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Burned-Out

... Οι πρώτες αναφορές για την επαγγελματική εξουθένωση έγιναν από τον Freudenberger (1974) και την Maslach (1976) με σκοπό να εξηγήσουν ένα σύνδρομο που βασάνιζε εργαζόμενους σε νοσηλευτικά ιδρύματα, καθώς και σε άλλες κοινωνικές υπηρεσίες. Από τότε η έννοια της εξουθένωσης έγινε ευρέως γνωστή και δέχθηκε ιδιαίτερη προσοχή σε ποικιλία επαγγελμάτων, όπως επαγγέλματα κοινωνικών υπηρεσιών (Cherniss, 1995. ...
... ου συνθέτουν την εξουθένωση (Maslach & Jackson, 1984). H Maslach και οι συνεργάτες της, βασισμένοι σε μία σειρά από μελέτες, όρισαν την εξουθένωση ως «ένα ψυχολογικό σύνδρομο συναισθηματικής εξάντλησης, αποπροσωποποίησης και μειωμένης επίτευξης που μπορεί να συμβεί σε άτομα που εργάζονται με άλλους σε κάποια δραστηριότητα» (Leiter & Schaufeli, 1996. Maslach, 1976, 1982. Maslach & Jackson, 1981. Maslach et al., 1996. Η συναισθηματική εξάντληση αποτελεί το κεντρικό χαρακτηριστικό της εξουθένωσης. Η εξάντληση χαρακτηρίζεται από συναισθήματα υπερβολικής κόπωσης από τη συμμετοχή σε μια δραστηριότητα και αποτελεί κλασσικό στρεσογόνο αποτέλεσμα το οποίο εμφανίζεται πιο συχνά και έντονα κυρίως σε εργασι ...
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Σκοπός της ανασκόπησης είναι η συνοπτική αναγνώριση και κατανόηση του συνδρόμου της αθλητικής εξουθένωσης. Για την αναγνώριση των χαρακτηριστικών και την ανάπτυξη των θεωρητικών μοντέλων της αθλητικής εξουθένωσης, καθοριστικό ρόλο έπαιξαν: (α) η βασική της διάκριση από έννοιες όπως, η υπερβολική προπόνηση, η στασιμότητα, η έλλειψη κινήτρων, το υπερβολικό στρες, η δέσμευση και η απομάκρυνση·οι οποίες, ωστόσο, αποτελούν πιθανούς προάγγελους ή συνέπειές της και (β) η εξέταση ομοιοτήτων και διαφορών των χαρακτηριστικών της εξουθένωσης μεταξύ διαφορετικών πληθυσμών. Ο πιο αποδεκτός ορισμός της αθλητικής εξουθένωσης περιλαμβάνει: τη συναισθηματική / σωματική εξάντληση, την αθλητική υποτίμηση και τη μειωμένη επίτευξη, ενώ, το πιο πλήρες μοντέλο εξήγησης της εξουθένωσης θεωρείται το μοντέλο «επένδυσης-παγίδευσης» (Raedeke, 1997). Η αυξημένη ενασχόληση των ερευνητών με την πολυδιάστατη έννοια της αθλητικής εξουθένωσης και ο πρόσφατος ψυχομετρικός έλεγχος της ελληνικής έκδοσης του Ερωτηματολογίου της Αθλητικής Εξουθένωσης (Athlete Burnout Questionnaire) αποτελεί έναυσμα για την περαιτέρω διερεύνηση και αξιολόγηση της εξουθένωσης των Ελλήνων αθλητών.
... L a investigación psicosocial sobre el síndrome de estar quemado o síndrome de Burnout (SBO) tiene su origen en los trabajos de Maslach (1976) y Maslach y Jackson (1982), que van a utilizar el concepto para describir y analizar el proceso de deterioro psicosociológico, característico de aquellos grupos profesionales cuyo entorno de trabajo diario está definido por una relación directa con personas que requieren ayuda o atención especial. El SBO es definido por Maslach (2003) como un proceso tridimensional en el cual se da la presencia simultánea de una baja realización personal (RP), altos niveles de agotamiento emocional (AE) y despersonalización (DP). ...
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El objetivo del artículo es determinar las variables asociadas al desarrollo del síndrome de Burnout (SBO) en funcionarios de un centro penitenciario de Arica, Chile. Se diseñó un estudio transversal de carácter ex post facto retrospectivo, con alcance correlacional, y una muestra de 290 personas. Se aplicaron criterios normativos de Gil-Monte y Peiró para determinar los niveles SBO, encontrándose que 164 participantes (56.6%), 124 (42.8%) y 194 (66.9%) experimentaron altos niveles de SBO en realización personal, agotamiento emocional y despersonalización, con una prevalencia de SBO de 21,4%. Los modelos de regresión permiten explicar las puntuaciones para las tres dimensiones del SBO a partir de las variables independientes.
... Numerous academic studies have been conducted on concept of burnout after being first time described by Freudenberger. For example, one of the major and systematic academic studies on burnout was carried out by Maslach (1976Maslach ( , 1978aMaslach ( , 1978b and his friends (1977, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1988, 2001,). In the aforementioned studies, burnout syndrome was basically examined in three dimensions same as the dimensions of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. ...
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There is no doubt that the development and advancement of technology provides numerous benefits for almost every sector. For example, the importance of the contributions of technology to transportation, communication, construction of buildings and production in tourism sector is very high. Likewise, when we think about the health sector, all of the innovations such as advanced machines and monitoring devices, surgical operations, medicines and prostheses are among the blessings of technology. However, with the development of technology many new or rather old, yet discovered diseases have started to appear: “burnout syndrome”, which became more well-known especially after 1970s, is only one of these diseases. The aforementioned disease is seen mostly in jobs where stress is intense. Therefore, stress and burnout syndrome appear as two concepts closely related to each other. Stress in the tourism sector is also inevitable because the human factor plays the biggest role as both the consumer and producer roles. Employees in the tourism sector (especially in accommodation establishments) have to deal with some difficulties such as long working hours, heavy working conditions, labor intensive, salaries and seasonal job arising from the unique characteristics of tourism. Employees also have to deal with the stress of facing the consumers who constantly want to be satisfied during the service. Such stresses encountered by employees make them subdued, tired, fed up, exhausted, and therefore cause them to experience burnout syndrome. So, burnout syndrome can be defined briefly as emotional, mental and physical exhaustion caused by intense stress.
... Nesse sentido, desde a sua descoberta como fenómeno psicológico por Freudenberger (1974) e Maslach (1976), a SB foi reconhecida como um importante problema social e individual, relacionado ao estresse profissional crónico. Esses dois autores marcam as duas perspectivas que, desde o início, orientaram o estudo e a delimitar;áo conceitual da SB: a perspectiva clínica e a perspectiva psicossocial. ...
... TUkenmiglikle ilgili ilk galrgmalar bir sa!hk hizmetleri kurulugunda psikolog olarak galtgan Freudenberger (1975) ve bir sosyal psikolog olan ve ig yerlerinde duygulart ara5trran Maslach (1976) tarafrndan yaprlmrgrr (Maslach vd., 2001). Ttikenmiglik kavramt insanlarla ilgili iglerde galt5anlar arastnda goritlen enerji tLikenmesi, gug kaybr ve kargrlanmayan istekler sonucu duygusal tilkenme ile sonuglanan mesleksel bir stres olarak tanrmlanrr, Bu tanrm birbirinden ba$tmsrzltk olarak Herbert Freudenberger (1974) ve Christina Maslach (I976) tarafrndan yaprlmrgtrr (Borritz, 2006). ...
... L a investigación sobre el síndrome de burnout ha tenido diferentes giros desde el momento en que Freudenberger (1974) y Maslach (1976) introdujeron el término. En general, se entiende como el resultado de la exposición a estrés crónico laboral unido al uso de estrategias poco eficaces para afrontarlo (Martínez Pérez, 2010). ...
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The objective of this study was to collect evidence of the psychometric properties of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) in a sample of 359 university students: 152 Colombians and 207 Spaniards. Factorial analysis confirmed the structure of the test and the invariance of the model in the two samples; reliability coefficients were obtained for each dimension, along with evidence of discriminating validity on the Flourishing Scale. The results showed that the model adjusted well to both samples, at an acceptable level. Strict factorial invariance and reliability indexes greater than 0.8 were reached. Moderate inverse correlations were obtained with regard to the construct of state of flux. Th e results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the construct and the discriminant, of MBI-SS as well as stability in both samples. Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue recoger evidencia de las propiedades psicométricas del Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) en una muestra de 359 estudian-tes universitarios, 152 colombianos y 207 españoles. Se realizó un análisis factorial confi rmatorio a fi n de comprobar la estructura de la prueba y la invarianza del modelo entre las dos muestras, igualmente se obtuvieron los coeficientes de confi abilidad de cada dimensión y se obtuvo evidencia de validez discriminante frente a una medida de Flousrishing. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo se ajustó bien en ambas muestras, con un nivel aceptable de parsimonia. Se alcanzó el nivel de invarianza factorial estricta e índices de fi abilidad superiores a 0.8. Se obtuvieron correlaciones inversas moderadas frente al constructo estado de flujo. Los resultados evidencian la fiabilidad y validez, del constructo y discriminante, de la MBI-SS así como su estabilidad en ambas muestras. Palabras clave: validez de pruebas; instrumentos de evaluación; estrés; estudiantes; educación superior.
... Following the deep interest towards his study, Freudenberger (1975) published his second article titled "The Staff Burnout Syndrome in Alternative Institutions". In 1976, Maslach, a social psychologist who had been studying emotions in the work environment, published an article titled "Burned-out", which contributed significantly to the concept of burnout that Freudenberger had started to examine (Maslach, 1976). Although there are texts in the literature in that these two writers used the concept of burnout for the first time, the concept of burnout was first explored in the book "A Burnt-out Case" written in 1960 and published in 1961 by English story and novel writer Graham Greene (1961). ...
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The aim of this study is to determine social loafing perceptions of employees in the same organisational climate related to co-workers and is to determine its effects on employees' feeling of burnout. Relying on this goal, data has been obtained by face-to-face survey method from 108 employees who work in a public institution in Zonguldak Province. The results of surveys measuring the burnout by social loafing behaviour perception have been evaluated by SPSS program and the data obtained has been analysed via correlation, simple linear regression, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H methods. As a result of the analysis, a positive and significant relationship has been determined between burnout and social loafing perception, and it has been determined that a oneunit increase in social loafing behaviour that employees perceive caused an increase of 0.379-unit on burnout feeling.
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This dissertation explores the creation, distribution, and use of five personality tests found extensively in corporate America from the mid-1940s to the end of the 20th century. The management techniques in which these tests—the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, California Psychological Inventory, Thematic Apperception Test, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Stanford Shyness Survey—were embedded helped create a corporate environment that seemed at once more considerate of individual differences in personality and behavior and yet somehow also more constraining in the ways people were encouraged to live and work both inside and outside the office. In light of this tension, the problem my dissertation seeks to answer is: how and why did many come to see self-discovery and self-actualization as best achieved through self-management, self-discipline, and, in many cases, the narrowing of the possibilities of the self? This dissertation argues that the use of personality tests and self-assessments—alongside the rise of both humanistic psychology and new forms of neoliberal capitalism—carried with it a very particular rhetoric of personal freedom and individual liberation, one that had in fact been carefully crafted by psychologists and corporate managers in order to predict and control the behavior of the groups under their care. On top of this, self-assessments anchored a sociotechnical system that looked as if it illuminated unique parts of the individual, but which was in fact made up of routinized techniques for creating more efficient, productive, and perhaps more importantly, more profitable workers. By following these five tests from conception to development to their eventual use in corporate management, the power and influence of overlapping networks of researchers, universities, funding sources, publishers, and companies are seen in greater relief, and the outsized influence of Silicon Valley on postwar social scientific knowledge and management practice is made evident.
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Linda and Torsten Heinemann investigate German and American academic and popular media sources in order to analyse different conceptions of burnout in these cultures. Tracing a development that begins with Freudenberger’s introduction of the term and that ends with the present day, they show that a surge in media interest, especially in the past decade, is noticeable in Germany. In the United States, by contrast, the term remains confined to specific professions, and is not generally considered a culturally all-embracing condition. Torsten and Linda Heinemann also explore the specific nature of public discussions of burnout, and draw attention to the comparatively individualistic conception of the disease in the United States, which contrasts with what the German media present as predominantly a social crisis in the age of neoliberalism.
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