias in migration, suggesting a different dispersal strategy for males and females at range margins. However, comparative assessment based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear markers indicated that neither sex showed a strong bias for greater dispersal on average. These data imply a mechanism for the evolutionary structuring of populations based on local habitat dependence for both males and females.
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