Article

The effect of intergenerational programs on the mental health of elderly adults

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Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of an intergenerational program on elderly persons' symptoms of depressive mood and in improving their sense of coherence, which is an element for successful coping with stressors. Method: We evaluated an intervention research project (Research of Productivity by Intergenerational Sympathy [REPRINTS]), in which volunteers >65 years old read picture books to children in a school setting. The intervention group (REPRINTS) was recruited through intensive weekly training seminars for three months. The no-contact control group members were also recreated to participate in health checks and surveys for data collection purposes. Eventually, 26 participants in the intervention group and 54 in the control group were included for data analysis. Results: The age or gender was not significantly different between the intervention and control groups. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA shows a time × group significant interaction effects. Analyses of the simple main effects showed that sense of meaningfulness significantly increased for members of the intervention group at all terms, with no changes in the control group over time. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that participation in the intergenerational program was associated with a sense of manageability which was also significantly related to depressive mood. Conclusion: Intergenerational programs could serve as key health promoters among elderly people by decreasing the risk of social isolation and loneliness due to the greater sense of meaningfulness. However, given our limited sample size, generalizability was restricted and studies with larger cohorts are required to further validate our findings.

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... Nine quantitative studies considered depression (six non-randomised controlled trials and three pre-and post-intervention studies). Four studies found that IE reduced depression scores: at the 3-month time point, but only in the more depressed older adult subgroup (Kamei et al., 2011); at 8-month post-intervention evaluation (Hernandez and Gonzalez, 2008); at 1-year post-test (Barbosa et al., 2020); and at 2-year post-test, mediated by the sense of meaningfulness scale (indirect effect; Murayama et al., 2015). One study showed a decrease of 16.6% in perceived depression reported at the 8-month follow-up (Newman et al., 1995), inconsistent with a smaller increase at the 6-month post-test. ...
... Research of Productivity by Intergenerational Sympathy (REPRINTS) in Japan demonstrate that long-term, effective intergenerational initiatives do not have to be high-cost and can result in positive outcomes for both the older adults and their communities (e.g. Fried et al., 2004;Murayama et al., 2015). This indicates that implementing even long-term intergenerational interventions that are purely voluntary is feasible. ...
... In the current review, generative desire was a common feature among different intergenerational programmes and an important factor contributing to improvements in participants' psychological wellbeing (e.g.,Ehlman et al., 2014;Sanders et al., 2013). This conclusion is consistent withErikson's (1950) hypothesis that older adults need to be generative for their health and wellbeing and was supported in several studies on the relationship between generativity or a sense of meaningfulness and health outcomes (e.g.,Hofer et al., 2014; Landes et al., 2014;Murayama et al., 2015). However, generative activities may only bring health benefits when those actions are valued and respected by others(Cheng, 2009). ...
Article
Background: Intergenerational engagement could benefit health and wellbeing within an ageing population. This systematic review evaluated the impacts of intergenerational engagement on cognitive, social, and health outcomes in healthy older adults and older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Research Design and Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were undertaken, with records filtered according to pre-registered criteria. Study quality was formally assessed, and a narrative synthesis of the findings produced. Results: Forty-four studies were reviewed. Regarding quantitative evidence, 4 out of 8 studies found significant intergenerational engagement effects on cognitive outcomes, 15 of 24 on social outcomes, and 21 of 31 on health-related outcomes. Qualitative evidence was also important for understanding perceived impacts and experiences of intergenerational programmes. Only 11 studies fully met criteria for high quality research, of which the majority focused on social outcomes. Discussion and Implications: There are a range of potential benefits of intergenerational engagement, most notably regarding anxiety, generativity, cross-age attitudes, and physical activity. However, heterogeneity in programme context, sample design, dosage, and duration indicate that more research is required to enable wider implementation and generalisability. Scientific rigour in both quantitative and qualitative research should also be employed as far as possible, to provide the highest quality evidence.
... The only intergenerational program related to the SOC (primary outcome) we found was reported in a follow-up study with a control group by Murayama et al. (2015). The intervention educated and engaged senior volunteers in picture book reading projects with preschool and school-aged children in educational settings. ...
... A total of four (Arola et al., 2018;Hourzad et al., 2018;Musavinasab et al., 2016;Tan et al., 2016) of the studies (three RCTs and one controlled clinical trial) fulfilled four of the five salutogenic criteria and all reported a significant effect on the SOC from before to after intervention. The controlled clinical trial (Murayama et al., 2015) fulfilled two of the criteria and showed effect after two years. However, the sample size was limited after two years and the design was weaker. ...
... A total of 24 studies report significant improvement in the SOC from before to after intervention. Of these, eight are RCTs (Arola et al., 2018;Arvidsdotter et al., 2015;Forsberg et al., 2010;Hourzad et al., 2018) (Kekäläinen et al., 2018;Langeland et al., 2006;Malm et al., 2018;Nammontri et al., 2013), nine follow-up studies with control group or another intervention group (Bronikowski and Bronikowska, 2009;Dehnavi et al., 2019;Kähönen et al., 2012;Merakou et al., 2019;Murayama et al., 2015;Musavinasab et al., 2016;Norrbrink Budh et al., 2006;Odajima et al., 2017;Sarid et al., 2012), and seven follow-up studies without a control group (Edwards, 2006;Fagermoen et al., 2015;Foureur et al., 2013;Gunnarsson and Bjorklund, 2013;Højdahl et al., 2015;Vastamäki et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of the effectiveness of programs and interventions that aim to strengthen the sense of coherence (SOC) throughout the life span. The authors report on more than 40 studies investigating the effectiveness of interventions to strengthen the SOC. They structure and summarize findings for young people, employed and unemployed adults, health professionals, people with disabilities, people with psychosomatic and mental health problems, people with physical problems, hospital patients, and older people. Even though most studies are limited to short-term pre-test and post-test study designs, a few studies have investigated the effects of intervention for longer follow-up periods of up to several months and even more than one year.
... Chronic comorbidities, age-related cognitive impairment, limitation and restriction may contribute to frailty, affecting their functional status and quality of life (QoL) (Teater, 2016). With evolving trends in family patterns and community structure, older adults present an increased risk of social isolation, which may lead to depression (Murayama et al., 2014;Vitman et al., 2014). Depression has a significant impact on psychological health and QoL (Murayama et al., 2014). ...
... With evolving trends in family patterns and community structure, older adults present an increased risk of social isolation, which may lead to depression (Murayama et al., 2014;Vitman et al., 2014). Depression has a significant impact on psychological health and QoL (Murayama et al., 2014). ...
... Many countries have developed IGP to address a variety of social issues brought about by population ageing. These programmes focus on promoting intergenerational social contact (Mosor et al., 2019), supporting lifelong learning programmes (Chippendale & Boltz, 2015;Murayama et al., 2014) and facilitating intellectual and/or physical activities for older adults such as reading (Isaki & Harmon, 2015;Murayama et al., 2014), art and singing (Anderson et al., 2017). IGP contribute to individual capacity development and more inclusive societies; however, observatory projects demonstrated that the intergenerational landscape in respect of policy and practice is highly diversified, and IGP develops for a variety of reasons at different speeds, widths and depths in the European countries and beyond (Hatton-Yeo, 2007). ...
Article
Population ageing resulting from declining fertility and extended life expectancy has been occurring rapidly throughout the world. Older adults are faced with multiple physical, psychological and social changes that challenge their sense of self and capacity for healthy ageing. Intergenerational programmes (IGP) in communities have been developed to address a variety of social issues brought about by the population ageing. These programmes focus on promoting intergenerational social contact, supporting educational programmes and facilitating intellectual and/or physical activities in the older adults. This study intended to explore the perception of community‐dwelling older adults towards an IGP in a senior day care centre in Singapore. Purposive sampling was adopted to recruit 15 participants for the study. Individual face‐to‐face interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. Interviews were audio‐taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was carried out. Four themes and 13 sub‐themes emerged: (1) IGP enhances memory and strength; (2) social interaction between older adults and younger generation; (3) emotional responses to IGP; and (4) attitudes and perception towards the younger generation. The current study illustrated the dynamic social interaction between older adults and the younger generation, as well as the perceived benefits of the IGP. The relationship formed between the two generations entailed companionship, mutual care, trust and affection. Participation in the IGP provided the older adults an opportunity for active engagement in society and development. Continuous effort must be put in to ensure continuity of integration and empowerment of older adults, including the removal of obstacles and barriers that exclude or discriminate against them. The study findings will help facilitate the customisation of IGP to meet the needs of the older adults. With a well‐planned and structured IGP, significant physical, emotional and psychosocial outcomes could benefit the older adults and the younger generation.
... The games of the workshops had benefits like stimulating memory abilities, attention, self-monitor and to perform goal-directed behavior. There are many researches in line with this result, that prove the effectiveness SGs to stimulate cognitive abilities of PwD (Chi et al., 2017;Zygouris et al., 2017;Hicks et al., 2016;Murayama et al., 2015;Robert et al., 2014). ...
... This survey also underlines the enhancement of older people's confidence, self-esteem, and social skills, enables them to learn about others and feel connected to their community. Programs that bring together different generations can serve as key health promoters among older people by decreasing loneliness due to the greater sense of meaningfulness (Murayama et al., 2015). ...
... Intergenerational programs have been advocated as a means of promoting health and wellbeing among both the young and the old [11,12]. Given the significance of increasing physical activity, enhancing mental health, and reducing ageism, this study proposes to take a novel and innovative approach where both older adults and the young generation are provided an opportunity to engage in the mind-body exercise program together. ...
... Given the significance of increasing physical activity, enhancing mental health, and reducing ageism, this study proposes to take a novel and innovative approach where both older adults and the young generation are provided an opportunity to engage in the mind-body exercise program together. Prior studies have shown that intergenerational programs help decrease the risk of social isolation and loneliness for older adults and provide a greater sense of meaning [11,12]. From younger participants' perspectives, intergenerational programs allow adolescents and young adults to create meaningful relationships with older adults, develop interpersonal skills, and value their community engagement [13,14]. ...
Article
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Taekwondo is a modernized martial art that includes various combinations of hand and kicking techniques and core values of Taekwondo philosophy such as courtesy, mutual respect, and self-control. Physical inactivity is highly prevalent among older adults and is a major contributor to health-related problems. Intergenerational physical activity programs are used as an effective tool to make a positive connection between generations and provide additional health benefits for both generations. This review study aimed to examine the theories of intergenerational physical activity programs and propose the Intergenerational Taekwondo Program (ITP). Various theories such as the transtheoretical model, contact theory, social capital theory, situated learning theory, human development theory, personality theory, and whole-person wellness model have been adopted in intergenerational physical activity programs. Our review suggests that to develop the Intergenerational Taekwondo Program, instructors should (1) establishing common goals, (2) understand differences in physical and mental abilities, and (3) offer incentives to encourage participants in physical activity programs. The proposed ITP program has the potential to not just provide unique inherent values and improving physical functions, but also to form generational connections.
... These nine studies were identified based on a comprehensive search on PubMed and CINAHL databases using the keywords 'elderly', 'experimental studies' and 'sense of coherence.' While five studies evaluated on health education interventions related to self-management [43][44][45][46][47], three studies focused on exercise training interventions [48][49][50] and one study evaluated an intergenerational program involving older adults to read picture books to children [51]. Among the five health education interventions, four of them yielded promising findings in enhancing SOC of older adults [43][44][45]47]. ...
... Significant positive SOC change was reported for the 36-week resistance training intervention only [49]. As for the intervention on intergenerational program, only the meaningfulness component increased significantly for older adults whom read picture books to children [51]. ...
Chapter
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Salutogenesis introduces a paradigm that requires a perceptual change towards what creates health and how health can be facilitated. Removing the lens of pathogenesis, aging is an achievement to be embraced and older people are valued as assets for their wealth of experiences, resources, skills and knowledge. From the perspectives of older adults, the concept of healthy aging is multidimensional, comprising bio-psycho-social-spiritual health. Evidence shows that sense of coherence via resistance resources promotes health outcomes among older adults. However, very few works have attempted to operationalise the salutogenic theory to promote healthy aging among older community dwellers. This chapter provides a detailed description of the Salutogenic Healthy Aging Program Embracement (SHAPE) intervention for senior-only household dwellers. SHAPE represents an application of the salutogenic concepts: sense of coherence and resistance resources. SHAPE is an integrative person-centric multi-dimensional health resource program that employs an asset-based insight-oriented approach. Illustration of examples in which how the salutogenic concepts were operationalised in developing the SHAPE intervention approach, its content, activities and the conduction of the intervention are presented.
... En los diferentes estudios que se han llevado a cabo se han detectado diversos efectos positivos de los PI en personas mayores y en niños y adolescentes. Algunos de estos efectos en personas mayores son un mayor bienestar físico y mental [13][14][15] , una mejora en las capacidades cognitivas 16 , un aumento del soporte social y un descenso de los sentimientos de soledad 17,18 . Algunos de los beneficios detectados en niños y en adolescentes son una disminución de las opiniones estereotipadas sobre personas mayores [19][20][21] , mejoras en la motivación académica 22 y un mayor desarrollo de las habilidades sociales 23 . ...
... Las personas mayores provenientes del hospital de día mejoraron, además, su nivel de soporte social.En concordancia con nuestros resultados, estudios previos detectaron el efecto positivo de los PI en el soporte social, la calidad de vida y la salud autopercibida 13,15,32 en personas mayores. Sin embargo, no se detectaron efectos estadísticamente significativos del PI sobre la soledad, en contraste con la mayoría de estudios previos17,18 , ni tampoco del PI sobre los síntomas de depresión o de ansiedad, asociaciones que cuentan con una evidencia más limitada11,12 .Es posible que el efecto del PI en los sentimientos de soledad y los síntomas de depresión y de ansiedad en personas mayores fuera mayor si los participantes hubieran sido seleccionados a4 ...
Article
Resumen Objetivo El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la efectividad del proyecto CRENCO, que se desarrolló durante la pandemia por COVID-19, incluyendo actividades intergeneracionales compartidas por alumnos de primaria y secundaria y personas mayores en Cataluña. Se evalúa su efecto en el bienestar de las personas mayores y en los estereotipos negativos sobre las personas mayores de los alumnos. Métodos Se llevaron a cabo tres intervenciones en las que participaron 32 personas mayores (9 usuarios de centros para mayores y 23 de un hospital de día), 99 alumnos de primaria y 56 alumnos de secundaria. Los participantes fueron entrevistados antes y después de las intervenciones. A través de modelos lineales multinivel de efectos aleatorios para medidas repetidas, se evaluaron, en personas mayores, cambios en sentimientos de soledad, soporte social, sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva, salud autopercibida y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. En alumnos de primaria y secundaria se evaluaron cambios en estereotipos edadistas. Resultados Las personas mayores reportaron una mejor calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y una mejor salud autopercibida al finalizar las intervenciones. Los usuarios del hospital de día reportaron también una mejora en el soporte social. Los alumnos de primaria mejoraron sus estereotipos edadistas, lo cual no sucedió en estudiantes de secundaria. Conclusiones Los resultados del presente estudio contribuyen a subrayar la importancia de programas intergeneracionales como el que plantea CRENCO, capaces de mejorar el bienestar y aportar una visión más realista de las personas mayores. Nuestros resultados sugieren que estos proyectos deben ser implantados durante la infancia con el objetivo de impedir la proliferación de los estereotipos edadistas en las posteriores etapas vitales.
... The games of the workshops had benefits like stimulating memory abilities, attention, self-monitor and to perform goal-directed behavior. There are many researches in line with this result, that prove the effectiveness SGs to stimulate cognitive abilities of PwD (Chi et al., 2017;Zygouris et al., 2017;Hicks et al., 2016;Murayama et al., 2015;Robert et al., 2014). ...
... This survey also underlines the enhancement of older people's confidence, self-esteem, and social skills, enables them to learn about others and feel connected to their community. Programs that bring together different generations can serve as key health promoters among older people by decreasing loneliness due to the greater sense of meaningfulness (Murayama et al., 2015). ...
Article
People with dementia (PwD) are often excluded from intergenerational social activities due to stigmatization. The generation gap is constantly widening while young people are losing their interest to participate in volunteering actions concerning elderly people. The Erasmus+ funded “Bridge” program is a 3 year pan‐European initiative that aims to develop a set of prototypes Serious Games (SGs) (physical, digital or phygital) acting on cognitive and behavioral symptoms of dementia, involving also younger and older people. A Methodological Guide related to Bridge's workshops methodology, key points for prototype SGs and e‐platform was developed. This step was followed by Co‐Creation Workshops in 3 countries, development of working games prototypes and finalization of 8 selected games. A second Implementation of Workshops will be organized in each country in order to figure out these results. The Bridge web‐platform (https://projectbridge.eu/), containing MOOCs on the methodology of the game‐creation workshops and the final 8 selected prototypes games will be the final result. In the Methodological Guide, the Bridge workshops and the game co‐design process is defined. In Greece (Alzheimer Hellas), Italy (Anziani e non solo) and Romania (Asociatia Habilitas), 24 PwD co‐designed and played several games in collaboration with 6 game‐designers, 16 healthcare professionals, 7 caregivers and 21 young volunteers. After the implementation of the workshops 11 prototypes of the games have been developed. The team project decided which of them can be the final 8 games for the Bridge platform, which have been refined through and digitalized. The final 8 prototypes games are: Next destination, flea market, find the word, bird‐watching, emotions, the directors, blooming flowers, speciatite. The intergenerational workshops, in which PwD and young people create and use SGs, can narrow the gap between generations, decrease the stigma of dementia and promote civic participation of young people by developing the role of volunteering for social inclusion. This intervention and the final result of this program can create awareness and motivation about importance and possibilities of SGs as a tool for improving the quality of life of older people and their families and improve cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions of PwD.
... Previous studies have shown a wide spectrum of beneficial effects of these programs. In older populations, intergenerational programs improved physical and mental health, and increased social activities [8][9][10][11]. Children and young people also benefited from these programs through improvements in their academic formation, positive perception of the elderly, and attitudes toward community activities [12][13][14]. Moreover, studies show that creating intergenerational communities with both place-based and program-based support can contribute to increase social relationships across generations, thereby better addressing agingrelated societal challenges [15]. ...
... In terms of improvements in psychological health, studies reported the positive influences of intergenerational interactions on generativity in aging [29,30], and associations with reduced depression among older populations [27]. Murayama et al. [10] found that the participation in the intervention research project REPRINTS was associated with a sense of manageability, which was also significantly related to depressive mood. ...
Article
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Over the last decades, social isolation and loneliness among older adults have given rise to an increased interest in the study of intergenerational relationships. Intergenerational programs provide a great opportunity for older adults to connect with people of other generations. Many studies have reported the beneficial effects of these programs, improving the mental and physical health of the elderly and contributing to better academic formation and social skills in children. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits, satisfaction, and limitations of the intergenerational interactions derived from the performance of face-to-face activities, such as daily and healthcare activities, educational, cultural and leisure activities, and physical or sport activities. Participants were subjects living in Spain of any age (grouped into three age groups: <22, 22–40, and >40 years old) and from different social groups who completed an electronic 88-item questionnaire. The analysis of sociodemographic variables of the survey respondents revealed that people aged 40 or more, with personal autonomy, single or married, and living with a partner and/or other relative, and not retired, performed face-to-face activities with people of other generations with a significantly higher frequency than the rest of the groups for each variable. Most participants who participated in intergenerational face-to-face activities reported benefits to their physical and mental health, mood, relationships, self-determination, social participation, and academic education. Most participants were quite or very satisfied with the person with whom they performed this type of activities, especially if this person was a friend or a close relative. Except for grandparents, people who participated in intergenerational face-to-face activities and who had no limitations or disabilities were more frequently reported by the participants. In conclusion, intergenerational interactions derived from the performance of face-to-face activities can contribute to improve both the physical and mental health, social skills, and relationships of all people involved.
... Results suggesting benefit (see Table 1) are supported by further articles from this project relating to different subgroups and broader outcomes such as imaging (Brydges et al., 2020;Carlson et al., 2009;Carlson et al., 2015;Gruenewald et al., 2016) The article from Yasunaga is similar in that it reports outcomes for a non-randomised trial where older adult participants who went into schools were matched with a control group, who did not, as part of the larger Research on Productivity through Intergenerational Sympathy (REPRINTS) project from Japan. Similarly to the Baltimore initiative, there are several additional articles on related outcomes adding support (Fujiwara et al., 2009;Murayama et al., 2019;Murayama et al., 2015;Sakurai et al., 2018;Sakurai et al., 2016). ...
Article
Background Social isolation is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes, including functional decline, cognitive decline, and dementia. Intergenerational engagement, i.e. structured or semi structured interactions between non-familial older adults and younger generations is emerging as tool to reduce social isolation in older adults and to benefit children and adults alike. This has great potential for our communities, however, the strength and breadth of the evidence for this is unclear. We undertook a systematic review to summarise the existing evidence for intergenerational interventions with community dwelling non-familial older adults and children, to identify the gaps and to make recommendations for the next steps. Methods Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched from inception to the 28th Sept 2020. Articles were included if they reported research studies evaluating the use of non-familial intergenerational interaction in community dwelling older adults. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020175927 Results Twenty articles reporting on 16 studies were included. Although all studies reported positive effects in general, numerical outcomes were not recorded in some cases, and outcomes and assessment tools varied and were administered un-blinded. Caution is needed when making interpretations about the efficacy of intergenerational programmes for improving social, health and cognitive outcomes. Discussion Overall, there is neither strong evidence for nor against community based intergenerational interventions. The increase in popularity of intergenerational programmes alongside the strong perception of potential benefit underscores the urgent need for evidence-based research.
... Institutional segregation and technology gaps contribute to the experience of feeling socially distant from members of one's own community (Hagestad & Uhlenberg, 2006). Intergenerational programs have been effectively utilized to build connections and reduce isolation (Breck et al., 2018), among myriad other targeted outcomes (e.g., Gruenewald et al., 2016;Murayama et al., 2015). In some cases, programs incorporate technology to close generational gaps by building skills and facilitating close ties (e.g., Bernard et al., 2011), never so keenly needed than during the current Coronavirus Pandemic. ...
Article
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Evidence-based intergenerational practices are sought by practitioners interested in the potential value of intergenerational programs. These are often difficult to identify as intergenerational program research frequently consists of small samples and pre-post analyses of attitudinal data with little attention to implementation characteristics. We systematically identified evidence-based intergenerational practices linked to program outcomes from peer-reviewed journal articles ( n = 21) published between 2000 and 2019. Scoping reviews facilitate synthesis of available evidence-based practices and identification of gaps in the literature. Fifteen evidence-based intergenerational practices were identified; each was coded in at least five articles. The practices informed program content (e.g., using technology), program considerations (e.g., environmental modifications), facilitator and participant preparation (e.g., training), and quality interactions among participants (e.g., incorporating mechanisms of friendship). While these identified practices reflect extant theory and research, rigorous implementation research is needed to advance evidence-based intergenerational practice as policymakers and practitioners advocate for intergenerational program growth.
... TA B L E 4 Multinomial logistic regressions of activity profiles on the dimensional score of IRQ (reference = social withdrawal) emotional closeness with daughters than sons (Fingerman, 2001;Rossi & Rossi, 1990;Silverstein & Bengtson, 1997 between older adults and non-blood-related younger adults (Desouza, 2007;Maccallum et al., 2010;Murayama et al., 2015). ...
Article
Though a growing number of studies have examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative later-life health outcomes, the effects of these early life-course factors on elder abuse victimization have yet to be fully investigated. Using a life-course perspective, this study examines the associations between ACEs and elder abuse victimization. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Beijing, China. A total of 1,002 older adults were included in this study. Retrospective self-report items were used to measure ACEs and elder abuse victimization in later life. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between ACEs and elder abuse victimization. Five types of ACEs (i.e., socio-economic difficulty of the original family, parental divorce, frequent quarrels between parents, frequent physical punishment by parents, and starvation) were associated with a higher risk of elder abuse victimization. After controlling for participants' socio-demographic characteristics and adding these five types of ACEs simultaneously in the multivariate regression model, the poor socio-economic status of the original family (OR = 1.759, p < .05) and suffering frequent physical punishment inflicted by parents (OR = 2.288, p < .05) were found to be significantly associated with elder abuse victimization. To have multiple (at least 4) ACEs is a risk factor for elder abuse victimization as well (OR = 3.06, p < .001). This study provides evidence for ACEs as risk factors for elder abuse victimization. The findings highlight the importance of strengthening our understanding of the impacts of ACEs in both research and practice.
... The e-health literacy program creates opportunities for older adults to have more social contact and make commitments [25,26]. It promotes the sense of belonging and social inclusion for older adults, which could lead to a greater sense of life's meaningfulness [27]. ...
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The increase in life expectancy and emphasis on self-reliance for older adults are global phenomena. As such, living healthily in the community is considered a viable means of promoting successful and active aging. Existing knowledge indicates the prevalence of health illiteracy among the older population and the impact of poor health literacy on health outcomes and health care costs. Nevertheless, e-health literacy is a critical issue for a rapidly aging population in a technology-driven society. Intergenerational studies reported that older adults enjoy engaging with younger people and benefit from the social stimulation by improved social behaviours, intergenerational social network, and participation. An I ntergenerational e - h ealth L iteracy P rogram (I-HeLP) is developed to draw upon the IT-savvy strength of the youth, and teach older adults to seek, understand and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply knowledge gained to address the health problem. I-HeLP is an evidence-based program, which provides comprehensive coverage on relevant health-related e-resources. I-HeLP aims to engage youth volunteers to teach older adults regarding e-health literacy, and enhance older adults’ sense of coherence, e-health literacy, physical and mental health, cognitive function, quality of life, and intergenerational communication. I-HeLP promotes social participation, health, and wellbeing of older adults, and empowers the younger generation to play an active role in society. Furthermore, I-HeLP aligns with the ‘Smart Nation’ initiative by the Singapore government to empower citizens to lead meaningful and fulfilled lives with the use of technology.
... Multigenerational exchanges provide insight into intergenerational diversity and may foster problem solving for individuals, families, and communities. Exchanges between generations had the same effects as reported in prior studies, namely a decrease in the risk of social isolation [7,39] and an expansion of social networks [40][41][42]. Furthermore, according to the 2019 Annual Report on the Aging Society [43], most persons aged 60 or over stated that "support to and from neighbors" was necessary to continue living happily in the region where they currently reside (55.9 %). ...
Article
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Background: In the process of community building, it is important to create a place for multigenerational exchanges. To promote multigenerational exchanges in regional locations, it is essential to clarify whether such exchanges are related to government infrastructure, regional characteristics, and social capital, and how these exchanges contribute to community building. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with representatives from 455 Chiiki no Cha-no-Ma (literal translation "community living room," and hereafter "Cha-no-Ma") in Niigata City, Japan. Responses were received from 405 representatives (response rate: 89.0 %), and 401 agreed to participate (4 declined). The survey details included basic information (e.g., date each location was established, frequency of meetings, number of caretakers and participants, qualifications of the representative), activities reflecting local culture, a social capital scale, the effects of the Cha-no-Ma implemented by the representative (12 items), challenges for management (16 items), and the implementation of multigenerational exchanges. Results: Most of the age groups that participated in the Cha-no-Ma were elderly, and multigenerational exchanges took place in 125 locations (31.5 %). Items that had a significant connection to the implementation of multigenerational exchanges were "Frequency of meetings" (p < 0.001) and "Activities reflecting local culture" (p = 0.026). Binomial logistic regression analysis indicated that a high frequency of meetings was associated with the implementation of multigenerational exchanges (Odds ratio = 3.839). There was a significantly higher ratio of implementation of multigenerational exchanges when the effects were a "connection with the region" (p = 0.006) and "conversations with different generations" (p = 0.004), and when the challenge was "no support from residents" (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Cha-no-Ma participation is low among young people. The following ideas can be considered in order to increase multigenerational exchanges in regional locations. These exchanges may be promoted by increasing the frequency of meetings with qualified personnel and by adding activities that reflect local culture, such as festivals and making local foods. This community-based study clearly indicates that implementing multigenerational exchanges is an important activity for community building because it is related to connection within the community.
... In the previous research, an intergenerational exchange program was implemented in which an elderly person read picture books for children, and, after the program, the elderly person's SOC score increased. It was thought that the elderly people felt a sense of worth through their experience [26]. Further, past studies have found that dementia supporters' activities are influenced by their motivation levels [10]. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an experiential learning program based on Kolb’s theory in increasing dementia supporters’ motivation and activity involvement within the community. Method In this interventional study, the sample was divided into two groups. The intervention group underwent dementia supporter training and participated in an experiential learning program, which was conducted two weeks after the initial training session. The control group underwent only the dementia supporter training. Results Kolb’s experiential learning model consists of four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, conceptualization, and active experimentation. A total of 37 and 44 individuals constituted the intervention and control groups, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that there was a significant increase in motivation among the intervention group participants, when compared to the control group participants. Moreover, the activity rate was higher among the intervention group participants. Discussion The experiential learning program was effective in increasing motivation levels and activity involvement among the dementia supporters. Conclusions The experiential learning program for dementia supporters can be used to improve other volunteer and professional programs. Moreover, Kolb’s theory can be used to support individuals with dementia within the community.
... The elderly who participated in the intergenerational project were compared to a control group of elderly volunteers in other types of social activities, except intergenerational activities. Results revealed that in both groups, a sense of community had increased, while the sense of meaning was greater in the elderly who participated in the intergenerational project (which the authors suspected could contribute to the prevention of depressive conditions; Murayama et al., 2014). ...
Article
With the aging population, there is a need to develop intergenerational activities to promoting healthy aging. “Age XXL” was an intergenerational project in Portugal where older adults attending an institution providing social care and support services for this population exchanged correspondences with children, taught history and citizenship classes in schools and jails, and helped realize the dreams of other elderly people. The aim of this study was to identify the preliminary phases of the design of the intervention project, the activities developed, and the assessment of its social impact. Results show a better perception among the participants regarding their skills and contributions, enabling them to understand and recognize their importance in society.
... Quantitative evidence also supports the use of intergenerational programs with older adults and youth, demonstrating efficacy via measures in geriatric depression scales, life satisfaction scales, quality of life, and self-esteem scales [28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. Examples of such studies include electronic gaming, student volunteer programs, and reminiscence therapy [29,35,36]. ...
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Background Social integration and mental health are vital aspects of healthy aging. However, close to half of Canadians older than 80 years report feeling socially isolated. Research has shown that social isolation leads to increased mortality and morbidity, and various interventions have been studied to alleviate loneliness among older adults. This proposal presents an evaluation of an intervention that provides one-on-one coaching, is intergenerational, provides both educational and socialization experiences, and increases technology literacy of older adults to overcome loneliness. Objective This paper describes the protocol of a randomized, mixed-methods study that will take place in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if an intergenerational technology literacy program can reduce social isolation and depression in older adults via quantitative and qualitative outcome measures. Methods This study is a randomized, mixed-methods, feasibility trial with 2 conditions. Older adults in the intervention condition will receive 1 hour of weekly technological assistance to send an email to a family member, for 8 weeks, with the assistance of a volunteer. Participants in the control condition will not receive any intervention. The primary outcomes are loneliness, measured using the University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale, and depression, measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, both of which are measured weekly. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, as assessed using the Older People’s Quality of Life-Brief version, and technological literacy, evaluated using the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire-12, both of which will be administered before and after the intervention. Semistructured interviews will be completed before and after the intervention to assess participants’ social connectedness, familiarity with technology, and their experience with the intervention. The study will be completed in a long-term care facility in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Significance was set at P<.05. Results This study was funded in April 2019 and ethical approval was obtained in August 2019. Recruitment for the study started in November 2019. The intervention began in February 2020 but was halted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The trial will be restarted when safe. As of March 2020, 8 participants were recruited. Conclusions Information and communication technology interventions have shown varying results in reducing loneliness and improving mental health among older adults. Few studies have examined the role of one-on-one coaching for older adults in addition to technology education in such interventions. Data from this study may have the potential to provide evidence for other groups to disseminate similar interventions in their respective communities. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/23767
... ness.49,50 This should ideally take place prior to experiences of interpartnership losses.51 ...
Article
Objective To assess associations between physical, mental, and social well‐being and suicide and self‐harm in a community‐based sample of older adults. Methods Using a cohort design, questionnaire data from 102,880 individuals aged 65 years or older living in New South Wales, Australia during 2006–2009 were linked to hospital and cause‐of‐death databases until 2017. Poisson regressions obtained adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Results One hundred nine suicides and 191 deliberate self‐harm (DSH) events occurred. Compared to those reporting excellent/good overall health, older adults reporting fair overall health had higher suicide rates (IRR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–4.4). Also, suffering from physical limitations was associated with higher rates of suicide. A fair versus excellent/good memory was associated with higher rates of suicide (IRR = 2.0, 1.3–3.3). Male erectile dysfunction was linked to self‐harm (IRR = 2.8, 1.0–7.7). Suicide rates were elevated with baseline Kessler‐10 scores of 20–50 versus 10–15 (IRR = 5.0, 2.9–8.9); the corresponding IRR for DSH was 2.9 (1.8–4.8). Elevated rates were observed for both self‐reported depression and anxiety. Poor versus excellent/good quality of life was associated with suicide (IRR = 4.3, 1.7–10.7) and achieving less than desired to due to emotional problems was linked to self‐harm (IRR = 1.8 1.3–2.4). Rates of suicide ande DSH were lower in those with ≥5 people to depend on versus one (suicide: IRR = 0.5, 0.3–0.9; DSH: IRR = 0.5, 0.3–0.7). Conclusions Older adults experiencing health problems, including those relating to overall health or memory, and those with psychological distress had elevated rates of suicidal behavior. Rates of subsequent self‐harm and/or death by suicide were elevated in participants with small social networks.
... In the elderly, intergenerational programs seem to prevent loneliness and reduce depression [21], improve attitudes towards young people and participants self-esteem and generativity [22]. Moreover, these programs effectively maintain physical functioning, intellectual activities, mental well-being and health-related life quality [23]. ...
Article
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Intergenerational physical activity could be a pleasant method to prevent elderly sedentary behaviors. The aim of this study is to provide a basis to develop an intergenerational physical activity between preschool children and elderly people. An assessing enjoyment three questionnaire survey was administered to 140 participants (aged 67.8 ± 9.1): the global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) assessing the sedentariness degree; the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES-Q) assessing enjoyment for the physical activity usually practiced; the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES-INT) assessing the enjoyment for a hypothetical intergenerational program. Successively, the sample was divided into subgroups based on age, gender, marital status, education, employment, sports background, sedentariness level and residential location. Four multichoice questions, aiming to have guidelines in organizing an intergenerational program, were used. A total of 44.3% of the sample found the physical activity practiced pleasant, whereas 81.5% enjoyed the intergenerational program (only 7.1% expressed a negative judgment). A separated one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in PACES-INT for gender, (p = 0.009), residential location, (p < 0.001) and employment (p = 0.004). About 80% of the sample would adhere to the intergenerational programs, despite the fatigue fear and logistic or family relationship problems.
... This can be done by helping older persons develop a diverse social network which includes having meaningful relationships with persons of different age groups [12]. The literature suggests that intergenerational programs can strengthen connections among different age groups, decrease loneliness and social isolation of older person, and in so doing, promote health [13,14]. In light of the above, we chose to adopt an intergenerational approach in our program by including volunteers of varying age groupssecondary school (SS) students and health undergraduates. ...
Article
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Background: Older persons consume disproportionately more healthcare resources than younger persons. Tri-Generational HomeCare (TriGen), a service-learning program, aims to reduce hospital admission rates amongst older patients with frequent admissions. The authors evaluated the educational and patient outcomes of TriGen. Methods: Teams consisting of healthcare undergraduates and secondary school (SS) students - performed fortnightly home visits to patients over 6 months. Self-administered scales were used to evaluate the educational outcomes in knowledge and attitudes towards the older people and nine domains of soft skills pre- and post-intervention. Patients' reported satisfaction and clinical outcomes were also assessed. Results: Two hundred twenty-six healthcare undergraduates and 359 SS students participated in the program from 2015 to 2018. Response rates were 80.1 and 62.4% respectively. One hundred six patients participated in TriGen. There was a significant increase in Kogan's Attitudes towards Old People Scale (KOP) scores for healthcare undergraduates and SS students with a mean increase of 12.8 (95%CI: 9.5-16.2, p < 0.001) and 8.3 (95%CI: 6.2-10.3, p < 0.001) respectively. There was a significant increase in Palmore Facts on Aging Quiz (PFAQ) score for SS students but not for healthcare undergraduates. Most volunteers reported that TriGen was beneficial across all nine domains assessed. There was also a significant decrease in hospital admission rates (p = 0.006) and emergency department visits (p = 0.004) during the 6-month period before and after the program. Fifty-one patients answered the patient feedback survey. Of this, more than 80% reported feeling less lonely and happier. Conclusion: TriGen, a student-initiated, longitudinal, inter-generational service-learning program consisting of SS students and healthcare undergraduates can reduce ageism, develop soft skills, inculcate values amongst SS students and healthcare undergraduates. In addition, TriGen potentially reduces hospital admissions and emergency department visits, and loneliness amongst frequently admitted older patients.
... Our results uphold similar results for improvement in psychological health from India (Varun Toshniwal, 2017). Similarly, other intervention-based studies have shown that when older people have opportunities for learning, specific areas of mental health such as stress, anxiety, depression, and loneliness show significant decline (Aemmi & Karimi Moonaghi, 2017;Murayama et al., 2015). With regard to socio-demographic associations, we found that aging participants with secondary education experience greater quality of life after the intervention compared to participants with lesser education. ...
Article
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There has been no research in Pakistan about how to improve quality of life (QOL) of aging populations through intergenera-tional learning. In this study we aimed to deliver an intervention for intergenerational learning to assess the impact on QOL through a quasi-experiment research design. We also aimed to identify which types of intergenerational learning activities improve QOL and how the activities may be improved. We gained permission to deliver the intervention from a state-run old age center in Punjab. Though the intervention started with 42 participants, we were left with 18 participants at the end of the three-month intervention. The results show posttest improvement in: (i) sleep (t = 3.01, p < .05), (ii) life enjoyment (t = 2.26, p < .05), and (iii) psychological health (t = 2.04, p = .05). In addition, participants with more education exhibited significant improvement in QOL after the intervention. We were also able to compile a list of 19 suggestions by participants for overall changes in learning activities, changes in specific interventions delivered, and suggestions for more types of interventions. We conclude that intergenerational learning improves QOL, and recommend suggestions for life satisfaction, and the planning of old age home centers. This study has implications for aging policy across developing and South Asian populations.
... IGPs are designed to: (1) foster positive relationships and mutual understanding between generations (Canning et al., 2018); (2) reduce negative perceptions of the other generation (Gaggioli et al., 2014;Meshel and McGlynn, 2004); and/or (3) improve physical and mental health outcomes among participants (Murayama et al., 2015;Perry and Weatherby, 2011), decrease loneliness (Aguilera-Hermida et al., 2020), and increase social connection (MacCallum et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Objectives Given the widely acknowledged benefits of intergenerational programs (IGPs), we compared processes and structures across different IGP types and explored potential areas for improvement. Design Thirteen IGPs were classified into three types: arts, learning, and assistance programs. Data were collected through direct structured interviews and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Setting Participants were recruited from community-based IGPs in the greater Tel Aviv area of Israel. Participants Eighty-four older participants (OPs), 97 younger participants (YPs), and 21 organizers were interviewed. Measurements Questions included participant demographics as well as closed- and open-ended questions regarding processes based on the Impact of Intergenerational Programs Questionnaire (IIPQ). Analysis Responses to closed-ended questions were compared among IGP types and age groups using two-way ANOVAs for ordinal data, and chi-squares for nominal data. Responses to open-ended questions by OP, YP, and program organizers about potential areas for improvement were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Processes in need of improvement were preparation and guidance, length of program participation, and monitoring of activities, which differed across IGP types and age groups. These processes were related to broader structural problems such as lack of resources, organizers’ poor employment conditions, and inadequate public services for older persons in Israel. Conclusions Our study highlights the complex relationships between IGP types, processes, and structures. IGP processes and goals can be hindered by structural variables such as insufficient funding, infrastructure, and public services for older adults.
... For example, a sense of meaningfulness-one of the key components of the SOC-has been positively associated with mental health outcomes (Ninomiya et al., 2019) and adherence to healthy lifestyle practices (Stodle et al., 2019) in adults aged 65 and above. Similarly, interventions aimed at enhancing the SOC of elderly persons have been associated with improvements in self-reported mental health (Sundsli et al., 2014;Murayama et al., 2015). This suggests that the benefits of a salutogenic approach may extend across the entire life-span. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had a widespread effect on the thoughts, emotions and behavior of millions of people all around the world. In this context, a large body of scientific literature examining the mental health impact of this global crisis has emerged. The majority of these studies have framed this impact in terms of pre-defined categories derived from psychiatric nosology, such as anxiety disorders, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. These constructs often fail to capture the complexity of the actual experiences of the individuals being studied; more specifically, they describe these experiences exclusively in terms of disease, while neglecting their potentially adaptive or “salutogenic” aspects. Similarly, discussion of psychological assistance for these individuals has largely been confined to a reiteration of “evidence-based” psychological or pharmacological techniques which can be delivered using remote access technology. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, these approaches are likely to be of mixed efficacy. Conversely, “negative emotions” or distressing psychological experiences may actually be functional in the setting of a disaster or crisis, serving to minimize harm, maximize social coherence and compliance, and facilitate adherence to safety measures. The limitations of the “conventional” approach are, to a certain degree, inherent to the prevailing medical model of mental health. Beyond these considerations lies the concept of “salutogenesis,” a term which refers to the innate capacity of individuals to create and maintain health and well-being in the face of adversity. Using principles derived from the second wave of positive psychology (PP2.0), particularly its emphasis on the totality of human experience and the possibility of deriving meaning and character growth from suffering, this paper conceptually analyses the relevant aspects of salutogenesis and PP2.0, and proposes an alternate approach for addressing mental health concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such an approach, while acknowledging the utility of the conventional medical-psychotherapeutic model in specific cases, reduces the risk of medicalizing human experience, and provides individuals and communities with opportunities for growth and adaptation. The benefits of this proposal could potentially extend far beyond the current crisis, offering an opportunity for the field of psychiatry and mental health research to move away from a purely “disease-centered” model.
... (12) The literature suggests that intergenerational programs can strengthen connections among different age groups, decrease loneliness and social isolation of older person, and in so doing, promote health. (13,14) In light of the above, we chose to adopt an intergenerational approach in our program by including volunteers of varying age groups -secondary school (SS) students and health undergraduates. ...
Preprint
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Background Older persons consume disproportionately more healthcare resources than younger persons. Tri-Generational HomeCare (TriGen), a service-learning program, aims to reduce hospital admission rates amongst older patients with frequent admissions. The authors evaluated the educational and patient outcomes of TriGen. Methods Teams consisting of healthcare undergraduates and secondary school (SS) students - performed fortnightly home visits to patients over 6 months. Self-administered scales were used to evaluate the educational outcomes in knowledge and attitudes towards the older people and nine domains of soft skills pre- and post-intervention. Patients’ reported satisfaction and clinical outcomes were also assessed. Results 226 healthcare undergraduates and 359 SS students participated in the program from 2015 to 2018. Response rates were 80.1% and 62.4% respectively. 106 patients participated in TriGen. There was a significant increase in Kogan’s Attitudes towards Old People Scale (KOP) scores for healthcare undergraduates and SS students with a mean increase of 12.8 (95%CI: 9.5 – 16.2, p < 0.001) and 8.3 (95%CI: 6.2 – 10.3, p < 0.001) respectively. There was a significant increase in Palmore Facts on Aging Quiz (PFAQ) score for SS students but not for healthcare undergraduates. Most volunteers reported that TriGen was beneficial across all nine domains assessed. There was also a significant decrease in hospital admission rates (p = 0.006) and emergency department visits (p = 0.004) during the 6-month period before and after the program. 51 patients answered the patient feedback survey. Of this, more than 80% reported feeling less lonely and happier. Conclusion TriGen, a student-initiated, longitudinal, inter-generational service-learning program consisting of SS students and healthcare undergraduates can reduce ageism, develop soft skills, inculcate values amongst SS students and healthcare undergraduates. In addition, TriGen potentially reduces hospital admissions and emergency department visits, and loneliness amongst frequently admitted older patients.
... TA B L E 4 Multinomial logistic regressions of activity profiles on the dimensional score of IRQ (reference = social withdrawal) emotional closeness with daughters than sons (Fingerman, 2001;Rossi & Rossi, 1990;Silverstein & Bengtson, 1997 between older adults and non-blood-related younger adults (Desouza, 2007;Maccallum et al., 2010;Murayama et al., 2015). ...
Article
Currently, very few studies have comprehensively investigated how intergenerational relationship quality (IRQ) between older parents and adult children is related to older adults' activity engagement. To fill this gap, this study endeavoured to examine the associations between IRQ and older adults' activity profiles, not only considering the overall IRQ but also different dimensions of IRQ. We also aimed to reveal the different roles of IRQ with son(s) and with daughter(s). This study made use of survey data collected in Yibin City, Sichuan Province of China in 2018 (N = 4,211). We adopted hierarchical cluster analysis to identify activity profiles, and performed multinomial logistic regressions to assess the association between IRQ and the profiles. We identified five activity profiles among older adults: “caregiving‐oriented”, “employment‐oriented”, “social withdrawal”, “diverse engagement” and “physically active”. Those with greater IRQ were more likely to be “caregiving‐oriented” and have “diverse engagement” relative to “social withdrawal”. It also showed that structural‐associational solidarity and affectual closeness were more predictive of the activity profiles, compared to consensual‐normative solidarity and intergenerational conflict. Children's gender plays an important role in the relationship between IRQ and activity engagement profiles. Good intergenerational relationships might not narrow down older adults' activity domains, and instead might actually promote their participation in diverse domains. Promoting structural‐associational solidarity and affectual closeness was likely to reduce social withdrawal among older adults in China.
... This study assumes that social capital contributes to a sustainable working life for older adults and that it is formed when different generations come into contact frequently and work together with the same goals [20,21]. However, there is little empirical and theoretical evidence and the premises of these programs have seldom been reported in the literature, except for a few studies [22][23][24]. This study observed a situation where interaction among different generations shrank in a society; specifically, we observed that younger generations tended to avoid interaction with older generations because of their lack of understanding of older adults [4]. ...
Article
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The rapid growth of the aging population and low economic growth have intensified generational conflicts, especially in the workplace. Social capital is one option that can solve generational conflicts by encouraging cooperation among colleagues. This study aims to explore the impact of the intergenerational program, Sedae Ieum Madang, on perceived social capital among participants in Korea. To measure the impact of the program, a one-group pretest/posttest design was applied, and a purposive sampling method was adopted to recruit participants. The final sample size was 53, including 30 older adults and 23 young adults. In items that measured participants’ level of trust in colleagues, the subindex of social capital was compared between before and after the program. Each item relates to peoples’ experience of social support in workplaces, as suggested in the swAge model. According to the measurement, peoples’ level of trust in their colleagues changed; only the older generation’s trust in their colleagues increased, while that of the younger generation did not. The results of this study show that the intergenerational program is effective in encouraging the older generation to trust their colleagues and fostering mutual support between younger and older generations, which is important in developing sustainable work environments.
... In addition, according to Cicirelli [46], the higher degree of attachment between parents and adult children tends to correlate with better health and well-being for aging parents. Therefore, researchers contend that older people may become closer to their adult children and more satisfied with their intergenerational relationships by receiving intergenerational support, which may increase the perceived social support and benefit the elder's mental health [19,47]. ...
Article
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Even though an extensive body of previous research has examined the association between received intergenerational support and the well-being outcomes of older adults in a wide variety of contexts, few studies have been conducted to explore the impacts of intergenerational support on elders’ subjective well-being, especially the intermediary mechanisms in this process. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by exploring the mediating role of optimism in the association between received intergenerational support and subjective well-being among the elderly in China, as well as the sex differences that exist between males and females. The findings show that the intergenerational support received from adult children is positively related to subjective well-being and that this relationship is partly mediated by optimism. Meanwhile, no significant sex difference was found in the interrelations between intergenerational support, optimism, and subjective well-being.
... Compared to studies conducted in Western and Eastern countries [4,6,7,9,49], the findings of the present study revealed a serious problem that should alert government officers, social workers, and healthcare professionals to the issue of loneliness among the older population in Indonesia. Appropriate strategies should be developed immediately to eliminate loneliness experienced by older adults, such as intergenerational programs [50] and life-review therapy [51]. Moreover, qualitative research can be conducted to understand the context of the high prevalence of loneliness among older adults in the community in the future. ...
... Similarly, effective resource-efficient positive interventions for children and adolescents, such as gratitude practice, can enhance multiple domains of well-being; promote strengths, self-knowledge, and interpersonal skills; enable coping with adversity; and foster beneficial academic outcomes (Bowers et al., 2010;Magyar-Moe et al., 2015;Owens & Waters, 2020 Non-familial intergenerational programs can foster unique bi-directional learning and growth experiences between seniors and youth . Seniors benefit from these programs, including enhanced physical, mental, and emotional health, and development of a greater sense of meaning (Murayama et al., 2015;Sakurai et al., 2016). Hearteningly, intergenerational programs capitalizing on social engagement help maintain cognitive functioning in seniors, and by extension, promote independent living. ...
Article
The Positive Pen Pal Program is an intergenerational initiative designed to increase the well-being of senior and youth residents at Education Based Housing, Inc.’s (EBH) affordable housing communities through communication exchanges involving writing about positive events and experiences, art, and music. The pilot program involves a month-long, bi-directional letter writing exchange about topics such as gratitude, meaning, and purpose between ten pairs of residents, with each pair comprised of a senior resident and a youth resident. This project provides a stand-alone playbook for EBH’s Resident Engagement Specialists. The playbook includes a brief introduction to well-being; sample recruitment letters for seniors and youth; sample instruction letters for seniors and youth; sample prompts for writing about positive events and experiences, art, and music; sample marketing information to solicit sponsorship from community businesses; measurement tools to assess aspects of well-being of the participants; and survey questions to assess the impact of the program on the participants. The implications of this work include enhanced understanding of the interplay among positive psychology, the humanities, and intergenerational interventions in affordable housing communities. Beneficially, this intervention is low-resource and expandable across multiple humanities domains and residential communities.
... Compared to studies conducted in Western and Eastern countries [4,6,7,9,49], the findings of the present study revealed a serious problem that should alert government officers, social workers, and healthcare professionals to the issue of loneliness among the older population in Indonesia. Appropriate strategies should be developed immediately to eliminate loneliness experienced by older adults, such as intergenerational programs [50] and life-review therapy [51]. Moreover, qualitative research can be conducted to understand the context of the high prevalence of loneliness among older adults in the community in the future. ...
Article
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Loneliness has become one of the most common psychological problems experienced by older adults. Previous studies have indicated that loneliness is correlated with poor physical and psychological health outcomes; therefore, it is important to pay attention to people experiencing loneliness. However, there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of loneliness, and its associated factors, among community-dwelling older adults in Indonesia, which this study aimed to understand. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational research design. Stratified random sampling was applied to 1360 participants, aged ≥ 60 years, in 15 community health centers in Kendari City, Indonesia. The following questionnaires were used to collect data, including demographic and characteristic information, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, and a single-item loneliness question. The prevalence of loneliness among older adults was 64.0%. The multivariate logistic regression showed that older adults who were female, lived with family, had fewer children, had a poor health status, had a poor oral status, had more chronic diseases, had no hearing problems, had poor cognitive function, and had depression had a higher chance of feeling lonely. Loneliness is a serious health issue among the older population in Indonesia. The government, social workers, and healthcare professionals should pay immediate attention to this psychological problem. The study also suggests that appropriate strategies for the prevention of loneliness should be developed in the near future.
... Evidence from intergenerational interventions indicates there are cognition and emotional health benefits for older people (Park, 2014), and younger people have also been found to benefit in terms of improved feelings of selfworth and empowerment and overall well-being and have adopted less ageist views of older people (Ballantyne et al., 2006;DeSouza & Grundy, 2007). Intergenerational programs have been found to alleviate social isolation and loneliness by improving older people's sense of meaningfulness (Murayama et al., 2015), as well as enhance older people's sense of connection to the community and younger people's attitudes and understanding (Harris & Caporella, 2018;Teater, 2016). Such findings point to the importance of exploring intergenerational interaction during the pandemic, especially given that social isolation and loneliness have been identified as particularly detrimental features of lockdown measures for older people (Buecker et al., 2020;Luchetti et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This paper examines older people's experiences of intergenera-tional interaction during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Aotearoa, New Zealand (NZ). This paper presents an analysis of a letter-writing study with older people (mean = 77 years) living in NZ. A total of 760 letters were received from 870 participants. A sub-sample of 412 letters focused on intergenerational interaction were analyzed thematically. This analysis presents a mostly positive picture of intergenerational interaction particularly on the family and neighborhood level. Letters highlighted narratives of mutual concern and positive interactions between generations while also hinting at some underlying age-related tension on a societal level.
... IGPs can address social isolation and loneliness for both generations [11]. IGPs are designed to create positive relationships between generations [12], reduce negative perceptions of the other generation [13], improve physical and mental health outcomes [14,15], decrease loneliness [16], and increase social connection [17]. Peacock and O'Quin (2006) [18] claimed that bridging generational gaps through IGPs "can . . . ...
Article
Full-text available
Much research has attested to the benefits of intergenerational programs (IGPs) for older and younger participants, but there is a lack of understanding about what motivates them to participate and to persevere. We conducted structured interviews with 83 older (mean age = 77) and 96 younger (mean age = 23) participants who participated in 13 IGPs in Israel, some involving specific topics, and some providing assistance to older adults. Using a mixed-methods approach, we analyzed differences in motivation across generations and program types and compared initial and ongoing motivation to participate. We found differences regarding motivation by age group and program type: Among older participants, interest in the specific subject was a more prevalent motivation in topic-focused groups, while receiving support was more common in assistance groups. Among young persons, motivations relating to obligation, such as receipt of a financial scholarship, and the wish to help others were the most prevalent motivators. Ongoing motivation was often explained by positive intergenerational relationships and enjoyment. For older adults, offering more diverse topic-focused activities may motivate greater participation. For young adults, integrating IGPs within more and different settings, and promoting IGPs as opportunities to help others are potential motivators.
... Furthermore, the Big and Mini program has the potential to serve as a health promoter for participants to cope with loneliness. This is also consistent with the literature that showed that intergenerational programs decrease the risk of social isolation and give older adults a sense of meaning [41], especially during COVID-19 which has isolated most of the population. Since the pandemic, virtual intergeneration programs between isolated college students and older adults have helped participants to combat loneliness and isolation through connections [42]. ...
Article
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Introduction: To help older adults cope with loneliness during COVID-19, a weekly, telephone-based intergenerational program called "Big and Mini" was created in April 2020 to link young and older adults together. As part of an evaluation of Big and Mini, a survey with both close and open-ended questions was sent to participants. Methods: A total of 63 Bigs and 53 Minis completed the survey. Their stress compared to before COVID-19, loneliness, life satisfaction, intergenerational closeness, and satisfaction with the program were measured for participants. Descriptive, bivariate correlation and conventional content analyses were conducted. Results: On average, Bigs and Minis had participated in the program for 3.73 and 3.49 months, respectively. Approximately half of the Bigs (47.6%) and Minis (52.8%) felt the same stress level compared to before COVID-19. A few participants felt "less stressed" compared to before COVID -9 (14.3 and 7.5%, respectively, for Bigs and Minis). All participants reported medium levels of loneliness, high levels of satisfaction with life, satisfaction with the program, and intergenerational closeness. Content analysis suggested that the reasons to join or expectations of the program were friendship, mutually beneficial intergenerational connections, and coping with loneliness. Conclusions: The Big and Mini program offers a promising approach with mutual benefits for participants. Strategies to improve the program and implications for intergenerational programs are presented.
... Sociology stresses the necessity of family support in preventing cognitive decline in older parents. Living arrangements, caregiving and intergenerational relationships are common factors that affect the psychological and mental health of elderly individuals (24,25). Recent studies have addressed the impact of individuals' education level on cognitive health rather from a socioeconomic status perspective. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between adult children's education attainment and their parents' cognitive health, and to further explore the mechanism of intergenerational support. Based on empirical analysis of data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey, our study finds a positive association between children's educational attainment and parents' cognitive health. This correlation is provided for by emotional communication of informal caregiving, financial support, and healthy behaviors shaped in the parents by adult children. The strength of the effect varied by the adult child's gender. While sons' education attainment significantly improves parental cognitive parameters through informal caregiving, financial support, and development of healthy behaviors, the effect of daughters' education derives from financial support and healthy behaviors, not being related to informal caregiving. The study enriches the evidence on the mobility of children's human capital toward their parents and provides practical insights for advancing children's participation in family caregiving.
... Lyons (2016) has demonstrated that instrumental and emotional support from family reduced psychological distress and alleviate the level of depressive symptoms [18]. Interventional studies have also suggested intergenerational programs could be used to promote mental health among older adults by making their lives more meaningful [19]. ...
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Background While depressive symptoms are recognized as major mental health problems in later life, there is a lack of study in examining potential moderators in the association between intergenerational support and depressive symptoms, especially in social contexts with low socioeconomic status and inadequate formal public support. This study set out to examine the association between intergenerational support and depressive symptoms among older adults in rural Northeast China, and the potential moderating roles of age, living alone, and number of chronic diseases on this link. Methods A quota sampling approach was used to recruit 448 respondents aged 60 and above from rural Chinese communities. Depressive symptoms were the dependent variable. Intergenerational emotional, instrumental, and financial support were the main independent variables. Age, living alone, and number of chronic diseases were the moderators. Multiple linear regression models with interaction terms were conducted to test the proposed model. Results The results showed that intergenerational emotional support was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in older adults when instrumental and financial support and covariates were controlled (β = -0.196, p < .001). Age was found to have a significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational instrumental support and depressive symptoms (β = -0.118, p < .05). Among older respondents aged 74.51 years and older, instrumental support was positively associated with depressive symptoms, but this association was not significant for younger respondents. Furthermore, living alone and number of chronic diseases suffered moderated the association between intergenerational financial support and depressive symptoms, which was statistically significant only for those living alone and with more chronic diseases (interaction term between living alone and intergenerational financial support: β = -0.082, p < .05; interaction term between number of chronic diseases and intergenerational financial support: β = -0.088, p < .05. Conclusions The findings not only highlight the important role of intergenerational support in promoting mental health in later life in rural Chinese contexts, but also identify within-population heterogeneity in the identified associations. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.
... La participación activa de personas mayores en un centro escolar, además, permite potenciar la vinculación del centro y del alumnado con el barrio y el sentido de pertenencia. Del mismo modo, se reduce el sentimiento de soledad de los mayores (Murayama et al., 2015) aprovechando su enorme potencial social y fomenta el interés del estudiantado por acercarse a sus abuelos y a otras personas de mayor edad (Lozano Martínez et al., 2018). Al mismo tiempo, el contacto y la interrelación entre personas de diferentes grupos de edad mejora la autoestima de los mayores (Vives et al., 2016) y su bienestar, incrementa la calidad de vida de todos los implicados (Pinazo y Kaplan, 2007), el beneficio mutuo (Moreno Abellán et al., 2018) y aumenta la solidaridad y la percepción hacia otras generaciones (Chung y Kim, 2020). ...
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Las relaciones intergeneracionales implican una interacción, cooperación e intercambio entre personas de diferentes edades. En una sociedad como la nuestra, cada vez más fraccionada por generaciones, los programas intergeneracionales escolares pretenden reducir esta brecha fomentando lazos positivos a través del contacto entre niños y mayores, reduciendo el edadismo y los prejuicios hacia los mayores. Este artículo pretende analizar si, tras la aplicación de un programa intergeneracional escolar, Compartir la Infancia, se detectan cambios en las actitudes de los estudiantes y los mayores participantes. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un diseño de investigación pre-test post-test con grupo cuasi-experimental y control en el que participaron 274 estudiantes de 12 aulas de quinto y sexto de tres centros de Educación Primaria y 40 personas mayores. Los resultados muestran que el programa intergeneracional influye positivamente en las actitudes de los estudiantes, produciéndose una mejora estadísticamente significativa en las actitudes personales hacia los mayores y en la percepción sobre su sociabilidad y relaciones. Asimismo, tras la participación en el programa se produce una mejora en las actitudes de las personas mayores en cuanto a sus expectativas ante la vejez, así como en sus capacidades. Por otra parte, no se perciben cambios en las actitudes de los mayores hacia los niños.
... Some studies have reported positive correlations between intergenerational or familial support and subjective well-being [25] and mental health among older adults [26][27][28], whereas others have reported that high levels of support from adult children is either harmful [29] or has a negligible effect on the well-being of older adults [30]. A positive intergenerational relationship, such as frequent intergenerational exchanges, can alleviate loneliness and depression symptoms and promote the elderly's mental health [31][32][33]. Merz and Consedine suggested that emotional support is generally associated with higher well-being, whereas instrumental support is related to decreased well-being [24]. A study by Lai et al. [34] reported that a stronger sense of closeness with grandchildren was associated with self-rated health status and quality of life among older Chinese immigrants in the United States. ...
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This study explored the relations between children’s intergenerational emotional support and subjective well-being (SWB) among Chinese middle-aged (45–60 years old) and elderly people (over 60 years old) and the mediation effect of the sense of social fairness between such associations. Using the 2017 Chinese General Social Survey dataset, a nationally representative survey, we selected 2413 middle-aged and elderly people who are 45 years and older, who suited the study requirements with 1097 males and 1316 females, which accounts for 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. The average of age was 61.62 years old (SD = 10.45). The mediation analyses were conducted by multivariate regression and the SPSS macro PROCESS program. The results indicated that there was a significant association between children’s intergenerational emotional support and subjective well-being of middle-aged and elderly people (β = 0.0819, p < 0.001). Children’s intergenerational emotional support also had an indirect impact on subjective well-being through one path: the mediating role of the sense of social fairness (0.012). Direct effect (0.0699) and mediation effect (0.012) accounting for the total effect proportion was 85.35% and 14.65%, respectively. The findings may offer some meaningful implications for improving subjective well-being of middle-aged and elderly people. Future research should pay attention to the aforementioned factors with more detailed and comprehensive studies.
... A més, diversos estudis han demostrat que els vincles entre persones de diversos grups d'edat proporcionen un efecte beneficiós en els majors a nivell físic, social emocional i cognitiu (Canedo et al., 2014), es redueixen el sentiments de soledat que experimenten algunes persones (Murayama et al., 2015), augmenta la seva memòria i altres aptituds cognitives (García de la Torre, 2011), i es produeix una major valoració de les vivències pròpies del passat i una difusió de costums (ibídem), entre d'altres. ...
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Este es el anuario número 14. Reúne 21 trabajos de la actualidad de la investigación y la intervención sobre la realidad del envejecimiento en las Islas Baleares.
... Hence, to facilitate intergenerational mutual help in the local community, it is necessary to set up opportunities for older adults to provide support to young and middle-aged people, and in return, create a mechanism for prompting support from this segment of the population in the future. For example, the creation of close relationships through interactions in intergenerational exchange programs, in which area residents of multiple generations can take part, has been shown to be effective for realizing subsequent mutual help in the regional community (Cadieux, Chasteen, & Packer PhD, 2019;Murayama et al., 2015). Murayama et al. (2019) reported that educational support given to children by older volunteers in intergenerational exchange programs fostered a sense of trust among area residents as a whole. ...
Article
Purpose : This study aimed to verify the direction of providing and receiving intergenerational support and examine its effects on mental health among intergenerational non-relatives. Materials and Methods : In the initial survey (Time1), approximately 65,000 residents of Wako City in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, were considered, from which, a sample of 7,000 people was obtained. A total of 2,982 valid responses was received, and a follow-up survey was conducted two years later (Time2). Results : Structural equation modeling with a cross-lagged effect model and a synchronous effect model showed that the direction of giving and receiving intergenerational support had changed with age; while the young and middle-aged groups shifted their direction from receiving support to giving support, the older adults shifted their direction from giving support to receiving support. Furthermore, in the young-adults group, receiving support from older adults positively influenced their mental health two years later. For the middle-aged group, giving support positively influenced their mental health at Time2. For the old-old group, receiving support from young and middle-aged people positively influenced the mental health at Time2. Conclusions : To facilitate intergenerational mutual help in the local community, it is necessary to create opportunities for older adults to provide support to young and middle-aged people and, in return, create a mechanism to prompt support from young and middle-aged people for older adults.
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In this dissertation study, I want to strengthen a socially sustainable culture of participation in the early childhood education and care (ECEC). Participation has long been researched in ECEC contexts, but results indicate that despite mandating policy documents, it has not yet become fully established in the everyday life of ECEC centres. The aim of this study was to investigate practices that support children’s participation using data produced by children and by ECEC practitioners. Additionally, the findings were used to create a conceptual model that explains how a socially sustainable culture of participation can be constructed in an ECEC context. I investigated a socially sustainable culture of participation in which all members of the community have the opportunity to be heard, to make initiatives, to express their opinions and to alter their practices. A socially sustainable culture of participation advances equality and equity, as well as prevents exclusion. The study investigated children’s perspectives on participation and ECEC practitioners’ perspectives on a culture of participation and based on the children’s and ECEC practitioners’ shared narrative, project-based practices. The research was based on three empirical sub-studies, which were implemented between 2014 and 2017. In the first sub-study, I investigated which elements children feel are important so that everyone can feel they belong to the group. To this end, I interviewed 12 children aged 4–12, who participated in a shared club for children and the elderly in the Koko Suomi leikkii (All of Finland is playing) initiative. In the second sub-study, together with the ECEC practitioners I studied the central elements of the practitioner’s practices that support the development of a culture of participation. In addition to myself, 19 ECEC teachers and child- carers participated in the study. In the third sub-study, I analysed, together with the children and ECEC practitioners, how the different stages of the children’s and practitioners’ joint activity planning, implementation, and evaluation progressed in practice. In addition to myself, another ECEC teacher, an ECEC child-carer, and 41 children aged 3–7 participated in the third sub-study. The methods and aims developed and became more focused as the action research progressed. The findings of the study indicated that children and ECEC practitioners were willing to commit to new practices and to constructing a collective we-narrative. A we-narrative created a foundation for the conceptual model of a socially sustainable culture of participation. The model included the prerequisites of participation in adult practices, the reasons for participation in children’s and adults’ shared activities, as well as a tool for strengthening participation. The prerequisites for participation were formed in dialogue between the ECEC centre leader and the practitioners. The reasons for participation included factors associated with safety, the working climate and agency. The tool that supports participation was a project-based cycle, in which children and adults started from an initial idea, brought forwarded by a child or an adult, and progressed through Storycrafting to shared narrative play, a concluding closing ceremony and recalling sessions. Constructing a socially sustainable culture of participation in the ECEC context included different elements, which were emphasised differently in different practices and times and with different age groups. Changing the working culture required conscious and committed efforts to strengthen the opportunities for participation in an ECEC centre’s pedagogical choices, the relationships between children and adults, as well as the ECEC practitioners’ daily decision-making.
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This Open Access textbook represents a vital contribution to global health education, offering insights into health promotion as part of patient care for bachelor’s and master’s students in health care (nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, radiotherapists, social care workers etc.) as well as health care professionals, and providing an overview of the field of health science and health promotion for PhD students and researchers. Written by leading experts from seven countries in Europe, America, Africa and Asia, it first discusses the theory of health promotion and vital concepts. It then presents updated evidence-based health promotion approaches in different populations (people with chronic diseases, cancer, heart failure, dementia, mental disorders, long-term ICU patients, elderly individuals, families with newborn babies, palliative care patients) and examines different health promotion approaches integrated into primary care services. This edited scientific anthology provides much-needed knowledge, translating research into guidelines for practice. Today’s medical approaches are highly developed; however, patients are human beings with a wholeness of body-mind-spirit. As such, providing high-quality and effective health care requires a holistic physical-psychological-social-spiritual model of health care is required. A great number of patients, both in hospitals and in primary health care, suffer from the lack of a holistic oriented health approach: Their condition is treated, but they feel scared, helpless and lonely. Health promotion focuses on improving people’s health in spite of illnesses. Accordingly, health care that supports/promotes patients’ health by identifying their health resources will result in better patient outcomes: shorter hospital stays, less re-hospitalization, being better able to cope at home and improved well-being, which in turn lead to lower health-care costs. This scientific anthology is the first of its kind, in that it connects health promotion with the salutogenic theory of health throughout the chapters. We here expand the understanding of health promotion beyond health protection and disease prevention. The book focuses on describing and explaining salutogenesis as an umbrella concept, not only as the key concept of sense of coherence.
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In recent years, increased attention has been devoted to intergenerational physical activity (PA) programs because they may have several benefits for both children and older adults (e.g., the reduction of ageism). An intergenerational PA program focusing on grandchildren and grandparents in a ‘standard’ family setting that combines PA and cognitive function is innovative and may hold potential for promoting PA and improving cognitive functioning in both grandchildren and grandparents. The aim of this study is to describe the protocol of the GRANDPACT (GRANDparents and GRANDchildren improve their Physical Activity and Cognitive functions using co-creaTion) Project, focusing on the development of an intergenerational, cognitively enriched, movement program for grandchildren and grandparents using the theoretical framework of the “Behaviour Change Wheel” in combination with a co-creation approach. Two co-creation trajectories will be organized to develop the program, followed by a pilot study to refine the program and an RCT with a pre-test (at baseline), a post-test (after 24 weeks), and a follow-up (after 36 weeks) to measure the outcomes of co-PA, cognitive functions, psychosocial well-being, and the quality of the family relationship ingrandchildren and grandparents. The outcomes will be measured using accelerometry for PA, the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) for cognitive functions, and questionnaires for the psychological well-being and quality of the family relationship. Co-development with end-users and stakeholders during both co-creation trajectories is expected to result in an effective, attractive, and feasible program. Co-PA is expected to improve PA, cognitive functioning, psychosocial well-being, and the quality of the family relationships between grandchildren and grandparents.
Chapter
Cognition can be defined as neurocognitive processes of how humans learn and remember. As humans age, threats of neurocognitive disturbances are probably the most feared psychiatric problems, but these processes also can be disrupted by biological abnormalities closely connected to other psychiatric problems. The theme of this article is that basic research in areas of cognition and advances in the discovery of novel pharmacotherapy for neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders that affect the elderly are inextricably intertwined. Drug evaluations in animal models should be conducted in, three basic types of learning/memory paradigms (habituation, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning) and should assess the effects of agent on learning, retention, and retrieval. The importance of this strategy involves issues of single or multiple learning processes in the paradigms, whether different types of paradigms give rise to different kinds of memories or whether the same paradigm may produce several fundamentally different types of memories that may or may not be interdependent. Medications currently in use for ameliorating neurocognitive disorders are mostly ineffective. New pharmacotherapy is urgently needed, and a seemingly innumerable collection of drugs has been proposed as the latest “key” to unlock mechanisms of dysfunction in neurocognition. In some cases, new agents have functioned (biochemically) exactly as advertised, but virtually all have proved unacceptable for clinically use. Future therapies for neurocognitive disorders will likely benefit from the recognition that multiple cellular mechanisms and neurotransmitter processes are involved and that administration of combinations of agents that provide “wide‐spectrum” actions may be most useful.
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A diverse intergenerational (IG) program, the Get WISE program, was implemented at a long-term care facility with a nearby childcare center and a local university. Pre-post measures from the children regarding perceptions of older adults, and from the long-term care residents regarding their self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and perceptions of resident-youth interactions were collected. Significant improvements were observed in perceptions of resident-youth interactions. Children’s responses expanded from stereotypes of physical aging to positive temperaments and activities of older adults. IG programs can improve the quality of relationships between participants and have cognitive, health, and quality of life benefits.
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The growing aging population in Canada has multi-faceted psycho-social needs. Social workers are well-positioned to address these needs, despite many challenges. This paper reports findings from the World Café at the Gerontology Symposium in Alberta, Canada, held in 2018. The goal was to learn from social work practitioners, researchers, and educators (N = 49) about current and future needs of gerontological social work in Alberta. There were two research questions: 1) What strategies do social workers need on the micro, mezzo, and macro levels to help better serve the growing older adult population in Alberta? (R1) 2) How can social workers promote the value and contribution of gerontological social work within the interprofessional community? (R2) The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Ten R1-related themes emerged: personal traits of a social worker; professional skills; bio-psycho-social needs of older adults; community connections; access to benefits; gerontological social work education; integrated healthcare; aging policy; ageism; and advocacy to strengthen the voice of older adults. The three R2-related themes include strengthening the status of the social work profession; building trust through demonstrated skills; and interprofessional education and practice.
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The number of elderly workers has also been increasing and poor psychological well-being in elderly workers has been reported. The aim of this study is to elucidate the factors that are related to poor psychological well-being in elderly workers. We administered General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) as an indicator of psychological well-being to 330 male elderly workers in the age range of 50-69, and analyzed different psychological factors, namely sense of coherence (SOC), and physical and lifestyle variables such as blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, smoking frequency, alcohol intake, exercise frequency, and body mass index (BMI) that are related to GHQ-12. When the cut-off point of GHQ-12 was 2/3, 97 workers who showed high GHQ-12 score were classified as one group having poor psychological well-being. A statistically significantly lower SOC score, higher stress score, lower frequency of exercise, higher smoking score and higher BMI, but not longer working hours or higher shift work score in the workers with higher GHQ-12 scores were observed than in the workers with normal GHQ-12 scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the low SCO score, low frequency of exercise, high smoking frequency and high BMI significantly contributed to the high GHQ-12 score. A low SOC score in elderly workers is assumed to be directly related to poor psychological well-being, or via the development of lifestyle problems such as lack of exercise, obesity, and smoking in elderly workers. This assumption must be confirmed by conducting future intervention studies on lifestyle.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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The concept of intergenerating was examined through the introduction of aging appreciation activities in five elementary classrooms in the same school. A weeklong module was developed to determine if aging appreciation would be enhanced by the module used in the selected elementary classrooms. Students completed introductory and final questionnaires before and after presentation of the module, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the general nature of the participating groups, and t tests were computed to determine differences between pretest and posttest means and to determine interclassroom variations. Possibilities for future research are discussed.
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This exploratory study of the Intergenerational Work/ Study Program examined whether structured intergenerational relationships may be associated with a change in the school attendance and achievement of high school students considered to be at-risk for dropping out of high school. Two separate regression analyses were performed to measure the contribution of 11 independent variables to (a) prediction of attendance levels, and (b) earned course credits. The R for the regression for credits was non-significant. For attendance levels, R for regression was significantly different from zero, F (11, 219) = 4.24, p < .0001. Whether the school of enrollment was categorized as alternative or mainstream, as well as time spent in group intergenerational activities and time spent in one-on-one intergenerational activities all contributed significantly. Altogether, 18% (13% adjusted) of the variability in attendance levels was predicted by knowing scores on these 11 variables.
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This study reports on the interactions of 60 children and 12 older adults in a school-based mentoring program, as well as four teachers' perceptions of the relationship between such interactions and the children's subsequent classroom behavior. Dyadic interactions were assessed using the Elder-Child Interaction Analysis instrument (Newman & Onawola, 1989). The authors concluded from recorded observations that, overall, the elders and the children had interacted with each other in a positive and constructive manner. The teachers interviewed perceived that the mentoring interactions were followed by an increase in students' self-management skills, interest in school work, and by improved peer relationships.
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Through intergenerational contact, studies show that youth and older adults can enjoy many mutual benefits. Little research is available, however, on the effects such programs have on the attitudes of emotionally disturbed youth toward the elderly. This article examines the effects of an intergenerational program on the attitudes of emotionally disturbed youth toward the elderly. The program involved 36 older individuals from three sites in the community and nine adolescent boys from a residential treatment center for troubled youth. The program included a classroom curriculum and corresponding visits with older people at the community sites. The students' attitudes about older people were measured at the onset and at the conclusion of the intergenerational program. The results indicate that the youths' attitudes toward older people were less positive after the intergenerational experience. However, their evaluations of the program were extremely favorable. These results suggest that overall the youth involved in the program had very positive attitudes about the experience and the older people they interacted with during the intergenerational experience. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
The objectives of this study were (1) to clarify changes in social concern in intergenerational programs and (2) to determine the current state of and issues affecting intergenerational programs. Articles including the words "intergenerational programs" were selected from 3 major Japanese newspapers (Asahi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and Mainichi Shimbun) using an online database (399 articles). Content analysis was conducted to check changes in the number and content of articles. A total of 56 cases of intergenerational programs were selected, and a questionnaire survey was conducted with the responsible organization. The problems were classified using cluster analysis. Content analysis revealed that the number of articles relating to this topic increased towards the end of the 1990s, which corresponds with a change in social policy. The questionnaire survey revealed that most of the intergenerational programs were either annual or periodic activities. Furthermore, it was shown that the 4 main issues facing current intergenerational programs were the intergenerational gap, operating problems, activity selection, and lack of participants. In summary, social concern regarding the intergenerational programs has increased. However, most intergenerational programs were infrequent and quite time-intensive. Furthermore, the 4 issues mentioned above must be addressed in order to create programs that have wide-ranging benefits for each community. Resolving the problem of compartmentalized administration and appointing local coordinators is necessary to solve these problems.
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This 5-year follow-up study investigated the structure and the factorial invariance of the 13-item sense of coherence (SOC) scale (Antonovsky, 1987a4. Antonovsky A (1987a) Unraveling the mystery of health. How people manage stress and stay well San Francisco CA Jossey-Bass View all references) in two employment groups (unemployment/lay-off experiences vs. continuous full-time employment) and across two measurement times. In addition, the stability of SOC between these two employment groups was compared. The postal questionnaire data was collected twice, in 1992 and in 1997. The participants were Finnish technical designers (N=352) aged between 25 and 40 years in 1992. A total of 51% of the investigated participants had been employed full-time during the 5-year follow-up period and 49% had been unemployed and/or laid off for a total period of at least one month during the follow-up. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the SOC scale measured one general second-order SOC factor consisting of three, first-order factors of meaningfulness, comprehensibility, and manageability. The results also indicated that the scale was best used as an 11-item measure. The factorial invariance of the scale across time and across the two employment groups was supported by the data. Unexpectedly, the stability of SOC did not differ between the two employment groups. However, those participants who had experienced unemployment and/or been laid off during the follow-up period had a weaker SOC at both measurement times than those who had been employed throughout the follow-up.
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We launched a new intervention study called REPRINTS in which senior volunteers engaged in reading picture books to children. Sixty-nine volunteers and 72 participants in a control group, all aged 60 years and over, living in three urban locations, participated in a baseline health checkup in June 2004. After completion of a three-month training seminar, volunteers visited public elementary schools and kindergartens in groups of 6 to 10 for an 18 month period. They were assessed again by a follow-up health checkup in March 2006. At the follow-up, social network scores (frequency of contact with grandchildren and others around the neighborhood) and self-rated health improved or was maintained at a significantly higher rate for the 37 individuals volunteering most intensively as compared to those who did not volunteer or volunteered minimally. In conclusion, through intensively being engaged in the intergenerational volunteer programs during 21 months, self-rated health and social networks were more likely to improve or be maintained among senior volunteers than controls.
Article
This research reports findings from an intergenerational science program, Project Serve, which placed senior volunteers in elementary and junior high science classrooms to assist teachers and augment instruction. Items from the Children's View of Aging survey (Newman, 199720. Newman , S. ( 1997 ). Children's Views of Aging [survey] . Pittsburgh , PA : Generations Together: An Intergenerational Studies Program . View all references; Newman & Faux, 199720. Newman , S. ( 1997 ). Children's Views of Aging [survey] . Pittsburgh , PA : Generations Together: An Intergenerational Studies Program . View all references) were administered before and after the project with two goals. The first goal was to determine the effect of the project on children's attitudes toward aging and the elderly. We found that even though the program was not specifically designed for attitude change, there was a significant difference in positive attitudes toward aging in the experimental group. The second goal was to see how those attitudes were related to intention to seek out older volunteers for help. We found that the most important predictors of students' intentions to ask for help from senior volunteers were specific attitudes about the adults in the classroom rather than more general attitudes toward the aged. Implications for future programs include the need to introduce the volunteer to the class before the beginning of an intergenerational project in order to let children know the volunteer's qualifications and reasons for wanting to help.
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(Intergenerational Programs in Schools: Considerations of Form and Function) – In recent years there has been a groundswell of intergenerational program activity occurring on an international scale. At an unprecedented level, new initiatives are emerging which aim to bring young people and older adults together in various settings – to interact, stimulate, educate, support, and provide care for one another. The focus of this paper is on intergenerational programs implemented in schools. Discussion centers primarily on how such initiatives enhance and reinforce the educational curriculum, contribute to student learning and personal growth, enrich the lives of senior adult participants, and have a positive impact on the surrounding communities. The paper concludes with a review of some key issues that need to be taken into account when developing and evaluating intergenerational programs.
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To analyse the relationships between depressive symptoms, sense of coherence and emotional and social loneliness among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment. Depression symptoms and loneliness are major health problems for older people. Sense of coherence, which is based on a salutogenic theoretical framework, is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping and is associated with well-being and depression among older people. Few studies have explored the relationships between depression symptoms, sense of coherence and emotional and social loneliness among nursing home residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design. Sample - 227 residents 65-102 years old from 30 nursing home residing ≥ six months. All had a Clinical Dementia Rating ≤ 0·5 and could converse. Residents were interviewed using the Social Provisions Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale and Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). Possible relationships between these were analysed, controlled for sex, age, marital status, education, length of stay and comorbidity. Before adjustment, Geriatric Depression Scale was associated with attachment and social integration. After adjustment, Geriatric Depression Scale was still associated with attachment and social integration. Further adjusting for Sense of Coherence Scale reduced the association between Geriatric Depression Scale and attachment and even more so for the association between Geriatric Depression Scale and social integration. Sense of coherence and Geriatric Depression Scale did not interact, and SOC-13 was associated with attachment and social integration. Depression symptoms contribute to emotional and social loneliness. Independent of sense of coherence, depression symptoms are associated with emotional loneliness, sense of coherence influence emotional and social loneliness. Clinical nurses should observe residents closely for signs of depression and loneliness and support their sense of coherence to reduce emotional and social loneliness.
Article
Background: An association between sense of coherence (SOC) and suicidal behavior has been suggested. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with low SOC in elderly suicide attempters. Methods: Eighty non-demented hospital-treated suicide attempters aged 70 years and older (38 men, 42 women, mean age 79.4 years) took part in an interview with a research psychologist and completed the 29-item SOC questionnaire. The interview included questions regarding social situation and health-related factors. The Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) provided symptom ratings that were used in a diagnostic algorithm for DSM-IV major depression. The Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G) was used to identify individuals with serious physical illness. Results: There was a strong relationship between major depression and SOC. While we could show no relationship between severe physical illness and SOC, associations were demonstrated with social variables including too little time spent with children, too little time spent with grandchildren and having moved within the past five years. These associations remained significant in regression models adjusted for sex, age and major depression. Conclusions: A number of social variables were independently related to SOC in elderly suicide attempters. Prospective studies are needed in order to determine whether SOC-strengthening interventions can reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in seniors.
Article
We describe associations between sense of coherence (SOC) and sense of well-being, diseases, physical function and the predictive value of SOC on depression and mortality. The study included 190 participants, aged 85-103 years. Linear correlation analysis was used for relationships between SOC scores and continuous variables. The effects of SOC score on 1- and 4-year mortality, as well as on depression at the 5-year follow-up, were investigated using Cox regression models. The mean SOC score was 71.8±10.2 (±S.D.). SOC score was positively related to well-being (p≤0.001). Heart failure (p=0.009), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.015), depression (p=0.015), and osteoarthritis (p=0.032) were significantly associated with low SOC scores, as were high scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) (p=0.002). One-year mortality was significantly associated with the SOC score (OR=0.945, confidence interval (CI)=0.898-0.995, p=0.032), while the 4-year mortality was not (OR=0.995, CI=0.973-1.018, p=0.674). The SOC score did not predict depression at 5-year follow-up (OR=0.977, CI=0.937-1.018, p=0.267). Strong SOC was associated with well-being in this group of old people. Low SOC was found among those with diseases known to have a negative influence on daily life.
Article
The aim of this longitudinal exploratory study was to identify and follow persons with the first episode of major depression (MD) to determine whether sense of coherence (SOC) changes over time. An additional purpose was to assess whether SOC is associated with depressive symptoms, aggression, and functional status either immediately after diagnosis or at 4 years postdiagnosis. The study design was longitudinal; participants participated in semistructured interviews and completed surveys every 6 months starting at diagnosis and concluding 4 years later. The sample consisted of 33 adult patients who were being treated for the first episode of MD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Twenty-two participants completed all nine sessions. SOC was measured using the SOC scale; depressive symptoms using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale; aggression, including the total score and subscales of anger and hostility, using the Aggression Questionnaire-revised Swedish version; and functional status using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). At baseline, SOC was significantly correlated with total aggression (r = -45) and the hostility subscale (r = -.73); baseline SOC was unrelated to depressive symptoms or functional status. SOC increased significantly over time (P < .0001). At the 4-year follow-up, SOC was significantly related to depressive symptoms (r = -.60), the aggression summary score (r = -.65), the anger subscale (r = -.52), the hostility subscale (r = -.77), the GAF (r = .64), and the physical and mental health components of the SF-36 (r = .74 and .72, respectively). The finding that SOC increases as patients recover from MD suggests that treatment of depression may also bolster the patient's ability to cope, in addition to lowering depressive symptoms. The relationship between SOC and aggression in MD, with higher SOC correlated with lower aggression, needs to be examined further.
Article
Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
Article
Previous work of the author presents a salutogenic theoretical model designed to explain maintenance or improvement of location on a health ease/dis-ease continuum. The model's core construct, the Sense of Coherence (SOC), was consciously formulated in terms which are thought to be applicable crossculturally. The SOC scale which operationalizes the construct is a 29-item semantic differential questionnaire, its design guided by Guttman's facet theory. A 13-item version of the scale has also been used. The purpose of the present paper is to present the extant evidence from studies conducted in 20 countries for the feasibility, reliability and validity of the scale, as well as normative data. In 26 studies using SOC-29 the Cronbach alpha measure of internal consistency has ranged from 0.82 to 0.95. The alphas of 16 studies using SOC-13 range from 0.74 to 0.91. The relatively few test-retest correlations show considerable stability, e.g. 0.54 over a 2-year period among retirees. The systematic procedure used in scale construction and examination of the final product by many colleagues points to a high level of content, face and consensual validity. The few data sets available point to a high level of construct validity. Criterion validity is examined by presenting correlational data between the SOC and measures in four domains: a global orientation to oneself and one's environment (19 r's); stressors (11 r's); health, illness and wellbeing (32 r's); attitudes and behavior (5 r's). The great majority of correlations are statistically significant. All available published normative data on SOC-29 and SOC-13 are presented, data which bear upon validity using the known groups technique.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
A number of cross-sectional population studies have shown that a strong sense of coherence (SOC) is associated with various aspects of good perceived health. The association does not seem to be entirely attributable to underlying associations of SOC with other variables, such as age or level of education. The aim of the study reported here was to determine whether SOC predicted subjective state of health. The study was carried out as a two-way panel mail survey of 1976 individuals with 4 years interval for two collections of data. The statistical method used was multivariate cumulative logistic modeling. Age, initial subjective state of health, initial occupational training level, and initial degree of social integration were included as potential explanatory variables. A strong SOC predicted good health in women and men. SOC can be interpreted as an autonomous internal resource contributing to a favorable development of subjective state of health. SOC data should, however, be regarded as complementary to and not a substitute for information already known to be associated with increased risk of future ill health.
Article
Depression affects 10-15% of people over 65 living at home in the United Kingdom. It is the commonest and the most reversible mental health problem in old age. Depression is associated with physical illness and disability, life events, social isolation and loneliness. Depression in old age carries an increased risk of suicide and natural mortality. Recognition and simple intervention can reduce morbidity, demand on health and social services and the cost of community care. Despite a favourable response to treatment, depression remains largely undetected and untreated.
Article
In Antonovsky's salutogenic theory, the major concept sense of coherence (SOC) is constituted of three core components called comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. Several scales that are intended to measure SOC are available and used by researchers in health and caring sciences all over the world. When using a scale, evidence of its quality in different study groups is needed in order to get reliable and valid data. The aim of this study was to test reliability and construct validity of the Swedish version of Antonovsky's original 29-item sense of coherence (SOC) scale in a group of physically active older people. The scale was tested with a convenience sample of 140 physically active older individuals, who took part in different fitness-training groups in eastern Sweden. Reliability was assessed as item to total correlations and with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was assessed with the known groups technique, confirmatory factor analysis, and with logistic regression analysis. The results showed that in the studied group of older individuals, the instrument was a very reliable tool with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92. Construct validity of the scale was supported by the fact that the global concept sense of coherence was found to be hierarchically organized in a model that consisted of the three core components of comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. Furthermore, perceived health could be explained to some degree by sense of coherence, but even more by comprehensibility, in both cases independently of chronological age. The results clearly corroborated Antonovsky's theory.
Article
This qualitative descriptive study examined the perceived benefits of an intergenerational program for low-income older adults residing in subsidized housing and youth who were part of a support group for emotionally disturbed youth. The intergenerational group met bimonthly for 11 months at the independent living facility for the elderly. Activities consisted of group discussions, games, talent expressions, trips, picnics, and crafts. Frequently a teen was paired with an older adult to complete a craft project. Bonding between each pair occurred over time, as the older adults became role models for the youth. The perceived benefits of including emotionally disturbed youth and vulnerable but well older adults in an intergenerational program were determined by a structured interview and then through categorization of the participants' responses to a series of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral questions using 18. Yalom I. D.. 1985; The theory and practice of group psychotherapy, 3rd ed., New York, BasicView all references Therapeutic Factors. The results indicated that both of the age groups' attitudes toward each other and relationships with each other changed positively. Behavioral changes among the youth included improved social skills observed by the co-facilitators of the group.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the construct validity of Antonovsky's (1987) sense of coherence scale (SOC) 13-item version, with a sample of Japanese university students. Subjects were 1,110 university students who completed a self-administered questionnaire including items on individual characteristics (age, sex), the Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) and the SOC scale. Exploratory factor analysis of the SOC scale yielded an interpretable two-factor solution with "comprehensibility-manageability" and "meaningfulness". Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an a priori defined SOC second-order factor model composed of comprehensibility-manageability and meaningfulness factor to have an acceptable fit (chi-square=327.065, df=64, GFI=0.957, CFI=0.872, RMSEA= 0.061). Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that there are theoretically consistent relationships among individual SOC factors and depression. In particular, the meaningfulness factor proved better predictor of depression than the comprehensibility-manageability factor. These findings support the construct validity of the SOC scale and suggest that two SOC sub scores may provide clinically applicable information, rather than the total score.
Article
Public health policies in most European countries are concerned with how to keep older people living independently with a qualitatively good life in the community as long as possible. However, knowledge about what may characterise those seemingly 'healthy' older people is sparse. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of a sample of people (75+) reporting various degrees of Quality of Life (QoL) with respect to QoL in different areas, as well as self-rated health, health problems, social support, everyday activities and sense of coherence. A postal questionnaire was sent out in spring 2001 to a randomly selected population-based sample (n= 600) in the southern parts of Sweden. A two-step cluster analysis was performed (n= 385, mean age 84.6, SD = 5.7) with 'present QoL' as clustering attribute. Three groups were disclosed, classified as high, intermediate and low present QoL, of which 33.8% could be regarded being at risk of low QoL. Those with low present QoL (18.4%) were the oldest and most vulnerable, a majority were women with 'poor or bad' self-rated health, high frequencies of health problems, low total QoL, low social support and sense of coherence and less physically active. Those with high present QoL (47.8%) reported more 'excellent or good' self-rated health, physical activity, satisfactory social support and higher sense of coherence and total QoL than the other two groups. Those with intermediate present QoL (33.8%) had more of 'poor or bad' self-rated health, more health problems were less physically active, had lower total QoL and sense of coherence, and less social support than those with high present QoL. The sample seemed to reflect the ageing process in that the respondents were at different stages of ageing. However, the fact that the level of social support, sense of coherence and self-rated health followed the same curve as QoL may indicate that some are more vulnerable to low present QoL given the same health and these should be targeted in preventive programmes since they report low QoL.
We have launched a new intervention study, called "Research of Productivity by Intergenerational Sympathy (REPRINTS)" in which senior volunteers engage in reading picture books to children. The "REPRINTS" program consistently involves social roles and intellectual activity, two higher-level functional capacities. This study reported findings and problems experienced through "REPRINTS" during the first year, ascertained potential effectiveness of social activity, and proposed methods for continued activity. Basic concepts of "REPRINTS"program include "contribution to society", "life-long learning", and "group activity." Sixty seven volunteers and 74 controls, all aged 60 years and over living in three areas, ie., Chuo-ku, central Tokyo, Kawasaki city, suburb of Tokyo and Nagahama city, a local city, participated in a baseline health check-up in June, 2004. After completion of 3-month training seminars (once a week, 2 hr per session), volunteers visited public elementary schools and kindergartens in groups of 6-10 persons for 6 months. They were assessed again by follow-up health check-up in March, 2005. At baseline, the proportion of those who had no grand children (41.8% vs. 20.3%, P= 0.006), average school years (13.4 +/- 2.5 vs. 12.3 +/- 2.5 years, P= 0.008), having any experience of volunteer activities (79.1% vs. 52.7%, P=0.001), and an usual walking speed (86.7 +/- 12.3 vs. 81.3 +/- 12.9 m/min, P=0.012) were significantly higher in volunteers than in controls. There was no significant difference in other baseline characteristics between the two groups. At follow-up, social network scores for 56 volunteers were significantly improved: frequency of contact with grandchildren and others around neighborhood and size of circles of friends and acquaintances were increased, as compared to controls. Social support scores for the volunteers significantly decreased in the receiving aspect, while increased in the giving aspect. In addition, consciousness of loving community and self-rated health were significantly enhanced and hand-grip strength showed significantly less decline in volunteers than in controls. Through engaging in the intergenerational and intellectual volunteer programs for 9 months, subjective health, social support and network, consciousness of loving community and some aspects of physical performance were significantly promoted in senior volunteers. Coordination of existing administrative services enabled us to establish this "REPRINTS" health promotion program for community-dwelling older adults.
We have launched a new intervention study, called "REPRINTS" (Research of productivity by intergenerational sympathy) in which senior volunteers aged 60 years and over engage in reading picture books to school children, regularly visiting public elementary schools since 2004. The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of images of older people held by elementary school children and factors associated with such images, as well as to examine changes in images through intervention by "REPRINTS" senior volunteers (volunteers) for the initial one year period. Four to six volunteers as a group visited A elementary school in a suburb Kawasaki city (470 students) twice a week to read picture books. The baseline survey was conducted one month after launching the volunteer activity. First and second follow-up surveys were conducted at 6 month intervals after the baseline survey. Grade, gender, short version of emotional-like image scale of older adults assessed by the SD (Semantic Differential) method (6 items in the subscale for "evaluation" and 4 items in the subscale for "potency/activity"), experience of living with grandparents, experience of interchange with older people, frequency of interchange with volunteers and the social desirability scale for children. Related variables for a higher score in the subscale for "evaluation" included lower grade and abundant experience of interchange with older people such as grandparents. Those for "potency/ activity" included lower grade, male gender, and a higher social desirability scale for children in the multiple logistic regression model. Students were divided into two groups in terms of frequency of interchange with volunteers (low and high-frequency groups) through three surveys. In the subscale for "evaluation", the general linear model demonstrated a significant interaction between the group and number of surveys adjusted for confounding factors. Although emotional images of older people significantly decline with advancing grade, those of students with a high frequency of interchange with volunteers were here found to be maintained more positively over one year compared to those with a low frequency.