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Antagonistic effect of edible mushroom extract on Candida albicans growth

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Abstract

Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology (2001) 32:176-178
ISSN 1517-8382
176
ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT
ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH
Edneia A. de Souza Paccola
1
; Cristina Sayuri Maki
2
; Gisele M.A. de Nobrega
2
; Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles
2
*
1
Departamento de Agronomia and
2
Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina,
Londrina, Paraná, Brasil
Submitted: February 02, 2001; Returned to authors for corrections: April 27, 2001; Approved: September 03, 2001
SHORT COMMUNICATION
ABSTRACT
Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota
bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic
yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory
compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in
fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity
after 72 hours.
Key words: mushrooms; antibiotics; candidiasis, fungistatic effect
Agaricus blazei Murill on C. albicans. Mycelia from each
species was obtained by tissue culture from basidiocarps
and kept in PDA medium (Potato Dextrose Agar). Discs of
mycelia were transferred to potato broth and after 30 days
growth at 25ºC the mycelial growth substrate was obtained.
An aliquot of 0.5 ml of this substrate was added to tubes
containing 5 ml of potato broth added to a suspension of 10
8
cells ml
-1
of C. albicans (strain 577) (the cells were obtained
by culture in potato broth for 24 hours at 25ºC and washed
three times in PBS by centrifuge). At 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours at
25ºC the number of C. albicans cells was estimated in a
Newbauer chamber and compared with the control (yeast
grown in the medium without the mycelial growth substrate).
Under these conditions, only the L. edodes mycelium,
popularly known as shiitake, showed inhibitory action on C.
albicans multiplication. The minimum dose of the mycelial
growth substrate capable of inhibiting the multiplication of
the C. albicans cells after 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure
was 4%, 6% and 10%, respectively (Table 1). The inhibitory
agent is probably volatile or can be degraded or metabolized
Candida albicans is a yeast present in the human
gastrointestinal and genital-urinary tracts, and is very
frequent among the infections caused by fungi in
immunedepressed individuals, diabetics, and HIV carriers.
In cases of endocrinopathies such as hypothireoidism,
hypoadrenalism, and diabets, there is an increase in the
predisposition to candidiasis attributed to the increase in
glycemia and immune deficiency, which often hinders
treatment (6). The incidence of candidas also increases
during pregnancy due to an increase in the concentration of
glycogen by cells in the vaginal mucous tissues, causing
disconfort to the patient (7). Extensive clinical studies,
primarily in Japan, have clearly demonstrated that a number
of mushroom species have medicinal and therapeutic value,
in the prevention and treatment of tumors, viral and bacterial
diseases, hypercholesterolemia and blood platelet
aggregation (1,2,4).
In this preliminary report we tested the antagonic potential
of edible mushroom species Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus
ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis, and
* Corresponding author. Mailing address: Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas (CCB), Departamento de Biologia Geral,
Caixa Postal 6001, 86051-990, Londrina, PR, Brasil. E-mail: paccola@uel.br
Mushroom extracts and growth of C. albicans
177
during the yeast growth period. When daily doses of L.
edodes growth substrate (0.5 ml every 24 hours) were added
to the C. albicans culture, the number of cells remained
constant and lower than 10
4
units ml
-1
of suspension, even
after 72 hours incubation, showing the fungistatic effect of L.
edodes on C. albicans. This fact prompted us to examine
whether this antibiotic effect is kept in the mushroom in the
form as it is consumed by man, fresh or dehydrated. Emerged
basidiocarps from eucalyptus (Eucaliptus saligna) logs were
used fresh and dehydrated. For dehydration, fresh mushrooms
were placed in a dehydration chamber to 60ºC until complete
water loss. The dehydrated mushroom was ground to a fine
powder and placed in infusion at the proportion of 6g: 10ml
distilled water. The fresh mushrooms were macerated in
distilled water (60g/150 ml). Part of this maceration was heated
to 100ºC for 10 minutes and the other part used fresh. The
preparations were filtered in Watmann filter paper and in
Millipore 0.45 mm and 0.22 µm and applied to the C. albicans
culture at different doses (0, 10, 15, 20 and 30%). The number
of yeast cells was estimated in a Newbauer chamber after 0, 8,
12, 24 and 48h. After 24 hours, it was possible to observe the
fresh L. edodes basidiocarp inhibitory effect, but after 48 hours
of exposure to the inhibitory agent the cells returned to growth,
confirming the fungistatic effect shown in Fig. 1. The same
was observed when the powder of dehydrated mushroom was
tested (Fig. 2).
Heat-treatment of the filtrate inactivated the inhibitory
agent. Ishikawa (3) studied the inhibitory activity of L. edodes
on Bacillus, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter,
Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella,
Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella
and Yersinia, observing that the greatest activity was on
Gram positive bacteria, as also observed by Komemushi et
al. (5). However, this antimicrobial compound was shown
to be heat stable, unlike the compound described in this
study.
L. edodes
extract
Time of C. albicans growth (hours)*
024 48 72
Control
<
10
4
0.13 x 10
7
0.17 x 10
7
0.36 x 10
7
<
10
4
0.24 x 10
7
0.35 x 10
7
0.70 x 10
7
<
10
4
0.14 x 10
7
0.24 x 10
7
1.10 x 10
7
<
10
4
0.03 x 10
7
0.23 x 10
7
0.74 x 10
7
<
10
4
0.01 x 10
7
b
a
b
c
c
0.20 x 10
7
0.49 x 10
7
1%
2%
4%
6%
10%
<
10
4
<
10
4
e
0.01 x 10
7
0.16 x 10
7
b
a
b
b
b
c
c
b
a
b
c
d
Table 1. Inhibition of C. albicans multiplication in potato broth
medium in presence of different concentrations of L. edodes
mycelial extract (pH 6.8).
* means followed by same letters in the vertical don’t differ
significantly for Tukey’s test (p 0.05).
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
C. albicans Cells x 10
6
7
8
9
0h 8h 12h 24h 48h
Exposition Time to the ExtractL. edodes
10%
15%
20%
30%
control
Figure 2. Effect of different doses of the dehidrated extract of
L. edodes basidiocarps on growth of Candida albicans.
Figure 1. Effect of different doses of Lenticula edodes mycelial
substrate on growth of Candida albicans.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
C. albicans Cells x 10
6
7
8
9
10
0h 8h 12h 24h 48h
Exposition Time to the ExtractL. edodes
15% 20%
control
In conclusion, the findings of this study have shown that L.
edodes produces a fungistatic agent, which is able to control C.
albicans multiplication. The agent is present both in the
basidiocarps and in the mycelia, which is secreted in the growth
medium. This substance is heat sensitive and looses activity
after 72 hours.
178
E.A. de S. Paccola et al.
RESUMO
Efeito antagonístico de extratos de cogumelos
comestíveis sobre Candida albicans
Cinco espécies de cogumelos comestíveis, Lentinula edodes,
Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota
bonaerensis e Agaricus blazei foram avaliadas quanto ao seu
potencial em inibir o crescimento “in vitro” da levedura patogênica
Candida albicans. Apenas a espécie L. edodes apresentou efeito
fungistático sobre este patógeno humano. O composto inibitório
foi produzido intra e extracelularmente em cultivo submerso de
L. edodes e também estava presente em basidiocarpos frescos
e desidratados do cogumelo. O composto fungistático é
termossensível e perde sua atividade após 72 horas.
Palavras-chave: cogumelos, antibióticos, candidíase, efeito
fungistático
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Antimicrobial substances contained in the culture broth of Lentinus edodes were studied. β-phenethyl alcohol and octa-2,3-diene-5,7 diyne-1-ol (Lentinamycin) were isolated and identified, using certain instrumental analyses such as UV, IR, MS and 1H-NMR spectra. Because the antimicrobial activity of the former was weak, the authors concluded that main part of the antimicrobial activity in the culture broth of L. edodes was dependent on the latter (Lentinamycin). Up to now, it had been thought that Lentinamycin had no effect on the Gram-negative bacteria, but the authors were able to clarify the activity on Gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of the ether-extract derived from the culture broth was more powerful than that of Lentinamycin, so a multiplier effect on Lentinamycin and other unknown materials was expected.
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This chapter describes medicinal and therapeutic value of the shiitake mushroom. The shiitake mushroom is the second most popular edible mushroom in the global market. To explore and possibly exploit the shiitake myth, many scientists have attempted to document its traditional therapeutic value. The shiitake mushroom contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Hypolipidemic and anti-thrombotic substances have been identified; the nucleic acids induce interferon production. Reputed antitumor components vary in chemical nature, but the most important may prove to be a polysaccharide that acts as a host defense potentiator. The ability of the shiitake to lower blood cholesterol was first reported by Kaneda and Tokuda (1966), who found that a diet supplemented with the dried ground sporophores of L. edodes lowered average plasma cholesterol when fed to rats. As shiitake mushrooms are a rich source of dietary fiber, scientists fed rats a standard control diet and one containing cholesterol, along with whole shiitake or neutral detergent fiber (NDF) extract. The eritadenine-free NDF had a cholesterol-lowering effect distinct from that of eritadenine, which was attributed to its ability to bind to cholic acid salts.
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