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Defending Corner Kicks: Analysis from the English Premier League

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore tactical behaviour when defending corner kicks within the English Premier League. Specifically, the types of marking and defensive players positioned at the goalposts were investigated. A total of 436 corner kicks from 50 English Premier League games were analysed. The most commonly used marking system was one-to-one marking (90.1% of total corners), with zonal marking being used less often (9.9% of total corners). There was no significant association between the marking set-up and the number of attempts at goal conceded when defending corner kicks (p>0.05). However, teams who applied zonal marking conceded fewer goals and fewer attempts at goal than teams who used one-to-one marking. The most common set-up for defenders positioned at the goalposts was having a defender positioned only on the far post (47.3% of total corners). There was no significant association between the positioning of defensive players at goalposts and the number of attempts at goal conceded when defending corner kicks. A further detailed analysis of defending corner kicks is still required and suggestions have been made for future studies.

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... The reviewed studies that analyzed corner kicks were mainly focused on international competitions [14,39] and the English Premier League [40,41]. Corner kick effectiveness values of 2.6% [39], 2.2% [14], 4.1% [40] and 2.7% [41] were found, which means that, on average, between 24 and 45 corner kicks were needed to lead to a single goal scored. ...
... The reviewed studies that analyzed corner kicks were mainly focused on international competitions [14,39] and the English Premier League [40,41]. Corner kick effectiveness values of 2.6% [39], 2.2% [14], 4.1% [40] and 2.7% [41] were found, which means that, on average, between 24 and 45 corner kicks were needed to lead to a single goal scored. Casal et al. [14] reported that the likelihood of a shot on goal could be increased with the involvement of three or four attackers, a dynamic attacking move, and delivery of the ball to the far post. ...
... Casal et al. [14] reported that the likelihood of a shot on goal could be increased with the involvement of three or four attackers, a dynamic attacking move, and delivery of the ball to the far post. Pulling et al. [40] analyzed the importance of defensive strategy and concluded that the one-to-one marking set-up did not concede any attempts at goal from 95.7% of corner kicks, whereas a zonal marking system did not concede goal attempts from 97.7% of corner kicks. In addition, the percentage of corner kicks resulting in a goal or attempt at goal was higher when the defending team used a one-toone marking system (31.3%), ...
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Background Evolving patterns of match analysis research need to be systematically reviewed regularly since this area of work is burgeoning rapidly and studies can offer new insights to performance analysts if theoretically and coherently organized. Objective The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of published articles on match analysis in adult male football, identify and organize common research topics, and synthesize the emerging patterns of work between 2012 and 2016, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Methods The Web of Science database was searched for relevant published studies using the following keywords: ‘football’ and ‘soccer’, each one associated with the terms ‘match analysis’, ‘performance analysis’, ‘notational analysis’, ‘game analysis’, ‘tactical analysis’ and ‘patterns of play’. ResultsOf 483 studies initially identified, 77 were fully reviewed and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Results showed that research mainly focused on (1) performance at set pieces, i.e. corner kicks, free kicks, penalty kicks; (2) collective system behaviours, captured by established variables such as team centroid (geometrical centre of a set of players) and team dispersion (quantification of how far players are apart), as well as tendencies for team communication (establishing networks based on passing sequences), sequential patterns (predicting future passing sequences), and group outcomes (relationships between match-related statistics and final match scores); and (3) activity profile of players, i.e. playing roles, effects of fatigue, substitutions during matches, and the effects of environmental constraints on performance, such as heat and altitude. Conclusion From the previous review, novel variables were identified that require new measurement techniques. It is evident that the complexity engendered during performance in competitive soccer requires an integrated approach that considers multiple aspects. A challenge for researchers is to align these new measures with the needs of the coaches through a more integrated relationship between coaches and researchers, to produce practical and usable information that improves player performance and coach activity.
... Each corner was cropped from full game footage sourced from Wyscout (Wyscout, Chiavari, Italy), being defined when the whole of the ball passed over the goal line, on the ground or in the air, having last touched a player of the defending team, and a goal was not scored (International Football Association Board, 2019). Corner kicks were considered complete when the ball exited the 18-yard box and did not immediately re-enter (Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013). The Local University ethics committee granted approval for the study. ...
... Corner kicks were analysed using a custom notational instrument using SportsCode performance analysis software. The coding system was developed using the operational definitions selected from empirical research on corner kicks in the men's games (Casal et al., 2015;Pulling, 2015;Pulling & Newton, 2017;Pulling et al., 2013) and are outlined in Table 1 and Figure 1. ...
... Operational definitions for the corner kick outcomes, delivery type, and attack organisation. Adapted from (Casal et al., 2015;Pulling, 2015;Pulling & Newton, 2017;Pulling et al., 2013). ...
Article
This study describes how corner kicks were taken across the 2017/2018 FA Women’s Super League season and assesses the effectiveness of these attacking corner kick strategies. A total of 824 corner kicks were analysed examining delivery type, delivery area and attack organisation on corner kick outcomes. A total of 38 goals were scored (4.6% of corners taken resulted in a goal) from the corner kicks, accounting for 13.5% of the total 282 goals scored during the 2017/2018 season. Corner delivery type did not affect the outcome of the corner (p > 0.05). However, delivery zone effected both the likelihood of an attempt on target (p = 0.018) and goal being scored (p < 0.001). Attempts on target were increased when the ball was delivered into the central area of the 18-yard box (zone CA2) with 14.7% of corners delivered to CA2 resulting in an attempt on target. Goals were most likely to be scored when the ball was delivered into the central zone but closer to the goal line (zone GA2) with 13.0% of corner kicks delivered to this zone resulting in a goal. These results can aid coaches to enhance the attacking effectiveness of corner kicks within Women’s soccer.
... Goals scored from corner kicks can have a significant impact on the outcome of a match, with previous research demonstrating that a goal from a corner kick resulted in the scoring team winning or drawing the match in 76% of matches (Casal et al., 2015). Therefore, researchers have attempted to understand the notational analysis of corner-kick outcomes in relation to the frequency of corner kicks and attempts at goal (Taylor et al., 2004), style of corner kick (Carling et al., 2005;Page & Robins, 2012), scoring location (Poon, Douglas, & Hopkins, 2012;Sainz de Baranda & Lopez-Riquelme, 2012) and defensive tactics (Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013). Taylor et al. (2004) analysed 217 corner kicks from 20 matches of the 2001-2002 English Premier League season and found a mean of 10.85 corner kicks per game. ...
... To address this limitation, Pulling et al. (2013) explored defensive tactics associated with corner kicks. The authors investigated the types of defensive marking systems and defensive players positioned at goalposts for 436 corner kicks from 50 games during the 2011-2012 English Premier League season (Pulling et al., 2013). ...
... To address this limitation, Pulling et al. (2013) explored defensive tactics associated with corner kicks. The authors investigated the types of defensive marking systems and defensive players positioned at goalposts for 436 corner kicks from 50 games during the 2011-2012 English Premier League season (Pulling et al., 2013). It was found that the most commonly used marking system was one-on-one marking (90.1% of total corners), with zonal marking being used less frequently (9.9% of total corners). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyse corner kick defensive strategies during the 2018 FIFA World Cup. A total of 600 corner kicks from all 64 matches in the tournament were obtained from the InStat database and analysed. Data were analysed and reported as frequency counts and percentages. Chi-square test for independence (χ²) used to test associations between key performance indicators. Results showed that 22 goals (3.7% of all corners kicks) were conceded from corner kicks. Teams conceded more goals using a zonal marking strategy (6.0%) compared to a mixed marking strategy (3.7%). There was a significant association between types of corner kicks and defensive outcomes (χ² = 111.30,V = 0.57). Most goals were conceded from inswing corner kicks (4.6%) compared to short (3.3%) and outswing (3.1%) corner kicks. Seventeen (3.9%) goals were conceded from corners when there were no players on the goal line. Most goals came from the centre (7.0%) and the first goalpost (3.5%). These findings highlight potential strategies soccer coaches may employ for an effective defensive set-up against corners, such as employing a mixed marking method, having players positioned on the goalposts and being aware of the attacking threat posed by short corner kicks.
... For example, one could focus on attacking scenarios from set pieces (eg, corners) and discover the morphological, technical, and/or athletic traits likely to predict scoring success in this specific situation. 10,11 Given most professional teams use their tallest players in set pieceseven if they are defenders-one can deduce that height and heading ability are the strongest predictors of goal-scoring success during these set pieces. 10,11 However, more complicated game-play scenarios, such as when an attacker has possession of the ball and competes against a defender and the goalkeeper, will be more difficult to predict. ...
... 10,11 Given most professional teams use their tallest players in set pieceseven if they are defenders-one can deduce that height and heading ability are the strongest predictors of goal-scoring success during these set pieces. 10,11 However, more complicated game-play scenarios, such as when an attacker has possession of the ball and competes against a defender and the goalkeeper, will be more difficult to predict. 7,8,12 Such a scenario is a more common avenue for scoring a goal in open counter-attacking play, and there are multiple strategies that can be employed by players in these situations. ...
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The aim of this study was to explore the underlying bases of goal‐scoring ability of junior soccer players. Male players (mean age 17.2 years, SD = 1.3) were recruited from an elite Brazilian football academy. We assessed each individual’s dribbling and sprinting speed along five 30 m paths varying in curvature from 0 to 1.37 radians.m‐1. We also quantified each player’s ability to dribble the ball through a series of 15 cones using six different techniques. Dribbling, sprinting and technical dribbling were then compared with an individual’s goal‐scoring ability as assessed when competing against one defender and a goalkeeper protecting a full‐sized goal (N = 20‐48 attempts/ individual). Goal‐scoring success was significantly positively associated with their sprint speed (r = 0.60; P = 0.014), dribbling speed (r = 0.81; P < 0.0001) and technical dribbling (r = 0.49; P = 0.022). An individual’s percentage of shots saved was only significantly associated with their dribbling speed (r = ‐0.81; P < 0.001), with faster dribblers less likely to have their shots saved. Based on the full multivariate model for goal‐scoring success (adjusted r2 = 0.60; P < 0.001), dribbling speed was the only significant correlate (t = 3.51; P < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that our metric of dribbling speed, as measured along curved paths, was associated with goal‐scoring success. Future studies should focus on specific training regimes aimed at improving dribbling ability, and measuring any impact on the creation of goal‐scoring opportunities and number of goals scored.
... Os lances de bola parada, de acordo com Maneiro et al. (2019), ocorrem quando o jogo é retomado após uma pausa regulamentar (e.g., saída de início de jogo, reinício de jogo após o gol, tiro de meta, lançamento de linha lateral, falta e escanteio). Os gols provenientes de situações de bola parada correspondem a aproximadamente 1/3 do número total de gols marcados em toda competição (Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013), justificando estudos que investiguem os procedimentos empregados pelo treinador para o ensino dessas jogadas. ...
... Os resultados obtidos nas cobranças de escanteio pela equipe titular, em treino, foram semelhantes ao relatado na literatura em competições oficiais (e.g., Casal et al., 2015;Pulling et al., 2013;Baranda & Lopez-Riquelme, 2012). Quanto aos resultados obtidos em amistosos, os percentuais são superiores aos encontrados na literatura, o que é possível relacionar com o fato de os amistosos terem sido contra adversários que eram de níveis competitivos inferiores. ...
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Investigaram-se os procedimentos empregados por um treinador de futebol para o ensino das jogadas ensaiadas de escanteio ofensivo e os resultados obtidos com tais jogadas em treinos, amistosos e jogos competitivos. Participaram um treinador e 71 jogadores de futebol profissional. As jogadas ensaiadas foram categorizadas como A, B, C, D ou improvisada, dependendo da posição dos jogadores em campo de acordo com o modelo fornecido pelo treinador. As verbalizações do treinador nos treinos foram gravadas. Verificou-se que os escanteios foram trabalhados em jogo coletivo e que quanto mais próximo do período competitivo, maior a porcentagem de treinos com escanteio. O ensino das jogadas se deu predominantemente por meio de instruções técnicas parciais. Houve aumento do número de jogadas improvisadas com a proximidade da competição e indícios da manutenção do padrão de realização das jogadas ensaiadas em treinos, amistosos e jogos. Para a equipe titular e reserva, a jogada improvisada e a jogada A apresentaram melhores índices em finalizações no gol e gols, respectivamente. Os resultados foram discutidos apontando-se parâmetros para orientar possíveis intervenções utilizadas por treinadores no ensino de jogadas ensaiadas.
... Los estudios sobre el saque de esquina, como una de las acciones a balón parado (ABP) más decisivas, han sido analizados cuantitativamente según el número de lanzamientos por partido y cualitativamente con su efectividad Casal et al., 2015a;Link et al., 2016;Pulling et al., 2013;Sainz de Baranda y López Riquelme, 2012;Silva, 2011). Al mismo tiempo los estudios acerca de los criterios de conducta asociados a los saques de esquina han sido numerosos, siendo lo más analizados: la lateralidad del lanzamiento (Hill y Hughes, 2001); la trayectoria y zona de envío del balón según el comportamiento de los jugadores atacantes por el juego ofensivo; y la sorpresa e incertidumbre ; y por último la organización defensiva del rival y la colocación del el portero (Borras y Sainz, 2005;Casal et al., 2015b;Link et al., 2016y Maneiro, 2014. ...
... Por otro lado, existen porcentajes en el remate de saque de esquina más bajos, como indican Borrás et al. (2005), Sainz de Baranda et al. (2012) y Sánchez-Flores et al. (2012, quienes recogen porcentajes de remate del 21.8%, 23.77% y 17.2% respectivamente. En este estudio fueron observados 2029 saques de esquina entre primera división y segunda división española (943 y 1086 saques de esquina respectivamente), con un promedio de 10.04 saques de esquina por partido (n = 9.92 en primera división; n = 10.25 en segunda división), datos semejantes a la literatura encontrada (Acar et al. 2009;Ardá et al. 2014;Casal et al., 2015b;Maneiro et al., 2016;Maneiro, 2014;Pulling, et al., 2013;Sainz de Baranda y López Riquelme, 2012;Sánchez-Flores et al., 2012;Silva, 2011), con promedios que oscilan entre 9 y 11 saques de esquina por partido. Por otro lado, se encuentran pocos estudios dispares a estos resultados, como por ejemplo Jiménez et al. (2016), que encuentran una media de 7.88 saques de esquina por partido, o los de Yamanaka et al. (1997) y Castelo (2009) con valores de 6.2 y 13 saques de esquina respectivamente por partido. ...
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El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los indicadores de rendimiento efectivos en el saque de esquina del fútbol de élite que intervienen en la consecución de gol. De un total de 2029 saques de esquina analizados de la analizados de la Primera y de la Segunda División de la Liga profesional española de la temporada 2016-2017 se seleccionaron 229, que finalizaron en gol, para la detección de patrones. Para su análisis se utilizó la Metodología Observacional Sistemática (MO) construyendo un instrumento de observación ad hoc (SOCFO-1), que contempló los factores situacionales y conductuales más influyentes, y utilizando como instrumento de registro el programa libre LINCE PLUS, que permitió constatar la consecución y eficacia en el juego ofensivo de estas acciones técnico-tácticas. El análisis estadístico descriptivo de los resultados realizados con el programa STATA fue complementado con el análisis de detección de patrones temporales (T-patterns) mediante el programa libre Theme 6.0. Los resultados más significativos muestran que la mayor eficacia en el remate en los saques de esquina se produce con lanzamientos a pierna natural y en la zona del punto de penalti, y en los saques de esquina lanzados a pierna cambiada hacia la zona del primer palo de la portería. Se observa también que los factores situacionales-contextuales de: la localización del partido, el estado del marcador, el momento del partido y el nivel del oponente son determinantes para la consecución con éxito de estas acciones técnico-tácticas a balón parado se deberían entrenar integradamente con la condición física previa a la competición
... A total, 1910 corner kicks were recorded, with 1600 of these being sampled as they satisfied the criterion of having the ball delivered directly into the box by the corner kick taker, while 310 that were delivered indirectly, were excluded from the study. Corner kicks were considered complete when the ball exited the 18yard box and did not immediately re-enter [16]. According to the Belmont Report [17] the use of public images for research purposes does not require informed consent or the approval of an ethical committee. ...
... Corner kicks were analysed using a custom notational instrument using Lince software [18]. The notational instrument was developed using the operational definitions selected from empirical research on corner kicks in the men's games [3,9,16,19] and are outlined below: ...
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The aim of the present study was to describe how corner kicks were taken and to identify key variables associated with final attempts during Greek Super League season 2018-19. There was a total of 424 final attempts after corner kick, of which, 16.3% were attempts off target, 6.8% attempts on target and 2.8% resulting in a goal. Bivariate analysis presented that attempts on target were increased when the ball was delivered outswing, no players positioned at the goal posts, >1 intervening attackers, attacking player the 1st contact and ball delivered into the central zones of the 18-yard box. Binary logistic regression (Final attempt/ No Final attempt) revealed that the model was statistically significant for the final attempt (p < 0.001) and showed that the intervening attackers (p < 0.001) and the player of the 1st contact (p < 0.001) contributed significantly to the model. These results can aid coaches to enhance on one hand the attacking effectiveness; on the other hand the defensive efficacy of corner kicks within Greek football.
... In comparison to crossing, corner kicks has been the topic of a much greater level of study, e.g. Casal, Manerio, Arda, Losada and Rial (2015), with research looking at corner kicks in relation to delivery area (Pulling, 2015), match status (De Baranda & Lopez-Riquelme, 2012) and defensive strategy (Pulling & Newton, 2017;Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013). However, due to the obvious similarities between crossing and corner kicks, the corner kick literature can be used to inform the approach by which crosses can be examined, i.e. delivery side, delivery type, delivery location etc. ...
... This result is highly comparable to that reported by Franks (1989a, 1989b), who reported a total of 38 goals from 1427 crosses analysed (2.7%). Furthermore, this goal-scoring percentage is very similar to previous research that has highlighted the goal-scoring percentage from corner kicks (Pulling & Newton, 2017;Pulling et al., 2013). Therefore, the evidence appears to suggest that crossing has a similar relative occurrence for goals as that of corner kicks. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyse open play crosses in the FIFA 2014 soccer World Cup. A total of 1332 open play crosses were observed from all 64 games of the FIFA 2014 soccer World Cup. The dominant themes of analysis included delivery side, delivery type, defensive pressure, time of cross and delivery outcome. Chi-squared tests of association were utilised to examine the association between each variable (e.g. delivery type) and each outcome category (e.g. goal-scoring attempts). A total of 42 goals (3.2%) were scored from the 1332 open play crosses analysed. The zone of the outcome of the cross was significantly associated (p < 0.05) with all outcome categories. Delivery type and zone of the crosser were significantly associated with defensive outcomes and attacking outcomes (p < 0.05). Defensive pressure was significantly associated with goal-scoring attempts and attacking outcomes (p < 0.05). Pitch side of the delivery and time of the cross were not significantly associated (p > 0.05) with any of the outcome categories. Coaches should reflect on the variables presented and the impact they have on crossing outcomes.
... An observational instrument adapted from previous studies (Casal et al., 2015;Kubayi & Larkin, 2019;Pulling et al., 2018;Pulling, 2013;Pulling, Robins & Rixon, 2013;Tenga et al., 2010a) was used in the current study. The instrument consists of the following 11 dimensions: 1) type of attack (i.e., organized attack, di- a) The possession starts by winning the ball in play or restarting the game. ...
... An observational instrument adapted from previous studies (Casal et al., 2015;Kubayi & Larkin, 2019;Pulling et al., 2018;Pulling, 2013;Pulling, Robins & Rixon, 2013;Tenga et al., 2010a) was used in the current study. The instrument consists of the following 11 dimensions: 1) type of attack (i.e., organized attack, di- a) The possession starts by winning the ball in play or restarting the game. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate open-play crosses at the 2018 FIFA World Cup tournament, with spe- cific reference to the mechanism and match status of the crosses. Descriptive statistics (i.e., frequency counts and percentages) and chi-square tests of association were used to analyse the data. The study observed a total of 949 crosses, resulting in 20 goals scored (2.1%). Descriptive statistics highlighted that offensive teams had more goal-scor- ing attempts when they used counter-attacks (18.6%) compared to organized (18.2%) and direct (10.9%) attacks. A greater number of goal-scoring attempts were observed when teams used out-swinging crosses (17.4%) as opposed to in-swinging (15%) and straight (13.5%) crosses. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between the type of attack and match status. Winning teams preferred to adopt a counter-attacking style of play; losing teams used more direct attacking strategies, and drawing teams utilized more organized attacks. Losing teams took the highest number of crosses from Zones 1 (61.1%) and 2 (56.7%) compared to other zones. These findings provide practical implications for football coaches to tailor match tactics to replicate crossing scenarios at international competitions.
... For example, coaches must adapt according to players' characteristics because opponents, when defending, will try to control vital areas such as the goalposts and it is also crucial that corners avoid goalkeeper intervention [20,22]. Coaches must seek other alternatives to overcome what the opponent is likely expecting [22], and the type of defending must be considered for more effective corner strategies to be adopted [41,44]. ...
... The search for the central areas and first post highlights that teams from different competitive levels search predominantly for vital areas that have proven to be more effective for scoring goals [16]. The search for the posts may also reflect the tendency for coaches in the modern game to choose not to place players on the posts, especially the back post [42,44]. In the present study, no differences were found in the zones where the first touch occurred, with one exception: unsuccessful teams took more corners outside (2% vs. 8%). ...
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Set pieces are important for the success of football teams, with the corner kick being one of the most game defining events. The aim of this research was twofold: (1) to analyze the corner kicks of a senior football amateur team, and (2) to compare the corner kicks of successful and unsuccessful teams (of the 2020/21 sporting season). In total, 500 corners were observed using a bespoke notational analysis tool, using a specific observational instrument tool (8 criteria; 25 categories). Out of the 500 corner kicks, 6% resulted in a goal. A greater number of direct corners using inswing trajectories were performed (n = 54%). Corners were delivered to central and front post areas most frequently (n = 79%). Five attackers were most predominantly used for offensive corners (n = 58%), but defenders won the ball more frequently (n = 44%). Attempts at goal occurred following a corner most commonly from outside of the box (n = 7%). Goals were scored most frequently with the foot (n = 16%) and head (n = 15%). Successful teams are more effective at reaching the attackers and score more goals directly from corners. Unsuccessful teams deliver more corner kicks out of play, the first touch is more frequently from the opposition defenders, and fewe goals are scored from corner kicks. The study provides an insight into the determining factors and patterns that influence corner kicks and success in football matches. This information should be used by coaches to prepare teams for both offensive and defensive corner kicks to increase team success and match outcomes.
... The corner kicks, in their turn, assigned to the attacking team when the defending team makes the last ball contact before it leaves the pitch through the bottom line (Luongo, 1996), have been already treated by authors, which associated the corner kick execution with match results (Anderson & Sally, 2013;Rocha-Lima, 2018), league table positions (Gollan et al., 2018;Souza et al., 2019), defending strategies (Kubayi & Larkin, 2019;Pulling & Newton, 2017), areas and how to deliver the ball to the area (Beare & Stone, 2019;Pulling, 2015;Strafford et al., 2019), furthermore goal scoring predictions (Anderson & Sally, 2013;Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013;Taylor et al., 2005), which also give support to discuss the data that are going to be presented in this research. ...
... At PL, season 2001/2002, only 6 goals were scored from 217 corners (Taylor et al., 2005). In the same PL, but at season 2011/2012, only 4,1% of 436 corners turned into goals, as in the Major League Soccer of 2010, in its turn, only 2,2% of 1859 corners were converted in goals scored as well (Pulling et al., 2013). ...
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The technology growth allowing analysis acts to gain more efficiency in football has increased, with performance analysis researches being conducted, since the knowledge of performance indicators that can determine success in football and the need for more predictive analysis to better comprehend them are essential. So, in account of these aspects this research aimed to investigate the influence of crosses, shots, corner kicks and defensive movements in winning Premier League (PL) football matches. The methodology adopted consists of a quantitative, descriptive and documentary research, which the sample is represented by all PL 2015/2016 matches. The analysis acts were made by the utilization of the association technique, present at data mining process, with the support of the software Weka. Results demonstrated the influence of variables in PL victories, suggesting that making a higher number of crosses than opponents was not effective to win PL matches, but that making more shots on goal than opponents was a positive indicative to predict victories, as having more defensive movements and less crosses than opponents as well. About corner kicks, results demonstrated that there is no influence of this component at match results.
... Therefore, it is legitimate to claim that goals are rather unlikely events in elite football. This idea has been put forward by some authors (Acar et al., 2009;Griffiths, 1999;Stanhope, 2001;Lago Peñas, Lago Ballesteros, Dellal, & Gómez, 2010;Ensun, Williams & Grant, 2000;Hill & Hughes, 2001;Pulling, Robins & Rixon, 2013;Sainz de Baranda & López Riquelme, 2012;Taylor, James &Mellalieu, 2005 andYamanaka et al., 2002) who tried to determine the variables associated with goals, analyzing how these were achieved and searching for strategies to Media de goles por partido increase their number. Most of them reached the same conclusion that deadball actions (DBA) are a potentially effective way of generating more scoring opportunities. ...
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Rev.int.med.cienc.act.fís.deporte-vol. 18-número 70-ISSN: 1577-0354 248 Indirect free kicks are situations that occur during football matches, with potentially transcendental actions in the final result. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of these actions, identify variables associated with success, and propose a successful indirect free kick model. After registering 447 indirect free kicks during the 64 games of the World Cup in South Africa 2010, and performing statistical analysis, results indicate a low efficiency in the shot, shot between the three posts and goal. 64.3 % of goals that came from indirect free kick contributed to score points in the final result. The mode of sending, number of attackers involved and the offensive organization are variables that have been revealed as modulators of effectiveness. These statements could be a starting point to equip coaches with new tactical tools. KEY WORDS: Logistic Regression, observational methodology, football RESUMEN Los tiros libres indirectos son situaciones que se producen durante los partidos de fútbol, siendo acciones potencialmente trascendentales en el resultado final. Los objetivos fueron determinar la efectividad de estas acciones, identificar las variables asociadas con el éxito, y proponer un modelo de tiro libre indirecto exitoso. Tras registrar 447 tiros libres indirectos durante los 64 partidos del Mundial de Sudáfrica 2010, y de realizar análisis estadístico, los resultados indican una baja eficacia en el remate, remate entre los tres palos y el gol. El 64,3% de los goles con procedencia en un tiro libre indirectos han contribuido a sumar puntos en el resultado final. El modo de envío, número de atacantes que intervienen y la organización ofensiva son variables que se han revelado como moduladoras de la eficacia. Estos enunciados podrían suponer un punto de partida para dotar a entrenadores de nuevas herramientas tácticas.
... Therefore, match situation must be considered when interpreting 602 results given its influence on team strategy. 164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182 Prediction: 165,169,171,174,177,178,179 Movement Patterns Descriptive: 183,184,185,186 Inferential: 184,187,188,189,190 Prediction: 187,190,191 Other: 185,190,191,192 Netball Game Actions Descriptive : 193 Inferential: 194 Other: 194,195,196 Dynamic 269,270,271,272,273,274,275,276,277,278,279,280,281,282,283,284,285,286 Inferential: 271,272,274,276,278,280,282,285,286,287,288,289,290,291,292,293,294,295,296,297,298,299,300,301,302,303,304,305,306,307,308,309,310,311,312,313,314,315,316,317,318,319,320,321,322,323,324,325,326,327,328,329,330,331,332,333,334,335,336,337,338,339,340,341,342 Prediction: 271,273,275,276,277,279,281,300,312,316,320,323,324,325,326,329,331,332,338,339,341,343,344,345,346,347,348,349,350,351,352,353,354,355,356, 397,398,399,400,401,402,403,404,405,406,407,408 Inferential: 400,401,402,403,404,405,406,408,409,410,411,412,413,414,415,416,417,418,419,420,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,430,431,432,433,434,435,436,437,438,439,440,441,442,443,444,445 Prediction: 410,411,416,417,418,422,436,439,440,441,444,446,447,448,449,450, ...
Article
The objective of this review was to systematically describe the traditional and contemporary data capture and analytic methods employed in performance analysis research in team invasion sports, evaluate the practicality of these methods, and formulate practical recommendations on methods for analysing tactics and strategies in team invasion sports. A systematic search of the databases SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and PubMed was performed. Keywords addressed performance analysis methods and team invasion sports, with all other disciplines of sports science excluded. A total of 537 articles were included in the review and six main themes of research identified. Themes included game actions, dynamic game actions, movement patterns, collective team behaviours, social network analysis and game styles. Performance analysis research has predominantly focused on identifying key performance indicators related to success by analysing differences in game actions between successful and less successful teams. However, these measures are outcome-focused and only provide limited insight into winning team’s strategy. Team invasion sports are now viewed as dynamic, complex systems with opposing teams as interacting parts. Strategies and tactics should be analysed using a holistic process-orientated approach by recording dynamic actions, collective team behaviours and passing networks, and viewing them in game styles.
... W meczach zachodzi interakcja pomiędzy poziomem sportowym graczy, a stosowanymi elementami taktycznymi i technicznymi, które powinny być analizowane wspólnie jako wyznaczniki gry, często o charakterze dominującym (Carling, Williams, Prowadzone badania wykazały znaczne różnice w przygotowaniu motorycznym pomiędzy zespołami o zróżnicowanym potencjale sportowym, jak również pomiędzy zawodnikami prezentującymi różny poziom sportowy (Bradley et al. 2010; Carling, Dupont, Le Gall 2012; Di Mascio, Bradley 2013; Vigne et al. 2013). W wielu przypadkach sprawność gry, w doskonały sposób korelowała z miejscem jaki dany zespół zajmował w tabeli rozgrywek (Rampinini et al. 2009; Bradley et al. 2010; Pulling, Matthew, Thomas, 2013). Jednak nie wszystkie wyniki badań potwierdzały obserwowane prawidłowości. ...
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The purpose of the paper was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of a footballer’s actions during 2012 UEFA European Championship. Playing in different positions, formations and national teams was taken into consideration while assessing the footballers’ actions. The following elements were analyzed: passes, goal attempts, playing 1vs1 and defensive actions, further divided into tackling and intercepts, kicking the ball out of the defensive zone and sliding tackles. The authors propose using (along with commonly used game indicators) indices of action efficiency, in which effectiveness of an activity in terms of all players of both teams participating in a match. Establishing cognitive models of the game based on actions of footballers regarded as champions (in view of the significance of the tournament) is another asset of the analysis. Differences in the effectiveness of footballers’ actions were validated. The differentials were often essential between footballers playing in different and similar positions, formations, and national teams. Higher passing efficiency was noticed with the winning teams in comparison to the losing teams. A similar dependency was observed between players of teams which were qualified to the final stage and other teams. The passing efficiency, presented with activeness and effectiveness indices, was higher for the footballers of the defensive formation than others. The effectiveness of playing 1vs1, especially its reliability, characterized the top teams of the tournament. It has been noticed that the more offensive tasks the players have, the more frequently they were engaged in playing 1vs1 but the effectiveness and reliability decreased. Tackling characterized the successful teams. Statistically significant differences in tackling activeness have been noticed between formations – defensive midfielders and defenders exercised this element distinctly more frequently than forwards. Sliding tackle efficiency was not dependent on the situation on the pitch, it was more likely to result from the team’s style of playing. Obviously sliding tackle transpired to be most commonly used by the defenders and defensive midfielders. The analysis of intercepts proved that exercising this element was not connected to the score at the time. It was most frequently exercised by defenders and defensive midfielders. Kicking the ball out of the defensive zone was exercised most commonly by teams which were not particularly successful in the tournament. This element is considered as a defensive action, performed in case of direct threat to the goal. A higher technical-tactical stability in defensive actions of defensive players described by many authors was confirmed. Such a high stability was not seen in offensive actions. It is undoubtedly connected to using different dynamic interactions to interrupt defensive structure of the opposite team. The indices proposed by the authors was also proven to be useful. It was noticed that the more indicators of an action were included in the index, the higher was the value of the discriminant function in the analysis. Such a tendency appeared with all researched parameters. While preparing the discriminant function, in all cases the effectiveness and activeness indices as well as the reliability rate were included in the model. It was less common for the efficiency and activeness indicators. The significance of particular indices were researched also in the field of comparing national teams, formations and positions of players on the pitch. Indices related to passing effectiveness and activeness were of the highest value. Average values of discriminant functions for 1vs1 effectiveness index, intercept index and sliding tackle effectiveness index were on a similar level. Significant differences appeared also in average values of discriminant functions for the indices of the activeness of kicking the ball out. Similar regularities were visible in the values of the sliding tackle activeness index.
... About the methods that teams use to execute these actions, there is a great lack of consensus among the scientific community. On the one hand, descriptive works such as Pulling, Robins & Rixon [24] and Schmicker [25] have found that direct sendings to the area in search of a quick completion are the best option, being the ratio between the number of corners and goals very low, with relative values close to 40:1. On the other hand, comparative or bivariate works [26], affirm that goal is barely achieved in 2.5% of these actions, finding a significant association between the goal and the coordinated dynamics between the attacking players. ...
Article
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The use of multidimensional statistical technique based on decision trees is of recent application in sports science. In the case of football, this technique has not yet been sufficiently proven. The aim of the present study was to search for different success models for the corners in the FIFA World Cup 2014 and FIFA Women's World Cup 2015. For this, the statistical analysis focused on the search for classification models for the different criteria considered (shot, shot between the three posts and goal), based on the creation of different decision trees that allow the most important variables to be identified quickly and efficiently. For this, 1117 corners were collected between the two competitions, performed in 116 international matches. It has been possible to establish multivariate models for the "shot" and "shot between the three posts" criteria, allowing, in some cases, to quadruple the potential for offensive success. On the other hand, we have been able to identify significant differences in the male and female model of execution. These findings suggest the need to continue deepening the study of tactical behavior in women's soccer from a multivariate perspective, and also propose a better optimization of the management and training of this type of actions for both male and female football. In addition, it has allowed to test the decision tree statistical technique in the analysis of high performance football, with satisfactory results and of great relevance in the applied field.
... W meczach zachodzi interakcja pomiędzy poziomem sportowym graczy, a stosowanymi elementami taktycznymi i technicznymi, które powinny być analizowane wspólnie jako wyznaczniki gry, często o charakterze dominującym (Carling, Williams, Prowadzone badania wykazały znaczne różnice w przygotowaniu motorycznym pomiędzy zespołami o zróżnicowanym potencjale sportowym, jak również pomiędzy zawodnikami prezentującymi różny poziom sportowy (Bradley et al. 2010; Carling, Dupont, Le Gall 2012; Di Mascio, Bradley 2013; Vigne et al. 2013). W wielu przypadkach sprawność gry, w doskonały sposób korelowała z miejscem jaki dany zespół zajmował w tabeli rozgrywek (Rampinini et al. 2009; Bradley et al. 2010; Pulling, Matthew, Thomas, 2013). Jednak nie wszystkie wyniki badań potwierdzały obserwowane prawidłowości. ...
... A la vista de estos datos, es plausible pensar que el gol es una casuística relativamente infrecuente en el fútbol de alto nivel. Esta idea ha sido recogida Media de goles por partido por algunos autores (Acar et al., 2009;Griffiths, 1999;Stanhope, 2001;Lago Peñas, Lago Ballesteros, Dellal, y Gómez, 2010;Ensun, Williams y Grant, 2000;Hill & Hughes, 2001;Pulling, Robins & Rixon, 2013;Sainz de Baranda & López Riquelme, 2012;Taylor, James & Mellalieu, 2005y Yamanaka et al., 2002, que han intentado identificar las variables asociadas al gol, valorando la forma de consecución de estos goles y buscando nuevas fórmulas para elevar dicho tanteo. Muchos de ellos han llegado a la misma conclusión: las acciones a balón parado (ABP) son un método potencialmente eficaz de incrementar situaciones de gol. ...
Article
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Los tiros libres indirectos son situaciones que se producen durante los partidos de fútbol, siendo acciones potencialmente trascendentales en el resultado final. Los objetivos fueron determinar la efectividad de estas acciones, identificar las variables asociadas con el éxito, y proponer un modelo de tiro libre indirecto exitoso. Tras registrar 447 tiros libres indirectos durante los 64 partidos del Mundial de Sudáfrica 2010, y de realizar análisis estadístico, los resultados indican una baja eficacia en el remate, remate entre los tres palos y el gol. El 64,3% de los goles con procedencia en un tiro libre indirectos han contribuido a sumar puntos en el resultado final. El modo de envío, número de atacantes que intervienen y la organización ofensiva son variables que se han revelado como moduladoras de la eficacia. Estos enunciados podrían suponer un punto de partida para dotar a entrenadores de nuevas herramientas tácticas.
... Diferentes estudios han analizado el rendimiento en las acciones a balón parado en campeonatos europeos y mundiales (De Baranda y Lopez-Riquelme, 2012; Siegle y Lames, 2012;Pulling, Robins, y Rixon, 2013;Ardá et al., 2014;Casal et al., 2014;Casal et al., 2015;Pulling, 2015;Link et al., 2016;Maneiro et al., 2019). Hasta donde alcanza nuestro conocimiento, pocos estudios analizaron las competiciones a nivel sudamericano y del fútbol uruguayo. ...
... Average number of goals scored per game Therefore, it is legitimate to claim that goals are rather unlikely events in elite football. This idea has been put forward by some authors (Acar et al., 2009;Griffiths, 1999;Stanhope, 2001;Lago Peñas, Lago Ballesteros, Dellal, & Gómez, 2010;Ensun, Williams & Grant, 2000;Hill & Hughes, 2001;Pulling, Robins & Rixon, 2013;Sainz de Baranda & López Riquelme, 2012;Taylor, James &Mellalieu, 2005 andYamanaka et al., 2002) who tried to determine the variables associated with goals, analyzing how these were achieved and searching for strategies to increase their number. Most of them reached the same conclusion that dead-ball actions (DBA) are a potentially effective way of generating more scoring opportunities. ...
Article
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Free kicks are common actions during football matches with some potentially significant influence on the final result. This study aims to determine their effectiveness, identify the variables associated with success and recommend a successful model for indirect free kicks. After recording 447 indirect free kicks during the 64 matches of the 2010 World Cup in South Africa and performing statistical analysis, the results reveal low accuracy in the shots, shots on target and goals. However, 64.3 % of the goals scored from indirect free kicks helped win points and contributed significantly to the final result. The passing mode, the number of strikers involved and the offensive organisation prove to be variables modulating effectiveness. These findings may be used to equip coaches with new strategic tools.
... Operational definitions for possession outcomes.TermDefinition GoalThe ball moved over the goal-line, and the referee awarded a goal (Pulling et al. 2013).Shot on target An obvious attempt to score which would result in a goal if not obstructed (Bateman 2012; OPTA 2012). Shot off target An attempt to score which would not result in a goal if not obstructed (Bateman 2012; OPTA 2012). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the ball recovery type, location of ball recovery and the duration of the possession on the outcomes of possessions in both the EPL and the Spanish La Liga. In total, 4971 possessions were observed across 20 matches from the 2017/2018 season of both the EPL (n = 2469) and La Liga (n = 2502). Ball recovery was analysed across four zones, supplemented by five types of ball recovery (interception, tackle, goalkeeper save, set-play and turnover) and three different possession duration categories (<5 seconds, 5-12 seconds and >12 seconds). Each of these were analysed according to five different attacking outcomes. Teams from both competitions scored more goals and took more shots after recovering the ball from the most advanced attacking zone. La Liga teams scored relatively more goals when recovering possession through a tackle (2.5% of tackles led to a goal). EPL teams scored relatively more goals and took more shots after turnovers (2.0% of turnovers led to a goal and 14.6% of turnovers led to a shot). EPL teams are more likely to score a goal or create a shooting opportunity when utilising shorter possessions (<5 seconds), whereas La Liga teams are more likely to score a goal after utilising longer possessions (>12 seconds).
... In the Supplementary Material [33], we incorporate animation to visualize this result. The higher peaks in the series correspond to special situations of the game where the players all group together, like, for instance, in a corner kick or dead ball [34]. In this regard, we want to highlight that κ cannot grow to the infinite. ...
Article
In this article, we study the dynamics of marking in football matches. To do this, we survey and analyze a database containing the trajectories of players from both teams on the field of play during three professional games. We describe the dynamics through the construction of temporal bipartite networks of proximity. Based on the introduced concept of proximity, the nodes are the players, and the links are defined between opponents that are close enough to each other at a given moment. By studying the evolution of the heterogeneity parameter of the networks during the game, we characterize a scaling law for the average shape of the fluctuations, unveiling the emergence of complexity in the system. Moreover, we propose a simple model to simulate the players' motion in the field from where we obtained the evolution of a synthetic proximity network. We show that the model captures with a remarkable agreement the complexity of the empirical case, hence it proves to be helpful to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena.
... These decisions are typically prepared per match, where they try to optimise specific role-assignments based on strength and weaknesses of their own players as well as the opponent. Manually annotating corner strategies, or their results, has a long history in sport sciences (Armatas et al. 2007;de Baranda and Lopez-Riquelme 2012;Casal et al. 2015Casal et al. , 2017Cerrah, Özer, and Bayram 2016;Craig 2015;Craig, Robins, and Rixon 2013;Fernández-Hermógenes, Camerino, and AntonioDe Alcaraz 2017;Pulling and Newton 2017;Schmicker 2013;Strafford et al. 2019;Suárez et al. 2014;Zileli and Söyler 2020). These handcreated annotations are limited in size, and therefore do not allow for long-term analysis. ...
Article
Choosing the right defensive corner-strategy is a crucial task for each coach in professional football (soccer). Although corners are repeatable and static situations, due to their low conversion rates, several studies in literature failed to find useable insights about the efficiency of various corner strategies. Our work aims to fill this gap. We hand-label the role of each defensive player from 213 corners in 33 matches, where we then employ an augmentation strategy to increase the number of data points. By combining a convolutional neural network with a long short-term memory neural network, we are able to detect the defensive strategy of each player based on positional data. We identify which of seven well-established roles a defensive player conducted (player-marking, zonal-marking, placed for counterattack, back-space, short defender, near-post, and far-post). The model achieves an overall weighted accuracy of 89.3%, and in the case of player-marking, we are able to accurately detect which offensive player the defender is marking 80.8% of the time. The performance of the model is evaluated against a rule-based baseline model, as well as by an inter-labeller accuracy. We demonstrate that rules can also be used to support the labelling process and serve as a baseline for weak supervision approaches. We show three concrete use-cases on how this approach can support a more informed and fact-based decision making process.
... In general, set-pieces are often a decisive factor for winning a game, particularly when teams are equally strong (Göral, 2019;Szwarc, 2007). Especially for corner-kicks, there exist several studies examining how they lead to goals: (Taylor et al., 2005;Carling et al., 2006;Vasilios Armatas et al., 2007;Schmicker, 2013;Pulling et al., 2013;Pulling, 2015;Claudio A. Claudio A. Casal et al., 2015;Fernández-Hermógenes et al., 2017;C. A. Casal et al., 2017). ...
Article
We propose to analyse the origin of goals in professional football (soccer) in a purely data-driven approach. Based on positional and event data of 3,457 goals from two seasons German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga (2018/20,219 and 2019/2020), we devise a rich set of 37 features that can be extracted automatically and propose a hierarchical clustering approach to identify group structures. The results consist of 50 interpretable clusters revealing insights into scoring patterns. The hierarchical clustering found 8 alone standing clusters (penalties, direct free kicks, kick and rush, one-two’s, assisted by header, assisted by throw-in) and nine categories (e.g., corners) combining more granular patterns (e.g., five subcategories of corner-goals). We provide a thorough discussion of the clustering and show its relevance for practical applications in opponent analysis, player scouting and for long-term investigations. All stages of this work have been supported by professional analysts from clubs and federation.
... In the supplementary material, we incorporate an animation to visualize this result. The higher peaks in the series correspond to special situations of the game where the players group altogether, like, for instance, in a corner kick or dead ball [25]. In this regard, we want to highlight that κ cannot grow to the infinite. ...
Preprint
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In this article, we study the dynamics of marking in football matches. To do this, we surveyed and analyzed a database containing the trajectories of players from both teams on the field of play during three professional games. We describe the dynamics through the construction of temporal bipartite networks of proximity. Based on the introduced concept of proximity, the nodes are the players, and the links are defined between opponents that are close enough to each other at a given moment. By studying the evolution of the heterogeneity parameter of the networks during the game, we characterized a scaling law for the average shape of the fluctuations, unveiling the emergence of complexity in the system. Moreover, we proposed a simple model to simulate the players' motion in the field from where we obtained the evolution of a synthetic proximity network. We show that the model captures with a remarkable agreement the complexity of the empirical case, hence it proves to be helpful to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena.
... Therefore, it is considered necessary to carry out analysis of set pieces in different domestic leagues, since the execution patterns of these situations can be shaped depending of the match location, as a consequence of the predominant styles of play, the quality of the teams and the football tradition of a specific country. If we also consider that this type of work is not too prolific (Pulling et al., 2013;Pulling & Newton, 2017;Siegle & Lames, 2012;Strafford et al., 2019;Taylor et al., 2005) and even less those that have focused on the Spanish First Division (Prieto-Lage et al., 2021, Silva, 2011, considered one of the best leagues in the world, it is necessary to continue to analyze this game situation, to identify the factors that affect their performance and try to find more efficient execution models to obtain greater benefits in the execution of them. ...
Article
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It is well documented that set pieces represent 30% to 40% of goals scored in elite football, however most studies on set pieces have focused on the analysis of special competitions (World Cup, Euro etc). Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of corner kick strategies used in LaLiga Santander during the 2019/2020 season, to identify the Key Performance Indicators (KPI) associated with the outcome of corners kicks and to develop a successful execution model. In total, 3,620 corner kicks executed in 380 matches were recorded by the observational methodology and examined through univariate (analysis of proportions), bivariate (Chi-square test for independence χ² and ROC area) and multivariate analysis (logistic regression). Results showed that 105 goals (2.9%) were scored from corner kicks. The following KPI were associated with outcome of corner kicks: final result (χ² = 10.644, p = 0.002), time (χ² = 10.422, p < 0.005), number of intervening attackers (χ² = 24.863, p < 0.001), final attempt zone (χ² = 203.13, p < 0.001), number of passes and second play (χ² = 26.071, p < 0.001). The most effective execution model consisted of a direct delivery, shooting to goal from the front zone or second post. The results presented here enhance coaches´ understanding on factors that affect corner kicks performance and the most efficient mode of execution.
... Corner kicks are considered to be a reasonable goal-scoring opportunity. Pulling et al. (2013) study the tactical behaviour when defending corner kicks. Casal et al. (2015) provide a through analysis on the factors to increase the likelihood of shot-on-goal from corner kicks. ...
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This paper presents a novel compound Poisson regression model to forecast number of corner kicks taken in association football. Corner kick taken events are often decisive in the match outcome and embody serial correlation and clustered pattern. Providing parameter estimates with intuitive interpretation, a class of compound Poisson distribution including a Bayesian implementation of geometric-Poisson distribution is introduced. Apart from introducing a new statistical framework, the utilisation of cross-market data, target encoding techniques and treatment to the data-rich-data-poor problem to enhance the model predictability are also discussed.
... Based on the obtained results, the average number of corners per game is 9,087, which mostly agrees with the results of the research they conducted (Pulling et al., 2013;Ensum et al., 2000;Hill, & Hughes, 2001;Acar et al., 2009). A number of authors agree that less than 30% of goals are scored from interruptions (Casal et al., 2015;Simuyu, 2013;Wright et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Corners are a segment of the game from which goals are not often scored, but they may be a decisive factor in the outcome of the match between the two teams. The aim of this research is to determine the characteristics of performing a corner kick and to examine whether there are differences between different competitions of professional football players. The sample of respondents represents the matches of the International Champions Cup in the 2018 season and the matches of the Spanish league (La Liga) in the 2017/2018 season. A total of 23 matches (13 matches of the International Champions Cup and 10 matches of the Spanish league) were analyzed. To describe the tactics of corner kicks, variables were observed that indicate the way the kicks are performed from the corner. The methodology of observing several teams, monitoring all matches and monitoring both teams in each match with the analysis of given variables was used. Corner kicks that had more than three passes, which means starting a new, organized attack, were excluded from the analysis. A total of 209 of the 253 corners were included. The results show that there is no statistically significant difference in most of the observed i Correspondence: email 131 parameters, but in the type of defense that the teams apply, play and lateral performance, there are statistically significant differences. Zone defense (.012) is used more by teams that competed in the International Champions Cup and combined (.036) by teams in the Spanish league. There are also differences in the playoffs (.047) in favor of the International Champions Cup. Corners from the same side (.031) were used more in the International Champions Cup than in the Spanish league. These results show that the teams do not differ much in the way they set up in the defensive phase and the attack phase, but that there are certain common criteria.
... To validate the hypothesis that V I is a measure of game dynamics, we searched for correlations between known moments of intensive player repositioning and surges in the information distance. Corners, being overwhelmingly defended one-to-one [53] , result in quick player displacement and occur frequently in a match (mean 10.3, σ = 2 . 5 , which matches previously reported numbers [54] ). ...
Article
In this article, we present an original method to measure the rate of positional change observed during a soccer match based on the relative spatial distribution of players on the pitch. This is justified as players use their relative position as a key tactical tool to contribute to their team’s objectives. A temporal network representation of the game was used, where nodes are players discretely clustered by physical proximity into disjoint clusters. This study, observational and descriptive in nature, was applied to a set of matches from a major European national football league, with players’ coordinates sampled at 10Hz, resulting in ≈ 60,000 network samples per match. We took an information theoretic approach to measuring the distance between successive samples. Significant correlations were found between measurements and key match events that are empirically known to result in players jostling for position, such as when striving to get unmarked or to mark. These events increase the information distance between samples, while breaks in game play have the opposite effect. Having a measurement of dynamic, structural change in soccer is an original contribution that can complement full match statistical analysis. Hierarchical decomposition of the measurements is possible at multiple levels, building an overall multi-layer map that provides insights into the game dynamics, from the individual player, to the clusters of interacting players, up to the teams and their matches. This comprehensive view of the players’ interacting behavior can be useful for training, tactics and strategy development.
... Even lower rates, have been reported by Borrás et al. (2005) A total of 2029 corner kicks were taken by first-and second-division teams in the 2016-2017 Spanish league (943 and 1086 kicks, respectively). This corresponds to a mean of 10.04 kicks per match (9.92 in the first division and 10.25 in the second), which is consistent with the mean figures ranging from 9 to 11 reported by Acar et al. 2009;Ardá et al. 2014;Casal et al., 2015b;Maneiro et al., 2016;Maneiro, 2014;Pulling et al., 2013;Sainz de Baranda et al., 2012;Sánchez-Flores et al., 2012;and Silva, 2011), higher than the figures of 7.88 and 6.2 reported by Jiménez et al. (2016) and Yamanaka et al. (1997) respectively, and lower than the figure of 13 reported by Castelo (1999). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to analyze situational and behavioral factors associated with successful corner kicks, defined as kicks that ended in a shot, in elite soccer. Within the framework of a systematic observational methodology study, we analyzed 2029 corner kicks taken by first-division (La Liga Santander) and second-division professional teams during the 2016-2017 Spanish soccer league season. A total of 229 kicks were selected that met specific conditions and ended in goal for pattern detection. The Systematic Observational Methodology (OM) was used for its analysis and he execution and outcomes of these technical-tactical set pieces were analyzed using an ad hoc observation instrument (SOCOP-1) that contemplates key situational and behavioral factors and was loaded into LINCE PLUS freeware program. Descriptive statistics were calculated in STATA and complemented by temporal pattern (T-pattern) analysis in THEME 6.0. The most successful kicks were those taken by a right-(or left-footed) player from the right (or left) side of the pitch and delivered to the penalty box and those taken by a right-or left-footed player from the opposite side of the pitch and delivered to the near post. Situational factors that influenced corner kick efficacy were match location (home vs away), time of the match and score when the kick was taken, and ranking of the rival team. Corner kicks should be practised under game conditions prior to matches and to train integradamente with the physical condition before to the competition.
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze, aiming to understand, the defensive organization in football corner kicks situations. After a literature review, variables were defined for the analysis of this situation, and an instrument with 18 variables was constructed. Verified that the instrument was satisfactorily consistent (intra and inter-observer reliability was tested) ensure the quality of the data, 139 corners of the last 16 games of the 2018 World Cup were analyzed. The data collected indicate that the most frequently used type of defensive organization was Mixed Defense with Individual dominance (79.9%) followed by Zonal dominance (15.1%), and with less relevance to Individual Defense (3.6%) and Zonal Defense (1.4%). The results showed a preferred occupancy by the defenders in the central area between goal and the nearest corner post (72.8% of players in this zone before the corner was kicked and 69% at the first touch of the ball after corner be marked). It has also been found that defenders tend to react to the action of opponents starting their move often 0.36s after them. We can conclude that the developed instrument appears to be appropriate and consistent for analysis and understanding of corner kicks in football, allowing improving the defensive organization, either by researchers or coaches.
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This study compared the corner kick strategies employed by the top six and bottom six teams across 120 matches of the 2015/2016 English Premier League Season. In total, 2,303 corner kicks were examined by univariate analyses (individual χ2) and bivariate analyses with contingency tables (χ2 and association measures). Top six teams favoured an outswinging delivery, whilst the bottom six teams favoured inswinging deliveries (p < 0.001). Top six teams operated a dynamic attacking organisation during ball deliveries, (p < 0.001), whereas the bottom six operated static and dynamic attacking strategies in equal measure. Top six teams took corner kicks frequently when winning or drawing, whereas bottom six teams took most corner kicks when losing or drawing (match status, p < 0.001). Bivariate analyses identified that goals were scored from corner kicks when attacking organisation was dynamic, two defenders were on the posts and the score line was level (p < 0.05). Results supplement the design of practice tasks that afford successful corner kicks in training and game play scenarios.
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Fuentes de Financiación: "La actividad física y el deporte como potenciadores del estilo de vida saludable: Evaluación del comportamiento deportivo desde metodologías no intrusivas", subvencionado por la Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad [DEP2015-66069-P; MINECO/FEDER, UE], durante el bienio 2016-2018.-Resumen En los últimos años se constata un aumento de los trabajos de naturaleza científica centrada en el fútbol femenino. En cambio, los estudios de naturaleza táctica, y más concretamente las situaciones estáticas del juego, todavía permanecen al margen del marco investigador. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido doble: por un lado, conocer y comparar la regularidad, eficacia y trascendencia de los saques de esquina en el FIFA Women´s World Cup 2015 en contraposición con el FIFA World Cup 2014; por otro, a través de la realización de diferentes tablas de contingencia y de aplicación de un Ji-Cuadrado, se ha procedido a identificar las variables asociadas con el éxito para los tres criterios considerados: remate, remate entre los tres palos y gol. Fueron codificados y analizados 1117 saques de esquina ejecutados en 116 partidos. Los resultados indican una alta regularidad de estas acciones durante el mundial masculino y femenino, y una baja eficacia en cuanto a remate, remate entre los tres palos y gol para ambos géneros. Por lo que respecta a las variables que están condicionando el éxito, a pesar de que se observan moderadas diferencias en ambos campeonatos, los saques de esquina en fútbol femenino deben continuar dando pasos hacia la construcción de un modelo propio de gestión ofensiva. Palabras clave: fútbol femenino; saque de esquina; metodología observacional; análisis del rendimiento Abstract In recent years there has been an increase in works of a scientific nature focused on women's football. On the other hand, studies of a tactical nature, and more specifically the static situations of the game, still remain outside the research framework. The aim of this study has been twofold: on the one hand, to know and compare the regularity, effectiveness and importance of the corners in the FIFA Women's World Cup 2015 as opposed to the FIFA World Cup 2014; On the other, through the realization of different contingency tables and the application of a Chi-Square, we proceeded to identify the variables associated with success for the three criteria considered: shot, shot between the posts and goal. 1117 corner kicks executed in 116 games were coded and analyzed. The results indicate a high regularity of these actions during the men's and women's world, and a low efficiency in terms of auction, shot between the three clubs and goal for both genders. With regard to the variables that are conditioning the success, although moderate differences are observed in both championships, the corners in women's football must continue taking steps towards the construction of a model of offensive management.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the use of near-post guard systems when defending corner kicks in the English Premier League during the 2015/2016 season. A total of 750 corner kicks from 79 English Premier League matches were analysed. There were a total of eight different near-post guard systems observed. Only six corner kicks (0.8%) were observed where there was no guard positioned in the near-post area when defending corner kicks. The one-one system only conceded one goal from 148 corner kicks (0.7%) observed, whereas the one-zero system conceded 8 goals from 159 corner kicks (5.0%) observed. However, when all attempts at goal were included, there was no significant association between the different near-post guard systems and the number of attempts at goal (p > 0.05). An important finding was that there were 236 defensive clearances performed by the guards from the 750 corner kicks that were analysed (31.5%), this suggests that these defensive players play an important role in preventing the attacking team from having an attempt at goal from a corner kick. Further research on corner kicks is still required and suggestions have been made for future investigations.
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Öz: Araştırmanın amacı: Türkiye Süper Lig Teknik Direktörlerinin 1. Bölgeden kullanılan duran toplara karşı savunma taktikleri ve sonuçlarının incelenmesidir. Çalışmaya 19 teknik direktör katılmıştır. Savunma taktiklerini belirlemek amacı ile denek gurubuna nicel anket uygulandı. Ayrıca detaylı sözel bilgi almak üzere de yarı yapılandırılmış nitel ölçek uygulandı. Bunların yanı sıra teknik direktörlerin görev aldıkları müsabakalarda kullanılan 714 korner ve 413 serbest atış bilgisayar destekli bir analiz programı ile incelendi. Araştırmada kullanılan her bir değişken SPSS Windows 21,0 paket programı ile tanımlayıcı istatistik kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmaya katılan teknik adamlar korner atışlarına karşı ilk savunma tercihi olarak %47,4'ü Adam Adama, %26,3'ü Alan, %26,3'ü Karma savunmayı tercih ettiği belirlendi. Korner atışlarına karşı başarılı savunma oranın başarısız savunma oranından yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır. Teknik direktörlerin serbest atışlara karşı % 36,8'i ilk sırada karma savunmayı tercih ettikleri görülmüştür. Geriye kalanlarda %31,6 oranla alan savunması ve adam adama savunmayı tercih etmişlerdir. Bu serbest atışlara karşı başarılı savunma oranın başarısız savunma oranından yüksek olduğu belirlendi. Duran toplar sonrası gerçekleşen 585 adet dönen toplarda: %49 oranla savunma yapan takım topa sahip olup rakip atağı sonlandırmada başarılı olmuş ancak, %51 oranla ise rakip takım topu kazanıp atak yenilemiştir. Araştırma sonunda savunma yapan takımların, duran toplar sonrası dönen toplar hariç, savunma taktiklerinde başarılı oldukları sonucuna varılmıştır. Abstract: The aim of study was to examine the Turkish Super League coaches' defensive tactics and results against to set play that used in first zone.19 coaches participate the investigation. In order to determine the defensive tactics of coach quantitative survey was administered to a subject group. It is also applied a scale to get more qualitative semi-structured verbal information. These, as well as 714 corner kicks and 413 free kicks has been viewed by means of a computer-aided analysis program. Each variable used in the study were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software package for windows with descriptive statistics. The Coaches who participated in the survey, accept as the first choice towards a corner kicks that 47,4% of them man to man defense 26,3% zonal defense, 26,3% mixed defense. The successful defense against corners ratio was found to be higher than the unsuccessful defense. 36, 8% of coaches preferred mix of defense to the free kicks. 31, 6% of coaches chose zonal defense and man to man defense. Successful defense against free kicks rate was determined to be higher than the unsuccessful defense. After the set plays, 585 return ball the defensive team has been successful in 49% of ball position but 51% opposing team won the ball and renewing the attack. As a result of the study, the defense teams were successful in defensive tactics except for returning balls after set plays.
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This study analysed the characteristics of 476 corner kicks taken during 52 matches at the FIFA women’s World Cup 2019. The effect of current match status/team quality was examined, and the corner characteristics associated with the 17 goals scored from corners (3.6%) and 93 shots on-target (19.5%) were identified. Goals from corners were more likely from dynamic attacks or with 1–4 defenders for short corners. Shots on-target were more likely from corners delivered into GA3&CA3 and the outer zones, ≥6 attackers were inside the delivery area or involved ≥3 intervening attackers. Match status was significantly associated with number of defenders, attackers for short corners, defenders for short corners and type of marking. Team quality was significantly associated with type of delivery, kicking foot, number of attackers, attackers for short corners, defenders for short corners, defenders on posts, number of intervening attackers and offensive organisation. Team quality was not significantly associated with corner outcomes, perhaps a consequence of higher-quality teams not always favouring corner characteristics which are associated with increased success (goals or shots on-target). These results can assist coaches to understand corner characteristics to expect when winning, drawing, or losing, or against different levels of opposition within women’s international football.
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The actions of the set-piece are decisive in the score. The corner is the most effective. The object of the study was to describe, analyse and compare the offence’s corners that were made in the six main European leagues during the 17/18 season (2132 matches). The 351 corners that met the selected criteria were analysed through a descriptive and association analysis with IBM-SPSS v.20.0 with a significance level of p < 0.05. In general, the direct corners were more frequent than the indirect. The common pattern in the direct corners comprised sending the ball with a mid-depth distance and a direct header into the goal. In indirect corners, sending the ball with short-depth, head extension and subsequent shot directly to the goal was a common pattern. There are differences among the European leagues. At the same time, characteristics and transversal patterns have been observed allowing the successful corners sent to the area without defence rejections to be detected.
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In soccer, dead-ball moves are those in which the ball is returned to play from a stationary position following an interruption of play. The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of one such dead-ball move, namely corner kicks, and to identify the key variables that determine the success of a shot or header following a corner, thereby enabling a model of successful corner kicks to be proposed. We recorded 554 corner kicks performed during the 2010 World Cup in South Africa and carried out a univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the data. The results indicated that corners were of limited effectiveness in terms of the success of subsequent shots or headers. The analysis also revealed a series of variables that were significantly related to one another, and this enabled us to propose an explanatory model. Although this model had limited explanatory power, it nonetheless helps to understand the execution of corner kicks in practical terms.
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This study analyzes corner kicks in elite football to determine their efficacy, identify shared characteristics and associated variables, and propose a model for predicting successful outcomes. In total, 1139 kicks taken in 124 matches in the 2010 FIFA World Cup (64 matches), UEFA Euro 2012 (31 matches), and the UEFA Champions League 2010-2011 (29 matches) were studied by univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. Just 2.2% of the corners ended in goal, but this goal was responsible for the team winning or drawing the match on 76% of occasions. In general, kicks are delivered through the air to the near post, with 1 or 2 intervening attackers; the attack is organized statically and the defense is a combination of zone and man-to-man. The following variables were significantly associated with corner kicks resulting in a goal: time (p=0.04), number of intervening attackers (p=0.001), and offensive organization (p=0.02). The likelihood of a shot on goal or shot could be increased with the intervention of 3 or 4 attackers, a dynamic attack, and indirect delivery of the ball to the far post. This information could be of great interest for football professionals interested in improving corner kick performance.
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Las acciones a balón parado (ABP) en fútbol son todas aquellas situaciones de juego que se inician con un saque desde parado después de una interrupción reglamentaria del mismo. En este trabajo se ha pretendido analizar la eficacia de una de estas acciones, el saque de esquina; identificar las variables más relevantes para conducir al éxito (el remate) a estas acciones y proponer un modelo de saque de esquina exitoso. Después del registro de 554 saques de esquina ejecutados en el Mundial de Sudáfrica 2010 y de realizar análisis a nivel univariado, bivariado y multivariado, los resultados indican una baja eficacia en el remate en este tipo de acciones, la identificación de una serie de variables que presentan una relación estadísticamente significativa y la propuesta de un modelo explicativo, que aunque presenta una capacidad explicativa limitada, ayuda a interpretar de forma práctica la ejecución de estas acciones.
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Investigations finding that soccer players perform more work when the score is level than when leading or trailing have not considered hat the significant effects were due to fatigue rather than score-line. For example, two teams may be level for the early part of a game and the score diverges later on. The current study established a typical fatigue pattern using data from 79 player performances during five 0-0 drawn English FA Premier League matches. This typical fatigue pattern was used to adjust the work-rate of 90 player performances in five English FA Premier League matches where both teams were level, ahead and behind for at least 15 minutes each. There was a significant interaction between player position and score-line (p = .010) with forwards spending a greater percentage of time moving at 4 m.s⁻¹ or faster when their team was leading than when level while defenders spent a greater percentage of time moving at 4 m.s⁻¹ or faster when their team was trailing than when level. An explanation for this interaction effect is that forwards feel encouraged to work harder when their team has earned a lead with the work-rate of opposing defenders also increasing as a result.
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Investigations finding that soccer players perform more work when the score is level than when leading or trailing have not considered hat the significant effects were due to fatigue rather than score-line. For example, two teams may be level for the early part of a game and the score diverges later on. The current study established a typical fatigue pattern using data from 79 player performances during five 0-0 drawn English FA Premier League matches. This typical fatigue pattern was used to adjust the work-rate of 90 player performances in five English FA Premier League matches where both teams were level, ahead and behind for at least 15 minutes each. There was a significant interaction between player position and score-line (p = .010) with forwards spending a greater percentage of time moving at 4 m.s-1 or faster when their team was leading than when level while defenders spent a greater percentage of time moving at 4 m.s-1 or faster when their team was trailing than when level. An explanation for this interaction effect is that forwards feel encouraged to work harder when their team has earned a lead with the work-rate of opposing defenders also increasing as a result.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical demands of English Football Association (FA) Premier League soccer of three different positional classifications (defender, midfielder and striker). Computerised time-motion video-analysis using the Bloomfield Movement Classification was undertaken on the purposeful movement (PM) performed by 55 players. Recognition of PM had a good inter-tester reliability strength of agreement (κ = 0.7277). Players spent 40.6 ± 10.0% of the match performing PM. Position had a significant influence on %PM time spent sprinting, running, shuffling, skipping and standing still (p < 0.05). However, position had no significant influence on the %PM time spent performing movement at low, medium, high or very high intensities (p > 0.05). Players spent 48.7 ± 9.2% of PM time moving in a directly forward direction, 20.6 ± 6.8% not moving in any direction and the remainder of PM time moving backward, lateral, diagonal and arced directions. The players performed the equivalent of 726 ± 203 turns during the match; 609 ± 193 of these being of 0° to 90° to the left or right. Players were involved in the equivalent of 111 ± 77 on the ball movement activities per match with no significant differences between the positions for total involvement in on the ball activity (p > 0.05). This study has provided an indication of the different physical demands of different playing positions in FA Premier League match-play through assessment of movements performed by players.
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Individual player and positional unit tactical behaviours were assessed and compared to team strategy within a professional soccer team. Twenty-two matches were sampled from the 2003–04 domestic season of the British Nationwide League team and notated post-event. Tactical behaviours were measured through a combination of technical and spatial indicators relating to the performance of on the ball behaviours. Chi-square analyses highlighted distinct individual and unit tactical behaviours indicative of role-specific responsibilities. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of overall team strategy indicated an attacking bias through the right side of the pitch and a corresponding defensive weakness on the left. Similarities were also observed between the tactical behaviours of individuals, their respective units and team strategy. The findings of the present study provide detailed information regarding the measurement of tactical behaviour in soccer and supply a methodology for researchers to consider more accurately the contribution of individuals and their respective units to team performance. They also suggest the demands on soccer players are multi-levelled and may lead to conflicting individual and positional roles.
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Game location effects (home versus away) upon technical and tactics-related behaviours were investigated in a professional English soccer team. Matches (n=30) from the 2004-05 domestic season of a top five side from the English Premiership league were notated post-event via a computerized system and compared as a function of game location using non-parametric analysis procedures. An overall home advantage was found for the sample in relation to home-winning and home-goal percentage. For technical performance the team exhibited more successful behaviours, such as tackles, passes and aerial challenges, at home than away. For tactics-related behaviours, more aerial challenges, corner kicks, crosses, passes, dribbles and shots on goal were performed at home in the attacking third of the pitch. In addition, more goal kicks, interceptions, aerial challenges and clearances were performed in the defensive third when playing away. These findings suggest that game location effects may exist at a strategic level within individual teams. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status, team form and opposition quality.
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In soccer, the ability to retain possession of the ball for prolonged periods of time has been linked to success (Hook and Hughes, 2001). The accuracy of this assertion was investigated by comparing 24 matches involving successful and unsuccessful English premier league teams within the 2001-2002 season. Specifically the teams' possessions were analysed depending on evolving match status i.e.whether the team was winning, losing or drawing. All possessions less than 3 seconds in duration were removed from the data as they were not deemed to include significant events pertaining to a teams' strategy. Successful teams were found to have significantly longer possessions than unsuccessful teams irrespective of match status i.e.winning (p<0.01), losing (p<0.05) and drawing (p<0.01). However both successful and unsuccessful teams had longer durations of possession when they were losing matches compared to when winning. It was concluded that within elite English football possession is related to successful performance but it is likely this is down to differences in individual player's skill levels rather than specific team strategy.
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The aim of the present study was to study the characteristics of goal scoring patterns in top leveled soccer matches. The sample the study constituted of 32 games of the European Championship (Euro 2004). Cross tabulation and chi-square methods were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that more goals were achieved in the second half (57.4%) than in the first half (42.6%, p<0.05). As far as the type of offense concerned, goals achieved through organized offence presented the higher frequency (44.1%) following goals after a set play (35.6%) and counter-attacks (20.3%). Regarding the actions that occurred prior to the goal, long passes presented the higher frequency (34.1%). More specifically, the kind of dead-ball situations was examined, and the conclusion is that corners and free kicks showed bigger frequency of appearance in the game. Finally, regarding the zone of scoring attempt, the following percentages were presented: 44.4% penalty area, 32.2% goal area, and 20.4% outside the penalty area. The results reveal that coaches should focus on train of the dead-ball situations. Also attention must be given to the fatigue that players appear towards the end of a game, which consequently leads to goal scoring by the opponent team, and to its confrontation through training.
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We analysed player trajectories from five eleven-a-side soccer games in the group stage of the European Champions League to reveal the coordination dynamics between opposing teams in open play attacks, through the use of team centroids and various measures of team dispersion. We found that the team centroids moved synchronously both along and across the pitch, the former showing a stronger coupling (e.g. r = 0.994 vs 0.756 for goals) of the teams' coordination dynamics, as expected. No crossing of the centroids of the two teams along the pitch occurred for any of the 14 goals scored from open play, and only six for all 305 open play attacks. We found little support for any general rule that team centroids converge along the pitch during critical moments in play, such as goals, shots on goal and tackles. Our results revealed few differences in coordination dynamics for attacks ending in a defensive tackle or a turn-over in possession from those ending in a goal, shot or header shot; nor did attacks ending in a goal, or a shot or header shot have more volatile, less predictable coordination dynamics than unsuccessful attacks. We recommend the use of smaller groupings of players within a team and self-organising maps to gain a greater insight into team coordination dynamics in eleven-a-side soccer in future research.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors associated with goals and goal scoring opportunities in soccer taking into consideration a broader range of performance indicators. The study was part exploratory but, based on the current literature, we also developed some a priori predictions. In particular, it was predicted that (a) most goals would be scored within the penalty area (> 70%); (b) approximately 30% of goals would be scored from set plays and (c) the majority (> 70%) of goals would be scored from a relatively short (< 4) passing interchange. Data was collected from 1788 attempts and 169 goals for an English FA Premier League season. The Web-soft snapper performance analysis tool was used to time code when attempts on goal were made and the associated behaviours relating to the attempt on goal. All a priori predictions were supported. The binary logistic regression identified 3 covariates which had a significant (P < 0.05) impact on goals scored. This included position of attempt; goal keepers' positions and type of shoot. Transitions in play accounted for 63% of all goals scored and well over half of all attempts on goal. Although similarities were evident between this and previous literature, this investigation also highlighted the importance of other key variables associated with goals and goal scoring opportunities. The high contribution of factors associated with transitions in play helped to uncover the importance of tracking goals and goal scoring opportunities back to their point of origin.
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This study investigated problems associated with operational definitions within the performance analysis of sport. The literature indicated that in addition to being recognised as important in the reliability of data, operational definitions need to be clear and replicable. This was not the case in many papers as it was found that there was a lack of consistency, ambiguity and repetition in the definitions researched. An analysis of the International Journal of the Performance Analysis of Sport highlighted these problems with a lack of definition, with actions in performance analysis being the most inconsistently defined. Problems with definitions in sport were identified in other areas of sport with specific reference to sporting injuries. The study identified how consensus was achieved in defining injuries in sport and it is suggested that the discipline of performance analysis follows the same methodology to create a consensus of operational definitions for sports.
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It is an implicit assumption in notational analysis that in presenting a performance profile of a team or an individual that a ‘normative profile‘ has been achieved. Inherently this implies that all the variables that are to be analysed and compared have all stabilised. Most researchers assume that this will have happened if they analyse enough performances. But how many is enough? In the literature there are large differences in sample sizes. Just trawling through some of the analyses in soccer shows the differences (Table 1). Establishing normative profiles in performance analysis All authors Mike Hughes, Steve Evans & Julia Wells https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2001.11868245 Published online 03 April 2017 Table 1 Some examples of sample sizes for profiling in sport CSVDisplay Table There must be some way of assessing how data within a study is stabilising. The nature of the data itself will also effect how many performances are required - 5 matches may be enough to analyse passing in field hockey, would you need 10 to analyse crossing or perhaps 30 for shooting? The way in which the data is analysed also will effect the stabilisation of performance means - data that is analysed across a multi-cell representation of the playing area will require far more performances to stabilise than data that is analysed on overall performance descriptors (e.g. shots per match). It is misleading to test the latter and then go on to analyse the data in further detail. This study aimed to explore strategies in solving these problems in two sports, squash and badminton, in depth and then present further examples from a multiplicity of types of sports. A computerised notation system (Brown and Hughes, 1995) was used to record and analyse play, post event, for elite (N=20), county (N=20) and recreational (N=20) players. T-tests were used to examine the inter- and intra-reliability of the data collection processes. In addition, to establish that a normative profile had been reached, the profiles of 8 matches were compared with those of 9 and 10 matches, using dependent t-tests, for each of the categories of players. This method clearly demonstrated that those studies assuming that 5, 6 or 8 matches or performances were enough for a normative profile, without resorting to this sort of test, are clearly subject to possible flaws. The number of matches required for a normal profile of a subject population to be reached is dependent upon the narure of the data and, in particular, the nature of the performers. A notation system, designed to record rally-end variables in Badminton, was shown to be both valid and reliable. Inter and intra reliability ranged from 98.6% (Rally length) to 91.3% (Position). Percentage differences between data from side, and end observations of the same match were not greater than for the intra-reliability data thus different court viewing angles had little effect on notation. Previous literature declared profiles of performance without adequately tackling the problem of quantifying of the data required in creating a normative template. The badminton notation system was used to examine the cumulative means of selected variables over a series of 11 matches of a player. A template, at match N (E), was established when these means became stable within set limits of error (LE). T-tests on the variable means in games won, and games lost established the existence of winning and losing templates for winners and errors. Match descriptors (rallies, shots and shots per rally) were independent of match outcome. General values of N(E) established for data types, (10% LE), were 3 matches (descriptive variables), 4 (winners/errors (w/e), 6 (smash + w/e), 7 (position + w/e). Respective values at 5% LE were 7, 5, 8 and 10. There was little difference in the values of N (E) when variable means were analysed by game than by match. For the working performance analyst the results provide an estimate of the minimum number of matches to profile an opponent’s rally-end play. Whilst these results may be limited to badminton, men’s singles and the individual, the methodology of using graphical plots of cumulative means in attempting to establish templates of performance has been served. Further examples will be presented from different sports. For the working performance analyst the results provide an estimate of the minimum number of matches to profile an opponent’s rally-end play. Whilst the results may be limited to badminton, men’s singles and the individual, the methodology of using graphical plots of cumulative means in attempting to establish templates of performance has been served.
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Performance indicators in sport are not stable properties of individual competitors or teams and a single athlete's (or team's) performance will vary from match to match. For this reason, Hughes, Evans and Wells (2001) developed a technique for determining "normative profiles in performance analysis". This paper proposes an alternative technique that represents not only the typical performance of a team or individual but also the spread of performances. The technique also relates the set of performance indicators for a team or individual to normative data for a relevant population of teams or individuals. This provides a useful means of interpreting sports performance data. Grand Slam singles tennis is used as an example of the application of the proposed technique for determining a normative profile of a team's or individual's performance. It is recognised that the mean value for each performance indicator within the typical performance is critically important information that should be supported by rather than replaced by percentile bandings.
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The scientific analysis of sport performance aims at advancing understanding of game behaviour with a view to improving future outcomes. In this article we outline some scientific issues for performance analysis and point towards some possible directions for increased attention in future research. Thus, six inter-linking issues for game analysis are presented for consideration and summarized as follows: First, increased attention should be paid to further developing an understanding of the associations between sports behaviours and sports outcomes; Second, the sports actions observed may not be of equal merit and, instead, some behaviours may be more significant than other behaviours; Third, the interactions between opposing players and/or teams is key for interpreting game behaviour; Fourth, the context in which the sports behaviours are produced offer important information for game analysis; Fifth, the behaviours of players both with and without possession of the sports article must be considered for a complete assessment of game performance, and; Sixth, the player-player dyads constitute a basic unit of analysis for investigating the space-time dynamics of game behaviour. The invitation made here is for a systematic undertaking of each of these inter-linking challenges in future research investigations of sport performance.
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DESCRIPTION This book addresses and appropriately explains the soccer match analysis, looks at the very latest in match analysis research, and at the innovative technologies used by professional clubs. This handbook is also bridging the gap between research, theory and practice. The methods in it can be used by coaches, sport scientists and fitness coaches to improve: styles of play, technical ability and physical fitness; objective feedback to players; the development of specific training routines; use of available notation software, video analysis and manual systems; and understanding of current academic research in soccer notational analysis. PURPOSE The aim is to provide a prepared manual on soccer match analysis in general for coaches and sport scientists. Thus, the professionals in this field would gather objective data on the players and the team, which in turn could be used by coaches and players to learn more about performance as a whole and gain a competitive advantage as a result. The book efficiently meets these objectives. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the athlete, the coach, the sports scientist professional or any sport conscious person who wishes to analyze relevant soccer performance. The editors and the contributors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depend on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book demonstrates how a notation system can be established to produce data to analyze and improve performance in soccer. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Introduction to Soccer Match Analysis, 2. Developing a Manual Notation System, 3. Video and Computerized Match Analysis Technology, 4. General Advice on Analyzing Match Performance, 5. Analysis and Presentation of the Results, 6. Motion Analysis and Consequences for Training, 7. What Match Analysis Tells Us about Successful Strategy and Tactics in Soccer, 8. From Technical and Tactical Performance Analysis to Training Drills, 9. The Future of Soccer Match Analysis. ASSESSMENT The authors have assembled an essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and doing better coaching and improving the performance in soccer. To this purpose, there is a strong practical approach in the book by giving plenty of examples along with a satisfactory scientific analysis of the subject area. It is concise and well organized in its presentation, creating an effective textbook. I believe, therefore, the book will serve as a first-rate teaching tool and reference for coaches, athletes and professionals in the human performance sciences.
Article
The existence of structure in sport competition is implicated in the widespread practice of using the information gathered from a past contest to prepare for a future contest. Based on this reasoning, we previously analysed squash match-play for evidence of signature traits from among the stochastic relations between the various types of shot. The mixed findings from these analyses led us to re-analyse squash match-play as a dynamical system. Here, we extend this line of investigation with some suggestions as to how various sports might be described further within this theoretical framework. We offer some examples of dynamical interactions in dyadic (i.e. one vs one) and team (e.g. many vs many) sports, as well as some predictions from a dynamical systems analysis for these types of sports contests. This paper should serve to initiate further research into the complex interactions that occur in sport competition.
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