Book

The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy Into Action

Authors:
... This chapter introduces the baseline of our work, i.e., the concepts related to strategic planning within a corporation and an IT unit. They include the Business Motivation Model [40], Business Model Canvas [60], Balanced Scorecard [61], Corporate and IT governance principles and standards [62], [63], Value Chain, Business Process Management and Notation [64], and Enterprise Architecture [65]. ...
... Kaplan and Norton first proposed the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in the 1990s due to a perceived need for additional measures (other than financial) that affect the survival of a company over time [61]. The BSC is used to formulate, manage, communicate, control the achievement of the company's strategy, and in general, seek alignment of the different units within it by making the strategy actionable at all levels [75]. ...
... Each dimension must respond to specific questions relevant to the fulfillment of the strategy [77]. The following are the recommended perspectives [61], [75], [76] (see Figure 7): ...
Thesis
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The gap between Business and IT strategy development and analysis, in practice and literature, affects how IT uses strategies to define and prioritize resources for IT projects, initiatives, and operations. Closing this gap helps to support future developments better, changes in operation, and new projects and initiatives within the business and IT units, ensuring an analytical base for decision-making. We present a Business/IT goal/early requirements management model that supports i) the prioritization and definition of requirements related to both Business and IT strategies, ii) analyze how these requirements can be associated with new and old systems, and iii) the internal operations of IT/IS. The proposed model and process allow to build a Business and IT/IS Strategic Goals Model that can be analyzed and applied in IT Governance to support Business/IT Functional Alignment. The model was built while performing a case study in a Colombian university applying Design Science Research. The model was later evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods, with experts within the case study organization and external practitioners from the academy and industry. The evaluation results indicate that the model is helpful within the desired context. Interviewees also highlight that the model facilitates a better decision-making process based on parameters and indicators that are hard to negotiate with stakeholders. Such a feature is of utmost importance for strategists. Finally, they point out that the model improves strategy management and could positively impact tactical and operational strategies.
... The first three perspectives of the balanced scorecard usually reveal a gap between the current capabilities of people, IT systems and organizational structure, and what is needed for a breakthrough. In order to bridge the gap, the company needs to invest in retraining of its staff, improvement of information systems and technology, and building a link between organizational structures and day-to-day operations (Kaplan & Norton, 1996). ...
... Summing up their views (Kaplan & Norton, 1996;Brown, 2007;Rampersad, 2003;Friedag & Schmidt, 2002;Olve, Roy & Wetter, 2000;Horvath & Partners, 2004), we came up with the following observations: ...
... The balanced scorecard as an analytical instrument for strategic management was developed by American scholars R.S. Kaplan and D.P. Norton in the early 1990s (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The concept was further elaborated by the original authors (Kaplan & Norton, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2008Kaplan, Norton & Rugelsjoen, 2010) and a number of other economics scholars (Brown, 2007;Friedag & Schmidt, 2002;Horvath & Partners, 2004;Maisel, 1992;Niven, 2014;Olve, Roy & Wetter, 2000;Rampersad, 2003). It has also been successfully tested in practice. ...
Preprint
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Research background-Learning and growth is one of the essential tools that companies ought to use in today's market economy in order to ensure their sustainable development in the long-term and, consequently, to achieve their maximum market value. Purpose-This article is predominantly of theoretical nature and considers the possibility of using the applied strategic analysis technique that was developed by the author to analyze learning and growth in the course of a study of strategic aspects of learning growth. The technique is based on the balanced scorecard system of the same name. Design/methodology/approach-Methodologically, the study is based on Kaplan and Norton's balanced scorecard concept and the author's concept of applied strategic analysis. Findings-It is shown that applied strategic analysis of learning and growth envisages comparative evaluation, diagnostics of deviations and predictions of the values of the balanced scorecard metrics of learning and growth in the dimension of strategic objectives. It includes analysis of the level of motivation in employees, the volume of authroity delegation and whether their personal goals match company goals; analysis of the expansion capacity of information systems, and analysis of the quality of retraining and the creativity level of employees. The applied strategic analysis of learning and growth with comparative evaluation of the metrics of the level of motivation in employees, the volume of delegation to them and of the match between their personal and corporate goals, and concludes with a prediction of the values of factor measures of the quality of retraining and creativity development in employees. Originality/value-The author comes to a conclusion that applied strategic analysis of learning and growth is a new and sufficiently effective instrucment for studying the strategic 2 aspects of companies' performance that is associated with the training and development of their personnel. The instrument provides analytical support to strategic management as regards personnel training and development in today's conditions. Its results might be useful when working out managerial decisions for the company's short-term, medium-term and long-term plans in the area of learning and growth.
... The BSC emerged in the 1990s when researchers questioned traditional financial performance measures. The four-perspective BSC aims to consider short-and long-range goals, reflect financial and non-financial measures, integrate lagging and leading indicators, and provide insights into internal and external performance perspectives [10]. The BSC aims not to view the company exclusively from a retrospective perspective but to prepare the company strategically for future challenges and derive appropriate measures to create future-oriented value and generate long-term competitive advantages [10]. ...
... The four-perspective BSC aims to consider short-and long-range goals, reflect financial and non-financial measures, integrate lagging and leading indicators, and provide insights into internal and external performance perspectives [10]. The BSC aims not to view the company exclusively from a retrospective perspective but to prepare the company strategically for future challenges and derive appropriate measures to create future-oriented value and generate long-term competitive advantages [10]. ...
... The BSC aids business units in creating value for customers from a strategic perspective, improving business processes, building essential capabilities, and enhancing companies' economic effectiveness and competitiveness [10]. The four perspectives of the traditional BSC can be delineated as follows [10]: ...
Article
Challenges related to sustainable development require companies to align their strategies to meet stakeholder interests systematically. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are guiding objectives for sustainable development on an international level up to 2030. This article links the goals of the SDGs to a recognized strategic management tool: the sustainability balanced scorecard (SBSC). So far, few approaches exist in this field. Consequently, this article presents a framework for developing and applying an SBSC that takes an integrative view of the SDGs. For this purpose, the analytic network process (ANP) and the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution are applied (TOPSIS). The article concludes that the solution approach presented has considerable potential to support organizations in systematically integrating the SDGs into their strategy. Also, this article proposes interesting future research directions.
... In January 2021, I distributed the EFQM assessment report for 2020 and gave a presentation to comment on how the quality department was reporting results after 12 months of work (table 11). As the "management review" project had failed, I now focused on the Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan & Norton, 1996) instead. The client organisation had been using BSC for more than a decade, so this felt like the right format for discussing the results. ...
... In September 2021, I distributed a preliminary EFQM assessment report for 2021 and gave a presentation to comment on how the quality department was reporting results after 8 months of work. Building on the experience of the previous action cycle, I continued to focus on the Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan & Norton, 1996). A problem during the previous cycle was how management had decided to leave the BSC framework in favour of a homemade framework without any theoretical foundation, but I decided to make use of the BSC framework while it was still in use. ...
Book
Gamification is a type of mechanism design that has become increasingly popular in recent years. It is a design theory that aims at making the social environment more explicitly game-like, in order to motivate people in the same way as they are motivated by recreational games. The theory in this book builds on ideas on how games like Monopoly, Pac-Man and Minecraft can be useful for understanding behaviour at the strategical, tactical and operational levels of the organisation, and it argues that TQM can be implemented when using these three game models in the context of a strategy known as the bootstrap algorithm.
... Figure 7 shows a causal loop diagram for the infectious cycle of malaria [23]. An The balanced score card (BSC) can also be described as a causal loop diagram as it connects the different dimensions of strategic business performance [25]. While operational management frequently focusses on one performance dimension (usually profit), a BSC includes other dimensions (such as potentials, customer satisfaction, etc.) and shows their interdependencies. ...
... Thus, it reduces complexity and, consequently, uncertainty. The balanced score card (BSC) can also be described as a causal loop diagram as it connects the different dimensions of strategic business performance [25]. While operational management frequently focusses on one performance dimension (usually profit), a BSC includes other dimensions (such as potentials, customer satisfaction, etc.) and shows their interdependencies. ...
Article
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Strategic management is becoming increasingly important for sustainable management in healthcare. The reasons for this can be seen in the increasing complexity, dynamics and uncertainty of the system’s regimes and the resulting need for strategic thinking in a long-term period. The scientific discussion of this issue is the aim of the present analytical framework. The starting point is the definition of the term strategic management itself, followed by a reflection on the requirements resulting from the changes in the political, social and economic value systems of our post-industrial society. In this context, Dynaxity Zone III is used to explain the long-term perspective, the high levels of complexity and uncertainty and the responsibility of strategic management as important parameters. For a practical illustration, we demonstrate two selected applications (German hospital financing systems and development process of implants) and how the implementation of strategic management in the health care system shows success.
... It gives feedback around the internalprocesses and external resultin order to continuously boost the strategic performance of an educational instituion. The BSC balances measures related to the past -financial perspective‖ by an indicators showing current effectiveness and efficiency -customers and internal perspectives‖, as well as determine to the future development -innovation and learning perspective‖ (Kaplan & Norton 1996). ...
... The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of 0.719 indicates that a factor analysis is useful for the present data. The Bartlett's Test of Sphericity also showed that the correlation matrix was not an identity matrix in the table 11. The resultant value of KMO test and Bartlett's test indicate sampling adequacy was found to be significant. ...
Conference Paper
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The main objective of the study focuses on a systematic approach in identifying and presenting the key performance indicators of Pondicherry University and to develop a structural model for performance assessment. The framework can be designed to improve the quality, roadmaps for continuous development of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The performance of (HEIs) are gauged by various indicators. The broad question is defining quality encompassing all aspects are difficult. Hence, Balanced Scorecard (BSC) technique calls for continuous improvement in institutions through benchmarking under four perspectives, namely customer financial, internal process, learning and growth, and financial perspective.The primary data is used in this study. Totally 235respondents were selected through judgment sampling technique and the respondents were faculty in Pondicherry University.The questionnaire was framed under the four perspectives of BSC. Items were developed for the identified variables and they were rated for their influence on the performance of an institution. This study has applied Statistical tools such as reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.This study has presented the balanced scorecard method in the university sector, supported by the faculty and the outcome of implementation is promising and successful with an initial importance of mission and vision. This can improve the educational quality and make advantages in terms of national competitiveness.
... The first stage requires information from the organization and their environment to detect strategic opportunities needed to narrow down any suitable alternative. The second stage focuses on the implementation of the chosen alternative by translating strategy into action (Johnson et al. 2008;Kaplan and Norton 1996). The last stage is the control to what extent the chosen strategy is achieved. ...
... The next element of the adopted model links the strategic objectives with measures by formulating performance targets. This is the fundamental element that improves strategy understanding and allows for its realization (i.e., the activities supporting its implementation) (Kaplan and Norton 1996;Kim et al. 2014;Kremer 2019). Linking measures and targets with rewards strengthen employee willingness to achieve these targets by involving them at a personal level. ...
Article
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that reflect organizational expectation and delineate performance ; (2) a measurement comprising of the metrics used to operationalize performance; (3) a review referring to the evaluation and feedback of performance information; (4) a performance-related reward system, and (5) a "refresh-ing" phase (Franco-Santos and Otley 2018). "Refreshing" of PMS is a crucial element since the environment and the organization itself changes over time and, thus, a constant re-evaluation of the existing performance measures as well as PMS as a whole must be rendered (Schleicher et al. 2018). PMS is an important tool in operations and strategic management since it allows for the integration of sets of met-rics, namely, quantitative and qualitative data. Such data is used to quantify strategic objectives both on the operational and business level, so as to make it possible for decision making to better formulate (and adapt) a business model of efficiency and effectiveness of an organization's actions (Glas et al. 2018). Additionally, it must be flexible to adapt to strategic changes that otherwise may affect performance and overall success.
... Long-term goals can be successfully achieved by converting an organization's vision and strategy into objectives and metrics, creating a framework for communicating this vision and strategy to all employees, and transferring people's abilities, expertise, and know-how throughout the organization. To accomplish this translation, BSC creates a set of metrics that provide managers with a quick and comprehensive perspective of the company [43]. On the other hand, the balanced scorecard has a severe issue in that if a manager implemented a set of metrics purely based on it, the manager would be unable to answer one of the most basic questions of all, namely: what are our competitors doing (from the competitor perspective) [11]? ...
Article
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Background: Performance evaluation has become an essential tool for managers in the banking sector, which is undergoing frequent and rapid changes. It allows banks to maintain a high level of returns and reach their targets while staying competitive. In this context, sustainable performance management has emerged as essential for the banking sector. Indeed, the sustainable management of performance, while increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations, also ensures sustainable measurement based on balanced scorecard practices. Purpose: This study aims to examine the assessment of internal indicators on the balanced scorecard of sustainability in the banking system in North Cyprus, which is one of the sustainable performance evaluation methods. Moreover, it aims to evaluate and reveal the effects of innovation performance, organizational culture, intrapreneurship, and the efficiency and effectiveness of the accounting information system on overall business performance in terms of the performance scorecard to achieve sustainable balanced scorecard systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study (BSC), which focuses on the banking industry in North Cyprus, was motivated by the recent and limited usage of a balanced scorecard. The questionnaire was used to gather data from 350 employees and managers of 21 banks in North Cyprus. Analyses of the collected data were conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM, AMOS 25). Findings: The findings of the research established that organizational culture, intrapreneurship, and accounting information system effectiveness have positive effects on a balanced scorecard and its sub-dimensions. Innovation performance does not affect the balanced scorecard and its sub-dimensions. Originality/Value: In identifying the advantages and contributions in BSC introduction and implementation, the study contributes to the current state of knowledge, enabling organizations which intend to use this tool to adopt it and develop it. This study takes organizations’ culture, innovation and intrapreneurship performance, and development on accounting and information systems into consideration in relation to the implementation process of BSC.
... However, the use of AI capabilities leads to several ethical issues. In addition to the classical methods (cost analysis, process cost, cost orders, absorption cost, analysis of residual income, analysis of return on investment flow) [3] and innovative methods used in accounting (activity-based cost, target cost, cost life cycle, economic added value, and balanced scorecard) [4][5][6][7][8], a reliable AI solution must take into account all these ethical issues [9] to be effective and efficient. ...
Article
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In the contemporary, constantly changing business environment characterized by globalization, openness, and competitiveness, implementing different processes of new information technologies has become a competitive advantage. The field of managerial accounting is a successful example of the implementation of artificial intelligence in operations and the decision-making process based on accounting information. However, ethical issues within managerial accounting and those added through the implementation of artificial intelligence need to be addressed carefully. In this paper, the main objective is to investigate these ethical issues regarding the perception of accountants on the usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness of implementing artificial intelligence in managerial accounting. To investigate these effects, we conducted a study based on a questionnaire among 396 accountants in Romania who use various artificial intelligence solutions in their activities in managerial accounting. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the ethical issues of autonomy, responsibility, and trust significantly influence the perceived usefulness and the performance of artificial intelligence solutions. The research concludes that artificial intelligence solutions solve many ethical issues in managerial accounting. Still, through their design and application, artificial intelligence solutions can create other ethical problems specific to managerial accounting and business ethics. Therefore, despite all the barriers and reluctance of professionals, artificial intelligence will substantially impact managerial accounting in the years to come.
... The most common performance measurement tool by which both financial and non-financial performance can be measured is the balanced scorecard (BSC) developed by Kaplan and Norton (1992). BSC aims to evaluate business performance based on both its financial and non-financial aspects, taking into account strategic planning and management (Kaplan & Norton, 1996) and the notion of sustainable development. Moreover, the BSC can provide an excellent platform that is easily enhanced for the firms to focus on all stakeholders rather than some groups of stakeholders (Deegan, 2001). ...
Article
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The main purposes of this study are (1) to investigate the extent and level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices of the hotel in Thailand, (2) to test the different level of CSR practices of the hotel between CSR-in-process and CSR-after-process, and (3) to examine the effect of CSR practices on hotel's performance measured by balanced scorecard (BSC). This study employs survey data collected from 402 owners and executives of hotels in Thailand. Descriptive analysis, paired sample t-test, correlation matrix, and multiple regression were used to analyze the data from the mailed questionnaire. The results show that both CSR-in-process and CSR-after-process practices of hotels were at a high level. However, the level of CSR-in-process practice of hotels was significantly higher than CSR-after-process practice. Moreover, the study found the positive effect of both CSR-in-process and CSR-after-process practices on hotel performance measured by BSC. The results of sensitivity analysis also show the positive effect of CSR-in-process and CSR-after-process practices on each of all six perspectives of BSC. The findings of this study can point to the reasonable reason why hotels should implement CSR practices into their business strategies. In addition, the study demonstrates that stakeholder theory can explain the effect of CSR practices on corporate performance.
... Así mismo lo es un cuadro de mando integral, esa herramienta de gestión del rendimiento empresarial que vincula una visión a objetivos estratégicos, medidas, metas e iniciativas; equilibra las medidas financieras con las medidas de desempeño y los objetivos relacionados con todas las demás partes de la organización. Todo apoyado en un flujo de información en tiempo real (Kaplan y Norton, 1996). ...
Thesis
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In the present research work, the relationship between the operation of product design and the economy of functionality or economy of services is studied. For this, the research focuses on the design of integrated solid waste management systems as the object of study of a service provision system that is in turn made up of several subsystems. It is a matter of design whether a product is configured in a certain way. The design operation of these systems is carried out with different emphasis depending on the design specialty from which it is approached. Industrial design focuses on consumer goods that can be considered pure goods or product-service systems that tend to the product end of the service continuum. The design of the experience, for its part, has focused on the interfaces through which the user interacts with objects, more specifically it has focused on digital multimedia interfaces. On the other hand, the design of services as an activity born within the field of administration has concentrated on the strategy and processes of service provision.
... After examining some of the studies related to BSC and KPKU (Estuningsari et al., 2013;Ministry of SOEs, 2013;Norton & Kaplan, 1996) and conducting a brainstorming session with representatives from three observed companies who have in-depth knowledge of strategic management and performance management system, it was concluded that in fact all four perspectives in BSC can be said to be equivalent with five perspectives in KPKU. The financial perspective in BSC can be compared with the financial perspective in KPKU. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to identify performance indicators for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) engaged in the mining industry in Indonesia and propose the performance dashboard model. In the increasingly fierce competitive environment, mining companies striving to achieve high performance need to have a comprehensive performance management system. The existence of a good performance management system and availability of real-time information are vital to reinforce strategic management process in an organization. Therefore, a Decision Support System (DSS) which serves to assist decision making process by providing the required data is needed, specifically for top management level as the ones who play direct role in organization's strategic thinking. The study was carried out by conducting case studies on three public listed mining companies in Indonesia. Cross-case analysis was done on strategic management, performance management system, and technology infrastructure conditions in all three companies with deliberation on environmental conditions and government regulations related to mining industry in order to obtain generic performance indicators for mining companies. It was found that even though not all observed companies utilize Balanced Scorecard (BSC) for performance management, the identified indicators can be clustered into financial, customer, internal business process, and learning & growth perspectives as stated in BSC approach by Norton & Kaplan. Consequently, the dashboard model was then developed with BSC framework. The prototype of strategic performance dashboard was constructed considering information, audience, and interface aspects. This prototype was configured for executive-level individuals and compatible with the strategic needs of the company so that the final results of this research can be used to generally monitor the performance of mining companies in Indonesia. Future research could develop this prototype into a unified system taking into account all the features required in the overall performance dashboard architecture.
... Konsep BSC ini terus berkembang sejalan dengan perkembangan dan pengimplementasian dari konsep tersebut. BSC telah mengalami beberapa kali evolusi perkembangan, yaitu mempunyai fungsi: 1) sebagai perbaikan atas sistem pengukuran kinerja para eksekutif, 2) sebagai kerangka perencanaan strategik, dan 3) sebagai basis sistem terpadu pengelolaan kinerja personel (Kaplan dan Norton, 1996). ...
Conference Paper
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Abstrak: Dalam rangka untuk mendukung pelaksanaan reformasi birokrasi yang sedang dilakukan oleh pemerintah saat ini, pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja pegawai sektor publik (Pegawai Negeri Sipil/PNS) menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dan strategis dalam konteks reformasi birokrasi yang sedang dilakukan menuju terwujudnya New Public Management (NPM) di Indonesia. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dan mengevaluasi model pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja pegawai sektor publik di Indonesia dan memberikan rekomendasi dalam upaya untuk perbaikan ke depan, serta untuk tindak lanjut studi mendatang. Pada tahap awal analisis dilakukan deskripsi atas konsep pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja pegawai pada umumnya dan pegawai sektor publik pada khususnya. Selanjutnya berdasarkan studi literatur, artikel ini menganalisis model pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja pegawai sektor publik di Indonesia. Pada fase selanjutnya, dilakukan evaluasi berdasarkan tujuan pengukuran kinerja, metodologi pemecahan masalah, serta atas dasar temuan-temuan empirik. Pada tahap akhir diberikan rekomendasi yang mengidentifikasi berbagai aspek model pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja pegawai yang dapat dilakukan perbaikan. Sesuai regulasi tentang kepegawaian yang berlaku saat ini, pembinaan PNS di Indonesia dilaksanakan berdasarkan pada perpaduan sistem prestasi kerja dan sistem karir yang dititikberatkan pada sistem prestasi kerja. Dengan demikian pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja PNS menjadi penting agar penilaian obyektif terhadap prestasi kerja dapat terwujud. Dalam praktiknya hingga saat ini pengukuran kinerja PNS masih menggunakan Daftar Penilaian Pelaksanaan Pekerjaan Pegawai Negeri Sipil (DP3). Pengukuran kinerja PNS menggunakan DP3 cenderung subyektif, kurang konkrit dan sulit dioperasionalisasikan serta tidak berkorelasi dengan pencapaian kinerja, baik individu maupun organisasi. Selain itu prinsip-prinsip dan tujuan pengukuran kinerja belum sepenuhnya diimplementasikan, sehingga tujuan pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja belum dapat tercapai secara maksimal. Dari kondisi ini selanjutnya diberikan rekomendasi terhadap berbagai aspek model pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja pegawai sektor publik yang dapat dilakukan perbaikan. Penelitian lebih lanjut perlu dilakukan, sehingga dapat diperoleh temuan lapangan yang sifatnya lebih spesifik serta dapat teridentifikasi kasus-kasus khusus yang muncul dalam pengukuran dan manajemen kinerja pegawai sektor publik di Indonesia. Kata kunci: pengukuran kinerja, manajemen kinerja, pegawai sektor publik, Indonesia I. Pendahuluan Awal tahun 1990-an merupakan awal bagi pemikiran baru pengelolaan sektor publik yang pada akhirnya kemudian memunculkan konsep New Public Management (NPM). NPM pada dasarnya didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa organisasi sektor publik harus belajar dari sektor swasta, antara lain dalam hal lebih efisiennya dalam mengalokasikan dan menggunakan sumber-sumber daya yang dimiliki, dalam hal penyediaan produk-produk
... And Snyder (1981) elaborated that when an organization strategy has the element of professionalism, respect, and discussion of differences and similarities, trust ultimately develops among members to share individual competencies into group strengths. The study of Diana (2014) used a balance scorecard approach for dissemination of internalexternal information as a toolkit of sustainable performance proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1996). Pearson (2016) argued that innovative higher educational institutes are the backbone of social enterprises, entrepreneurial activities, and engagement with committed staff, sharing and connecting innovative ideas, and problem solving. ...
Article
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The possibility of accomplishing sustainable objectives is largely connected to the management and flourishing of an organizational system which keeps human capital engaged and committed. Our study investigated the association of inspirational leadership and innovative communication with employee engagement and commitment under the lens of leader member exchange theory. Specifically, we emphasized the mediating role of mutual trust in connection to social sustainability facets. A survey of data from employees in the manufacturing sector of Yunnan, China was utilized to test the hypothesized model. The study findings reported a significant association and came to the conclusion that a leader’s inspirational behavior coupled with innovative communication is a significant predictor of engagement and commitment in socially sustainable organizations. Moreover, mutual trust significantly mediated the relationship of innovative communication and inspirational leadership with employee engagement and commitment reaching the social perspective of sustainability. The current study added to the literature of sustainable organization by pointing out the social dimensions of sustainability.
... In the same line, other models referred to the cost were prescribed such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effective analysis, and cost per impact analysis. The Balanced Scorecard studies enterprises from different perspectives (mission and vision, financial, stakeholderś management, internal organization and so on) to determine their operational effectiveness (Kaplan, & Norton, 1996). This framework was later enhanced to reflect the aims and achievements of social enterprises by releasing the Social Enterprise Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan, & Norton, 2001). ...
Article
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Despite the efforts undertaken by the United Nations to engage all public and private actors towards the achieve- ment of the 2030 Agenda, the contribution of traditional businesses has been proved to be insufficient so far. So- cial enterprises have thus emerged as an efficient alternative to meet social needs through entrepreneurial oppor- tunities. However, the absence of specific tools to appraise the impact of social businesses on the fulfilment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a gap that this research aims to bridge by developing a novel rating sys- tem. A three-round Delphi process has been conducted by two panels of experts to identify the SDG indicators ap- plicable to social enterprises as the main components of a three-tier framework whose weighting factors were ob- tained by using the Best-Worst Method after circulating a questionnaire among 100 participants. The new tool comprises a set of 28 indicators selected by the surveyed experts representing 12 SDGs, where the weight of so- cial facet (65.3%) prevailed over those of other sustainability dimensions. The weighted sum of indicator values enables to assess the impact of enterprise activities on the SDGs. Mondragon Corporation, a leading Spanish co- operative worldwide, has been deemed as a case study for this new system.
... The analysis of the quality and volume of social benefits received by the population is of great importance in social efficiency assessment. These social benefits determine the level of health care, education, and housing conditions of citizens (Donina, 2013 To assess the viability of SVEIs within the IMS, it is advisable to use a management concept based on the well-known Balanced Scorecard, the main idea of which is to divide the strategic goals of the functioning of institutions into several groups (Kaplan & Norton, 1996). In relation to the activities of SVEIs, it is as follows: ...
... When I presented the EFQM assessment results in January, I decided to structure the presentation around similarities between the assessment model and the way the organisation was using the theory and structure of the balanced scorecard (Kaplan & Norton, 1996), using Lascelles and Peacock (1996, chapter 11) for showing how the BSC and EFQM fitted together. By focusing in this direction, I was hoping to stimulate debate in direction of vision and strategy, using the EFQM model as a transitional vehicle for turning the attention to the BSC framework. ...
Chapter
A potentially useful way of trying to improve organisational performance within the public sector is to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) through use of EFQM or CAF models. However, such efforts often fail due to the politics of the TQM implementation process, which is why certain scholars have tried to address the implementation challenge through game theory, like linking EFQM/CAF with the Monopoly board game. Although this approach shows promise, there are still needs for exploring how to use the Monopoly game mechanics more properly. In this study, the emphasis is on trying to make the weights of the EFQM model reflect the dynamics of Monopoly gameplay. The idea is investigated as part of an action research study that has been going on for four years. The main lesson from experimental actions, so far, is the importance of configurating the EFQM Monopoly board so that the formal TQM standards, models and methods align with the political reality of the organisation.
... There is lack of trust in the traditional financial accounting procedures to measure performance as most times it does not reveal the true position of the organisation [11], [15], [16] and [30]. With the exposure of the traditional approach shortcomings, non-financial parameters were introduced [2]. ...
Article
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The study examined the moderating impact of corporate culture on the relationship between green human resource management practices and non-financial corporate performance in deposit money banks of SouthWest , Nigeria. Survey research design was used. The study population was the managerial staff of deposit money banks in the SouthWest of Nigeria with 330 as the sample size. Simple random sampling technique was applied. Structural Equation Modelling-AMOS was used in testing the hypothesis. The findings revealed that corporate culture effectively moderate the relationship between green human resource management practices and non-financial performance in deposit money banks in SouthWest , Nigeria with statistical estimate (ꞵ) .412. Hence, the study recommended that green human resource management should be incorporated into the corporate culture to improve non-financial performance. Corporate culture should also incorporate non-financial indices to evaluate performance of deposit money banks. _________________________________________________________________________________________
... The organization needs to align organisational performance with human resource management practices, which would be shown by organisational output of financial variables (sales growth, goal achievement, good services, productivity) (Osman, Ho & Katou, 2011;Chand & Katou, 2007; ) and nonfinancial variables (management quality, long-term orientation, continuous improvement, workforce quality) (De Waal & Frijns, 2011;Dimba, 2010) and also other outcomes as commitment, quality and flexibility (Guest, 1997). Once a business entity has analyzed its mission, identified all its stakeholders, and defined its goals, it needs a way to measure progress toward those goals (Kaplan & Norton, 1996). This comprises of three specific areas of firm outcome which includes financial performance, product market performance and shareholder return (Richard, Simon & Brut, 2009). ...
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... We consider SPMS a suitable system to be implemented because it is a type of integrated PMS that supports the implementation of company strategy; communicates company"s strategic goals throughout the organization; integrates the top down cascade of goals and objectives with the business units and project teams; motivates and monitors employees; as well as informs the stakeholders on the efficiency and effectiveness of actions and the prospect of success for future actions (Bourne, Neely, Mills & Platts, 2003;Fleming, Chow & Chen, 2009;Ittner, Larcker & Meyer, 2003;Kaplan, R.S. & Norton, 1996;Neely, Adams & Kennerley, 2002). ...
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... In this context, there is a residual approach adopted where the difference between the book value (without accounting for intangibles) and the market value is regarded as the intangible asset value. There are various models being developed under this, which include Tobin's Q [7], the VAIC model [48], the balanced scorecard [49], the Skandia model [50], the Intangible Assets Monitor [23], IC-dVAL [51], and the Value Chain Scorecard [25] among others. Some others also develop the value of intangibles from market-based transactions such as using acquisition prices to estimate intangible capital stocks [52]. ...
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This study aims to examine the impact of intellectual capital and intangible value on the performance of listed non-financial firms in West Africa. The study used the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™) to measure intellectual capital performance (with components as ICE – Intellectual Capital Efficiency an additive measure of the next two metrics, HCE – Human Capital Efficiency, SCE – Structural Capital Efficiency, and CEE – Capital Employed Efficiency), financial ratios to measure intangible value and return on asset to measure performance while controlling for firm-level and macroeconomic variables. Using the panel-corrected standard error regression on 59 firms operating from 2007 to 2018, the study found that VAIC, ICE, HCE, and SCE measures of intellectual capital are pièce de résistance that drive the performance of firms. It is found that the relationship is curvilinear taking the shape of an inverted U. CEE does not drive the performance of firms, and asset tangibility inhibits performance but the investment in intangible fixed assets has a positive insignificant effect on performance. Firm size has a positive impact while financial leverage has a negative impact on performance. Human development does not drive performance but foreign direct investment and economic development do. There are country-specific insights where in Ghana intellectual capital and intangible value have a very strong positive effect on performance, followed by a relatively high impact in Cote D’Ivoire while there is a weak effect in the Nigerian context. The study also explores the effect of other variables like firm size, financial leverage, human development, foreign direct investment and economic development. The findings are useful for policy, practice and for the academic community.
... How to comprehensively measure the comprehensive benefits of a project has become a research hotspot. In this context, the balanced scorecard (BSC), developed by Kaplan and Norton (1996), is utilized as the comprehensive assessment criteria in many project areas, such as construction projects (Gunduz and Al-Naimi, 2021), information technology (IT) projects (Asosheh et al., 2010;Basar, 2020), and coastal urban projects (Huynh et al., 2020). Compared with traditional measurement criteria systems that only include financial criteria, the BSC provides a comprehensive view of PB management (Asosheh et al., 2010;Zhang et al., 2019a). ...
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... (Tunguz & Bien, 2016) Data substantiates operational and strategic decisions and creates a foundation for disruptive products and services. Interesting is to note those authorities like (Mintzberg, 2019), (Kaplan & Norton, 1996) consider mainly employees, finance and customers as asset which should be taken care of and well managed. However, none of these authorities cover data as an asset. ...
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Becoming truly a data-driven organisation is not a purpose in it itself. However, surviving in this digital dynamic rapidly changing world with potential threats of FINTECH’s and being compliant with SDG, it is not the question ‘if’ but ‘when’ to become data-driven. Supported by data-driven innovation it can speed up the process of delivering disruptive and sustainable new services and monetizing data as an asset. This dissertation describes the vital elements of a data-driven organisation such as data-strategy, data-driven innovation, data analytics, decision making with data and the cultural aspects of such an organisation referring to actual academic literature of Anderson, Curley, Marr, Moesgaard Andersen, Treder and research by acclaimed organisations such as AFM, OECD, Capgemini and Gartner. The deductive method was used for the research. The involved interviewees were selected using a Hayes stakeholder analysis. Management level was interviewed regarding the subject of “becoming a leading-edge data-driven organisation and what makes them stay successful”. The results show the current data-driven state of the Dutch Mortgage Industry compared to relevant literature and recommends which steps to undertake to become a collaborative, meaningful, innovative and sustainable leading edge data-driven organisation.
... Figure 1 Illustrates the Operational framework showing the relationship between green employee involvement as a dimension of Green Human Resources Management Practices and non-financial corporate performance measures (Employee Satisfaction, Operational Efficiency and Innovation). Measures - Kaplan and Norton (1996); Kaplan and Norton (2001); Danaei and Hosseini (2013); Gupta and Chopra (2016). ...
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This study is to access the effect of one of the green human resource management practices (green employee involvement) on few non-financial performances of deposit money banks in South-West, Nigeria. The study examined the relationship between green employee involvement and non-financial corporate performance in of deposit money banks of in South-West, Nigeria. The actual problem that necessitated the research is to see if green employee involvement could be used in solving some of the unethical behaviours and attitudes in our deposit money banks especially in South-West, Nigeria. Survey design was used. The study population was the managerial staff of deposit money banks in the South-West of Nigeria with 330 as the sample size depending on Krejcie and Morgan sample determining table. Simple random sampling technique was applied to administer the research instrument. Structural Equation Modelling - AMOS was used in testing the three (3) hypotheses. The findings revealed that there is relationship between green employee involvement and non-financial corporate performance and that green employee involvement positively aid the non-financial performance in of deposit money banks in South-West, Nigeria. Hence, the study recommended that organisations willing to increase their operational efficiency and innovation should embrace green employee involvement.
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The paper discusses the Balanced Scorecard model in one bank that operates on Serbian market. To obtain a more complete image of the bank efficiency in the long term, it is necessary to include non-financial indicators, such as clients' perspective, internal business processes, as well as learning and growth. The results showed that proposed model can be used in banking sector in one transition economy. Balanced Scorecard has been allowed bank's managers to assess all factors in order to implement strategic goals.
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The experience of the pandemic period and recent events have shown us that effective mechanisms are of great importance in the decision-making process and in the stage of their immediate implementation. The formation and implementation of socio-economic policy as a whole system should be aimed at solving these challenges and related problems. It is important that this policy, with the involvement of relevant institutional actors in governance structures, contributes to the long-term sustainability of society, which is of particular importance in the context of today’s global challenge and increased uncertainty.
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Several strategic plans, management performance, tools, and measurements provide an overview of the business intelligence as a standard and how many standards have been achieved in organizational goals. This consideration cannot be separated from the desire to improve the quality of existing management performance and improve business skills to win in local and global business competition. Several elements of vital achievement have been indicated since the start of the business. As time goes by, the number of vital achievement factors has also increased, but it remains an important concern for business players now and in the future. This research seeks to explore and study the development of several methods of measuring performance management, strategic planning, business relationship activities, value-flow improvements, business process maturity, manufacturing control and improvement, critical success factors, enterprise architecture and components, business skills and procedures, business information and technology, value chain, etc. Keywords
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The aim of this paper is to examine specific aspects of banking services, from the founding of the company and the first steps of entrepreneurs, through its growth from micro, small to medium-sized enterprises. The quality of the bank's service is directly related to the positive experience of service users, i.e. it depends on the extent to which the bank manages to solve the problem of the entrepreneur. Furthermore, this quality leads to a deeper connection between the bank and the business client, a personal relationship, based on two-way communication and trust, which contributes to building a loyal two-way relationship. In the Serbian market, we examined the experience of 99 entrepreneurs with the services offered by 26 banks. The products are similar; what makes the difference is the marketing of banking services and the positioning of the bank's brand in the consciousness of the entrepreneur as a bank that cares about the client and is ready to further invest in building trust and loyalty. Our findings indicate that the owners of micro-size firms and entrepreneurs located in Belgrade, have comparatively more concerns about the quality of rendered services.
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The healthcare service system in Indonesia is divided into two levels, first-level healthcare services, and advanced-level healthcare services. One of the first-level healthcare services is the small public health facility or clinics. The healthcare system in Indonesia requires patients to seek treatment at a first-level health care system first and prohibits seeking treatment at an advanced-level healthcare system unless emergency or necessary. However, research on the performance management system for clinics is still very minimal. This research is intended to design a performance management framework using Clinic T in City B, Indonesia, as a case study. The flow of research methodology in this study is started with problem identification, continued with framework selection analysis. The selected framework in this study is the Knowledge-Based Performance Management System (KBPMS). Performance framework for Clinic T and the performance indicators are presented, along with the linkage between performance variables and one of the simple ways to show the clinic’s performance for easier evaluation. The proposed framework is expected to be suitable for other clinics in Indonesia and can be used as a foundation for other clinics in designing their own performance management framework.
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يهدف البحث الحالي بيان اثر القياس والافصاح عن رأس المال الفكري على الابلاغ الماليفي الشركات المساهمة المدرجة في سوق العراق للأوراق المالية، اذ أدى الاهتمام برأس المالالفكري إلى اجراء العديد من الدراسات لقياسه والافصاح عنه في القوائم المالية، لذلك برزتالحاجة الى توفير معلومات تتصف بالملائمة والتمثيل الصادق عن راس المال الفكري تمكن مستخدمي تلك المعلومات من التعرف على كفاءة اسواق راس المال عن طريق تزويد المستخدمينللقوائم المالية بمعلومات افضل، اذ اعتمد البحث على استعمال الاحصاء الوصفي من خلالاستعمال استمارة الاستبيان التي تم توزيعها على عينة من المستثمرين في سوق العراق للأوراقالمالية. وتوصل البحث الى ان رأس المال الفكري يعد الثروة الحقيقية للوحدة الاقتصادية والمحركالرئيسي لأداء الوحدات الاقتصادية ويمثل الجسر بين القيمة السوقية للأسهم وبين القيمة الدفتريةلموجودات الوحدة الاقتصادية. واوصى البحث الى ضرورة الاهتمام برأس المال الفكري ومكوناتهفي الوحدات الاقتصادية، اذ انه يمثل القيمة الحقيقة للوحدات الاقتصادية.
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The work is devoted to the goal-setting study in the management of an industrial enterprise. The aim of the work is to reveal the patterns of hidden management of the of industrial enterprises socio-economic systems with purposeful activity in the quality field with stepwise and linear control laws. The reasons for the emergence of latent goals in the quality field are considered and the prospects for making decisions on their achievement in the current period are noted. The patterns of hidden control of the industrial enterprises socio-economic systems are revealed for linear and stepwise control laws on the basis of system and mathematical analysis methods, as well as the methods of the automated control theory. The identified patterns were verified using the example of the particular enterprise production activity. Two goals in the CJSC “Salyut” quality field were identified and each goal was considered both explicitly and implicitly set before the employees of the enterprise with stepwise and linear control laws. The revealed mechanisms of the system properties parameters interaction of the enterprises activities as well as the obtained regularities of the hidden management of their socio-economic systems made it possible to formulate the approach to purposeful activity in the industrial enterprise quality field consisting seven stages. The proposed approach will allow the enterprise management to reasonably plan goals in the quality field taking into account the hidden management of socio-economic systems. KeywordsQuality goalHidden goalStepwise controlLinear control
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Die Messung und Steuerung nicht-finanzieller Ziele, wie sie besonders häufig im öffentlichen Sektor vorkommen, sind eine Herausforderung für Organisationen, da sie in der gängigen Haushaltssteuerung nicht umfassend abgebildet werden können. Ein Controllinginstrument, das sich damit einen Namen gemacht hat, sowohl finanzielle als auch nicht-finanzielle Organisationsziele und ihre Kennzahlen in sich zu vereinen, ist die von Kaplan und Norton (1996a) konzipierte Balanced Scorecard (BSC). Anhand einer Fallstudie in zwei Bundesländern (A und B) untersucht dieser Beitrag, wie die BSC im Strafvollzug durch Einbezug und Interaktion der Akteure – hier hauptsächlich Anstaltsleitungen, Controllingverantwortliche und BeamtInnen der Justizministerien – über ein reines Kennzahlensystem hinausgehen und als Lernmedium dienen kann. Insbesondere in Land B zeigt sich, dass die Uneindeutigkeit von Kennzahlen (Busco et al. 2017) Anstoß zu Aushandlungen gibt, unter anderem zum Spannungsverhältnis zwischen den Zielen Resozialisierung und Sicherheit – einem Thema, das in der BSC mehr Raum findet, als in anderen Controllinginstrumenten. Über einen Kreislauf von Diskussionen und Interaktionen der Akteure und damit einhergehender Lernprozesse in allen vier Phasen, wird die BSC fortlaufend angepasst und ergänzt. Auf diese Weise bildet sie die einem stetigen Wandel unterliegenden Vorstellungen ab, nach denen das Steuerungssystem und somit in Teilen auch der Strafvollzug als Ganzes fortlaufend rekonstruiert wird.
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Cercetarea de pretutindeni a cercetătorilor economici rezidă în valoarea managementului financiar pentru dezvoltarea întreprinderii şi atingerea obiectivelor financiare a acesteia. Importanța cunoașterii și aplicării managementului financiar reiese și din faptul că, în țările dezvoltate din Occident, acesta este situat adesea pe același plan cu tehnica nouă de vârf, care, oricât de performantă ar fi, eficiența nu poate fi valorificată decât de un management financiar corespunzător și rațional. De asemenea, conform afirmațiilor unor autori cu privire la cunoașterea și aplicarea managementului financiar, cu ajutorul lui se apreciază de ce o țară este bogată sau săracă. Totodată, studiu cu privire la implicațiile managementului financiar în realizarea obiectivelor financiare ale întreprinderii, nu poate rămâne un demers pur teoretic, deoarece, la nivelul întreprinderilor real gestionate, este evident că obținerea eficienței și realizarea obiectivelor sunt prioritare. Obținerea performanțelor economico-financiare, exprimate prin intermediul unor indicatori și indici, este consecința firească a performanțelor manageriale generale și specifice, care sunt realizate prin oportunitatea apelării și utilizării de către managementul financiar a unui anumit instrumentar managerial, determinat prin sistem, metodă sau tehnică de management. Accentul este pus pe caracterul implicativ și previzional al conducerii, reflectat prin sporirea importanței strategiilor de dezvoltare care definesc direcțiile viitoare de evoluție a întreprinderilor și principalele obiective financiare de atins într-o perioadă de timp. În modul acesta se structurează toate elementele manageriale care trebuie să servească eficient dezvoltarea prevăzută și, în consecință, determină managementul financiar să se orienteze spre metodele specifice de planificare, spre anticipare, elaborând strategii de dezvoltare îndrăznețe, dar, totodată, realizabile și eficiente.
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Health care is a set of measures implemented with the aim of preventing the occurrence of diseases in the population, timely diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. Hospital health care is a part of a secondary level of health care. The paper examines the impact of the application of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO standards) on financial performance in private hospitals. The case study was made on the basis of a sample of the private hospitals in the city of Belgrade (the Republic of Serbia).
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The premise of this paper is that Digital Transformation is the most recent and probably the most powerful toolbox in the effort to create value in a company. Digital Transformation is about changing the operating models of companies and consequently the way these companies create and deliver value to their stakeholders. The indexed literature (in total 6427 items in the Web of Science database on January 31 st , 2022) studying the Digital Transformation phenomenon is dominated by the computer sciences and information systems perspective. Therefore, this paper proposes a slightly different and thus new paradigm using the lenses of value creation and change management linking it this way to the strategic management of the company. The purpose of the digital transformation should be value creation and because it is a profound transformation process it is subject to the change management process principles. Through the use of text mining and visual mapping conducted with the help of VOSviewer software version 1.6.17, this paper illustrates the conceptual map of the digital transformation literature and its links to value creation and change management.
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Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals, organizations, and governments. It is one of the basic prerequisites for the overall development of any country in the world. People nowadays obtain awareness on this serious issue and get eager to become a member of environmentalist community. Since the educating people about this issue is crucially important, educators and policy makers should take a step on developing environmental education units at educational institutions. Environmental education will allow learners to discover about human relations with the environment. Thus, the object of environmental education should be focused on the relationship and impact of humanity on the environment.
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As a result of dealing with global or internal crises, the role of the purchasing function usually increases. For example, facing the pandemic health crisis, the purchasing teams were forced to act in an agile way in order to deliver the expected value within the organizations. On the other hand, there are continuous challenges for the purchasing teams, coming from the supply chain, market uncertainties, spending management, potential misalignment, or changing priorities within a company’s objectives. This paper is a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews addressed to eight purchasing executives from the local banking organizations (in Romania). The study focuses on the challenges the purchasing teams have faced in the last period and the potential solutions that were applied to ensure continuity and success within their organizations. It was demonstrated that the complexity of the purchasing teams’ activity has been exacerbated during the health pandemic crisis and there were identified strategies for the potential future crises.
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تواجو ومدات اهاة ااقطفع ااصنفإي ااعراقي ااعدهد ن ااضلوطفت واا تلهرات ااتنف سهة اا ملهة وااخارجهة ي يف يف ااسفإهة نمو تقدهم نتجفت نف سة ي اهاة أإ فل تم ل ي طهفتيف اامفجة التلههر ا زهد ن األاداع واألبتكفر افاتعلم واان و وااتمسهن اا ست ر،ذاك اامفل ااذي جعلو ا تامث إن تقنيات تواجة تطلافت اا تلهرات وتعت د ألجراء ااتمسهنفت إلى ستوهفت قهفس وتقوهم األداء انظرة ش واهة ادالً ن إقتصفرىف إلى مؤشرات تقلهدهة قفصرةإن واكاة اا تلهرات اا واصلة التجدهد، وااتي تتطلب اأن تكون مؤشرات األداء ناثقة ن إستراتهجهة ش واهة وقهفسية تتنفسب ع خصوصهة اهاة األإ فل ااعراقهة. و
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Para mais informações: https://sanrural.ufg.br/ Este documento, intitulado Plano de Segurança de Saneamento Rural (PSSR), compõe a coleção de um exemplar com a metodologia do PSSR e de 48 exemplares elaborados individualmente para cada área rural e/ou tradicional que integra o Projeto Saneamento e Saúde Ambiental em Comunidades Rurais e Tradicionais de Goiás (SanRural). Esse projeto é fruto de uma parceria entre a Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG) e a Fundação Nacional da Saúde (FUNASA), firmada por meio do Termo de Execução Descentralizada (TED n. 05/2017). O PSSR foi concebido com base nas recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) e Ministério da Saúde (MS), nas diretrizes de gestão de riscos, Programa Saneamento Brasil Rural (PSBR) e princípios da política do saneamento. Tem como finalidade avaliar os riscos à saúde das populações expostas as condições de saneamento, coletivos ou individuais, em áreas rurais. Sua área de abrangência contempla os quatros componentes do saneamento, ou seja, questões de abastecimento de água, esgotamento sanitário, manejo dos resíduos sólidos e de drenagem e manejo de águas pluviais. Assim, este documento tem por objetivo apresentar o risco das infraestruturas coletivas de saneamento existentes e o índice de segurança do saneamento básico a nível domiciliar, bem como um plano de melhoria indicando possíveis soluções de saneamento. ---- This document, entitled Rural Sanitation, Water and Waste Security Plan (PSSR), comprises a collection of one copy using the PSSR methodology and 48 copies prepared individually for each rural and/or traditional area that integrates the Sanitation and Environmental Health Project in Rural Communities. and Traditional from Goiás (SanRural). This project is the result of a partnership between the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) and the National Health Foundation (FUNASA), signed through the Decentralized Execution Term (TED n. 05/2017). The PSSR was designed based on the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Health (MS), the risk management guidelines, Programa Saneamento Brasil Rural (PSBR) and principles of sanitation policy. Its purpose is to assess the health risks of populations exposed to sanitation conditions, collective or individual, in rural areas. Its coverage area includes the four components of sanitation, that is, issues of water supply, sanitary sewage, solid waste management and drainage and rainwater management. Thus, this document aims to present the risk of existing collective sanitation infrastructures and the basic sanitation safety index at the household level, as well as an improvement plan indicating possible sanitation solutions.
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Decision making in the dynamic and rapidly evolving world is a major challenge. Decision making essentially involves the generation of a set of alternatives and the choice of the most appropriate alternative for execution by answering the following important questions: what decisions must be made, who will make them, how and what resources will be allocated, and how will the situation will be measured and revisited in the dynamic environment in which the system will be operating. Also, in large organizations such as a multinational business group or a modern nation state, it is imperative to decide what principles, style and guidelines for decision-making are appropriate for the organization. It is essential to decide what structure will govern the process of decision making.
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Amaç: Yükseköğretimde artan küresel rekabet dolayısıyla kurumlar ölçülebilir hedefler koymak amacıyla stratejik yönetim araçlarından Dengeli Puan Kartı (DPK) uygulamalarına yer vermekte ve literatürde konuyla ilgili birçok araştırma bulunmaktadır. Çalışmada, yükseköğretim kurumlarında DPK uygulamalarına derinlemesine bir bakış sunularak, üniversite performans değerlendirmesinde kullanılan kriterlerin derlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Yöntem: Çalışma kapsamında, uluslararası literatürde 2003 yılından itibaren yayınlanmış araştırma makaleleri incelenmekte ve üniversite performansının ölçümünde kullanılan kriterler gruplanarak derlenmektedir. Bulgular: Yapılan araştırma, yükseköğretim kurumları için ortaya konan Dengeli Puan Kartlarının hem kriterler hem de kriterlerin yer aldığı alt boyutlar açısından oldukça farklılaştığını ortaya koymaktadır. Çalışmada, incelenen çalışmalarda yer alan 540 kriter, 104 başlıkta incelenmiş ve bu başlıklar belli temalara göre gruplanarak her bir başlıkta yer alan kriterler detaylı bir biçimde tartışılmıştır. Özgünlük: Çalışmanın yükseköğretimde performans değerlendirmesi ve stratejik planlama üzerine çalışacak gelecek araştırmalara bir kriter havuzu vasıtasıyla yol gösterici olması beklenmektedir.
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Budgetary control systems are worldwide and have been measured as an essential tool for financial planning. The purpose of budgetary control is to make available predict of revenues and expenditures. The general objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of budgetary control and its implementation strategies. The study used a descriptive survey research design aiming at examining the budgetary controls in Public Universities in Nigeria. The entire population for this study consisted of 80 staffs involved in budgetary activities at Kwara State University, Malete. The target population for this study was the entire staffs saddled with the responsibility of budgetary provisions and its implementations. The sample size consists of 80 participants involved in budgetary activities. The "Budgeting System Questionnaire" (BSQ) and the Budget Implementation Strategies Questionnaire (BISQ) contained 10 open ended statements each on Line-Item Budgeting system were, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance relationship of the variables. The findings revealed that there is significant relationship between effective budgetary control mechanism and implementation strategies and there is significant relationship between budgeting system and implementation strategies. The study recommended that all stakeholders involved in the budget process must be carried along to make necessary inputs which would facilitate and ensure that the performances of such budgets are optimal upon their evaluation.
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