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Advancing the Clinical Science of Creativity

Authors:
  • McLean Hospital / Harvard Medical School

Abstract

Can the therapeutic benefits of creativity explain its documented association with psychopathology (Andreasen, 1987; Ludwig, 1995)? Past research seems to have devoted most of its attention to another hypothesis in order to explain this relationship: that features of some disorders may be beneficial for creative cognition (especially in the arts)—for example, the racing thoughts, energy, and openness characteristic of hypomania in bipolar disorder (Johnson et al., 2012), or the rumination observed in depression (Verhaeghen et al., 2005). Other explanations, however, should not be ignored or considered mutually exclusive. Creative work may sometimes exacerbate psychopathology. For example, Kaufman and Baer (2002) suggested that poets may be especially susceptible to mental illness because poetry requires emotional expression and introspection, and unlike prose, may not provide adequate opportunities for making meaning out of one's experience. Conversely, and leaving aside third variable explanations (which also deserve further research), we explore the hypothesis that psychopathology may motivate individuals to engage in creative activities as a way to alleviate their suffering and enhance their well-being. To date, two main empirical literatures have examined this claim. First, reviews of art therapy trials have found that such interventions typically lead to small but statistically significant improvements on a range of psychological measures (Slayton et al., 2010; Forgeard and Eichner, 2014; Maujean et al., 2014). Second, studies examining the benefits of “everyday creativity” suggest that engaging in day-to-day creative activities may both reflect and foster psychological health (Richards, 2007). In keeping with this, findings of a recent experience-sampling study showed that young adult participants were more likely to be engaged in creative activities than other activities when they reported feeling happy and active (Silvia et al., 2014). In spite of these efforts, important gaps exist in our understanding of the therapeutic benefits of creativity. The first and foremost of these gaps is the following: to the best of our knowledge, little empirical evidence has demonstrated that creative thinking per se is one of the specific active ingredients accounting for the benefits of creative activities. To date, past research has investigated the role of other potential mechanisms including adaptive emotion regulation, flow, meaning-making, or growth from adversity in order to explain the benefits of creative activities (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Drake and Winner, 2012; Forgeard et al., 2014). Thus, it remains unclear whether the benefits of creative activities are due to creative thinking, or to other factors. We propose that the time is ripe to collect such evidence in order to provide a richer understanding of the nature of the therapeutic benefits of creative thinking. We outline a research agenda to advance the clinical science of creativity from a cognitive-behavioral perspective.
OPINION ARTICLE
published: 19 June 2014
doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00613
Advancing the clinical science of creativity
Marie J. C. Forgeard*and Jeanette G. Elstein
Department of Psychology, Positive Psychology Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
*Correspondence: mariefd@psych.upenn.edu
Edited by:
Anna Abraham, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Reviewed by:
Mahesh Menon, University of Toronto, Canada
Anna Abraham, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Keywords: creativity, psychopathology, clinical psychology, psychotherapy, flexibility
Can the therapeutic benefits of creativ-
ity explain its documented association
with psychopathology (Andreasen, 1987;
Ludwig, 1995)? Past research seems to
have devoted most of its attention to
another hypothesis in order to explain this
relationship: that features of some disor-
ders may be beneficial for creative cogni-
tion (especially in the arts)—for example,
the racing thoughts, energy, and open-
ness characteristic of hypomania in bipo-
lar disorder (Johnson et al., 2012), or
the rumination observed in depression
(Verhaeghen et al., 2005). Other expla-
nations, however, should not be ignored
or considered mutually exclusive. Creative
work may sometimes exacerbate psy-
chopathology. For example, Kaufman and
Baer (2002) suggested that poets may
be especially susceptible to mental illness
because poetry requires emotional expres-
sion and introspection, and unlike prose,
may not provide adequate opportunities
for making meaning out of one’s experi-
ence. Conversely, and leaving aside third
variable explanations (which also deserve
further research), we explore the hypoth-
esis that psychopathology may motivate
individuals to engage in creative activi-
ties as a way to alleviate their suffering
and enhance their well-being. To date, two
main empirical literatures have examined
this claim. First, reviews of art therapy
trials have found that such interventions
typically lead to small but statistically sig-
nificant improvements on a range of psy-
chological measures (Slayton et al., 2010;
Forgeard and Eichner, 2014; Maujean
et al., 2014). Second, studies examining
the benefits of “everyday creativity” sug-
gest that engaging in day-to-day creative
activities may both reflect and foster
psychological health (Richards, 2007). In
keeping with this, findings of a recent
experience-sampling study showed that
young adult participants were more likely
to be engaged in creative activities than
other activities when they reported feeling
happy and active (Silvia et al., 2014).
In spite of these efforts, important gaps
exist in our understanding of the thera-
peutic benefits of creativity. The first and
foremost of these gaps is the following:
to the best of our knowledge, little empiri-
cal evidence has demonstrated that creative
thinking per se is one of the specific active
ingredients accounting for the benefits of
creative activities. To date, past research
has investigated the role of other poten-
tial mechanisms including adaptive emo-
tion regulation, flow, meaning-making,
or growth from adversity in order to
explain the benefits of creative activi-
ties (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Drake and
Winner, 2012; Forgeard et al., 2014). Thus,
it remains unclear whether the benefits of
creative activities are due to creative think-
ing, or to other factors. We propose that
the time is ripe to collect such evidence
in order to provide a richer understand-
ingofthenatureofthetherapeuticbenets
of creative thinking. We outline a research
agenda to advance the clinical science of
creativity from a cognitive-behavioral per-
spective.
CREATIVE THINKING AS A
TRANSDIAGNOSTIC PROCESS
Clinical scientists are developing a growing
interest in understanding transdiagnos-
tic processes (i.e., processes shared across
disorders) that can account for overlap
in symptoms and high rates of comor-
bidity between psychological disorders, as
well as recovery or resilience. These pro-
cesses (whether pathological or adaptive)
can help develop parsimonious theories
of disorder and health, as well as prag-
matic treatments (Mansell et al., 2009;
Forgeard et al., 2011). The research agenda
we present here is based on the following
hypothesis: Creative thinking constitutes
an important yet understudied transdiag-
nostic process that can be defined, oper-
ationalized, assessed, and (if found to be
adaptive) enhanced. Creativity refers to
the generation of ideas or products that
are both novel (i.e., original, unusual) and
useful (i.e., valuable, helpful) (Stein, 1953;
Runco and Jaeger, 2012). Creative think-
ing can be subjective (i.e., novel and
useful to the self) and/or in compari-
son to others (i.e., novel and useful to
all) (Kaufman and Beghetto, 2009). It is
also not reserved to prototypical creative
domains (e.g., the arts and the sciences),
but is present to varying degrees in almost
all areas of life—excelling at work, solving
thorny interpersonal problems, managing
painful emotions, or cooking dinner, are
all tasks that may benefit from effective
creative thinking. Related to this, creative
thinking takes place not only in “creative
therapies” (e.g., art therapy), but to some
degree also in all forms of psychotherapy.
How does creativity relate to other pro-
cesses already studied by clinical scientists?
Creative thinking is by definition closely
relatedtoprospection,denedasthe
mental representation of possible futures
(Seligman et al., 2013). Past research sug-
gests that maladaptive patterns in future-
oriented thinking play a key role in
psychopathology (Miloyan et al., 2013).
For example, both anxious and depressed
individuals tend to overestimate future
www.frontiersin.org June 2014 | Volume 5 | Article 613 |1
Forgeard and Elstein Clinical science of creativity
negative outcomes, and depressed individ-
uals also tend to underestimate future pos-
itive outcomes (e.g., MacLeod and Byrne,
1996; Miranda and Mennin, 2007). How
might generating novel and useful ideas
influence the extent to which individ-
uals think about and prepare for the
future in a constructive manner? Creativity
may contribute to adaptive prospection by
enhancing another closely related process:
psychological flexibility, defined as the
ability to effectively adapt one’s cognitions,
emotions, and behaviors to the situation
at hand (Kashdan and Rottenberg, 2010).
Psychological flexibility does not necessar-
ily require creative thinking—individuals
may build a repertoire of options by
learning from others or from the envi-
ronment (as opposed to inventing them
anew). We propose, however, that creative
thinking probably enhances and strength-
ens psychological flexibility by allowing
individuals to generate new and effec-
tive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral
strategies on their own. Creative thinking
may therefore help counteract a number
of detrimental transdiagnostic processes
reflecting maladaptive prospection and
inflexibility, including repetitive negative
thinking, as well as interpretational and
expectancy biases (Harvey et al., 2004)by
helping individuals adopt adaptive inter-
pretations and coping styles (Fresco et al.,
2006).
EXAMINING CREATIVE THINKING AS
AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT
What comes next for clinical scientists
interested in examining whether and
how creative thinking promotes flex-
ibility and decreases psychopathology?
Treatment outcome researchers should
continue to build empirical support for
the efficacy of interventions thought to
rely on creative thinking (e.g., art ther-
apy) (Kaplan, 2000; Gilroy, 2006; Maujean
et al., 2014). Randomized controlled tri-
als (RCTs) remain the gold standard for
this purpose and are necessary to establish
that an intervention is empirically sup-
ported, among other criteria (Chambless
and Hollon, 1998). Of course, preliminary
investigations such as single case designs,
or uncontrolled trials, often provide useful
insights.
Aside from outcome research, rigor-
ous process research is needed in order
to test whether creative thinking itself
(as opposed, or in addition to, other
mechanisms) is one of the active ingre-
dients accounting for positive outcomes.
Process research uses appropriate research
designs and mediation analyses in order
to test causal mechanisms responsible for
the effects of an intervention (Kazdin,
2007). In addition to assessing the con-
tribution of creative thinking to out-
comes, researchers should also further
assess the mediating role of mechanisms
examined in prior scholarship (includ-
ing adaptive emotion regulation, flow,
meaning-making, or growth from adver-
sity, as mentioned above), as well as
additional mechanisms such as psycholog-
ical flexibility (Kashdan and Rottenberg,
2010), behavioral activation (Jacobson
et al., 2001), or self-efficacy (Bandura,
1997), among others.
Future research should examine the
extent to which creative thinking per se
contributes to these processes, and in turn,
to psychological adjustment. Such research
is needed to establish whether creative
thinking holds special benefits for well-
being compared to other thinking styles.
This assessment in no way diminishes
the value of previous findings, but rather
highlights the importance and value of
addressing this question in future research.
Similarly, little research has investigated
whether and how creative thinking abil-
ities contribute to the effects of other
forms of therapy. For example, cognitive
therapy for depression encourages indi-
viduals to generate alternative explana-
tions for automatic thoughts and to assess
cognitions for accuracy and usefulness
(Beck et al., 1979)—a process which could
recruit and/or develop creative thinking
abilities.
It is not just on the client’s end that cre-
ative thinking may enhance outcomes—
therapists too need to be creative thinkers.
Concerns have been raised about the
extent to which manualized treatments
can help clients whose symptoms are
more complex than those included in
RCTs (Westen et al., 2004). Yet, although
manuals are required to operational-
ize and demonstrate the efficacy of a
treatment, most researchers and clini-
cians tend to agree that good man-
uals leave space for “flexibility within
fidelity” in order to effectively tailor
treatment to clients’ specific concerns
and learning styles (Kendall and Beidas,
2007). Therapists’ creative thinking abil-
ities therefore probably enable them to
flexibly invent new ways to faithfully
implement treatments (Deacon, 2000).
Within the context of cognitive-behavioral
therapy, such creative thinking may be
manifested in astute behavioral experi-
ments to test negative cognitions, individ-
ualized exposures for anxiety disorders, or
compelling metaphors to foster motiva-
tion and change (Peterman et al., in press).
CONCLUSION
Researchers interested in advancing the
clinical science of creativity have exciting
tasks ahead of them: to continue building
empirical support for the value of creative
therapies using outcome research, and to
investigate the role of creative thinking as a
transdiagnostic process that may promote
adaptive future-thinking and psychologi-
cal flexibility using process research. These
endeavors will enrich our understanding
of the relationship between creativity, psy-
chopathology, and health by investigating
the circumstances under which creative
thinking is or is not beneficial, and by
identifying the metacognitive strategies
that help individuals tell the difference
(Kaufman and Beghetto, 2013). In partic-
ular, it is likely that original thinking may
only be beneficial in moderate amounts or
in certain situations, though more research
is needed to test this claim. Related to
this, researchers have called for investigat-
ing the boundary conditions under which
any positive psychological trait or pro-
cess may become detrimental, as seem-
ingly linear relationships may in fact be
nonmonotonic when examining their full
range of expression (Grant and Schwartz,
2011). The optimal “dose” of originality
and flexibility may therefore vary accord-
ing to the situation at hand. For example,
a person might benefit from considering a
wide array of options in order to repair a
romantic relationship after a fight. A sim-
ple “I am sorry” may not be as effective
as an apology expressed in a clever and
constructive way. Past a certain point how-
ever, the search for novel and flexible solu-
tions may lead to impulsivity or instability
(Kashdan and Rottenberg, 2010). In this
case, organizing a last-minute unusual and
extravagant date or writing an entire book
Frontiers in Psychology | Psychopathology June 2014 | Volume 5 | Article 613 |2
Forgeard and Elstein Clinical science of creativity
of poems to apologize could be perceived
as “too much of a good thing.
In addition, future research should fur-
ther examine how various forms of cre-
ativity relate to well-being, given that past
research in this area has mainly explored
the effects of artistic creativity. For exam-
ple, past research suggests that artists suf-
fer from psychopathology at a greater rate
than scientists (Ludwig, 1995). These find-
ings could be influenced by self-selection
effects, and/or by the possibility that the
creative process has differential benefits
for artists vs. scientists. Related to this,
the extent to which creative thinking ben-
efits well-being may depend on whether
the creative work at hand focuses on
one’s personal situation or mental state
(a case perhaps more typical of the arts)
or on an external problem (a case per-
haps more typical of the sciences). Thus,
future research should further investigate
whether and how creative work affects
well-being in fields other than the arts.
In light of past research in this area,
as well as the promise of addressing exist-
ing remaining questions highlighted here,
we believe that the study of the thera-
peutic benefits of creativity will continue
to make important contributions to clini-
cal science by further investigating one of
the possible causal mechanisms account-
ing for the relationship between creativity,
psychopathology, recovery, and resilience.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank Ann Marie Roepke for her
comments on an earlier draft of this
manuscript.
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Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare
that the research was conducted in the absence
of any commercial or financial relationships
that could be construed as a potential conflict of
interest.
Received: 29 March 2014; accepted: 30 May 2014;
published online: 19 June 2014.
Citation: Forgeard MJC and Elstein JG (2014)
Advancing the clinical science of creativity. Front.
Psychol. 5:613. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00613
This article was submitted to Psychopathology, a section
of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.
Copyright © 2014 Forgeard and Elstein. This is an
open-access article distributed under the terms of the
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use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is
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Frontiers in Psychology | Psychopathology June 2014 | Volume 5 | Article 613 |4
... Some work suggests that engaging in creativity may offer a way to heal the relationship with the self and the outside world (Forgeard and Elstein 2014;Shah 2020). This process can become a powerful vehicle for what Jung called individuation, the result of full self-realization. ...
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This chapter focuses on the role and value of not knowing for creativity, learning and development. More specifically, it proposes a typology of states that are conducive, in different ways, for creative learning, including certain knowing, uncertain not knowing, uncertain knowing, and certain not knowing. They are discussed, in turn, in relation to four associated experiences: trust, anxiety, curiosity and wonder, respectively. Towards the end, two models are proposed that specify how and when these experiences contribute to the process of creative learning. The first is focused on macro stages, the second on micro processes. While the former starts from uncertain not knowing, goes through the interplay between uncertain knowing and certain not knowing, and ends in certain knowledge, the processual model reveals the intricate relations between these experiences in each and every instance of creative learning. The developmental and educational implications of revaluing not knowing as a generate state are discussed in the end.KeywordsUncertaintyKnowledgeAnxietyTrustCuriosityWonderCreative learning
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... This kind of everyday creativity is likely to help individuals deal with daily problems and may be important for adapting to the kinds of changes that homeschooling during a pandemic required. Further, creative self-beliefs predict engagement in creative activity (Beghetto, 2006), which has been shown to promote personal growth (Forgeard & Elstein, 2014) and increase well-being (Conner et al., 2018). Creativity may provide a coping mechanism to manage stress and anxiety (Kaimal et al., 2016). ...
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The present study examined parents’ experiences of home-schooling their children during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the U.K. A total of 322 parents completed an online survey between the 1st May and the 24th July 2020. Relationships were explored between predictor variables (coping mechanisms, household income, adequacy of space, access to “green” space) and outcome variables (parenting self-efficacy, discipline, home-schooling relationships) mediated by stress and moderated by creativity and parenting dimensions. Moderated mediation analyses showed that inadequate space at home and negative coping mechanisms resulted in elevated stress and worse outcomes in terms of parents’ approaches to discipline and their experience of home-schooling their children. Negative outcomes were more pronounced for parents who used high levels of behavioral control. In turn, negative outcomes were reduced when parents had higher levels of self-perceived everyday creativity and outcomes were improved by positive coping strategies. Our findings suggest that interventions focused on developing creative self-efficacy and positive coping strategies may be effective routes to help parents deal with the stress of supporting their children with periods of schooling at home during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... So-called "divergent thinking" (157) and cognitive persistence (the persistent exploration of combinations of associations) have been identified as key factors constituting the creative process (158), and a link between cognitive flexibility, divergent thinking, and creativity has been made before (159)(160)(161)(162)(163). There is some empirical evidence (91,(164)(165)(166) and conceptual work (167)(168)(169)(170) linking psychedelics with the promotion of aspects of the creative process. ...
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Addressing global mental health is a major 21st-century challenge. Current treatments have recognized limitations; in this context, new ones that are prophylactic and effective across diagnostic boundaries would represent a major advance. The view that there exists a core of transdiagnostic overlap between psychiatric disorders has re-emerged in recent years, and evidence that psychedelic therapy holds promise for a range of psychiatric disorders supports the position that it may be transdiagnostically effective. Here, we propose that psychedelic therapy's core, transdiagnostically relevant action lies in its ability to increase neuronal and mental plasticity, thus enhancing the potential for change, which we consider to be a key to its therapeutic benefits. Moreover, we suggest that enhanced plasticity via psychedelics, combined with a psychotherapeutic approach, can aid healthy adaptability and resilience, which are protective factors for long-term well-being. We present candidate neurological and psychological markers of this plasticity and link them with a predictive processing model of the action of psychedelics. We propose that a model of psychedelic-induced plasticity combined with an adequate therapeutic context has prophylactic and transdiagnostic potential, implying that it could have a broad, positive impact on public health.
... Some studies suggest that engaging daily in creative activities is related to a better wellbeing and flourishing in individuals (Conner et al., 2016). In patients, approaches based on creative activities (for instance, using art therapy) have shown beneficial effects in some neurological or psychiatric diseases (Forgeard & Elstein, 2014;Silvia et al., 2014;Windle et al., 2017). To our knowledge, no specific training of creative processes has been tested in patients, and this is an avenue for future research. ...
Chapter
Creativity is a high-level cognitive function that is central to our ability to cope with change and solve novel problems, enabling extraordinary accomplishments as well as adapting and flourishing in everyday life. Neuroscientists usually define creativity as the ability to generate productions that are both original and appropriate. Only a few patient studies have explored the impact of brain lesions on creative abilities. Although these studies were not conducted specifically on patients with brain lesion requiring surgery, they suggest that creativity can be impaired in this population. In this chapter, we present the main frameworks that are used to explore the cognitive and brain mechanisms underlying creativity. Then, we review recent neuroimaging studies of creativity in healthy subjects, and in patients with brain lesions or neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss how enhanced knowledge of creativity brain networks can be useful for planning and monitoring brain surgery in patients, and we suggest some tools for these purposes. We propose some avenues for future research to meet these challenges.
Chapter
This chapter explores the pivotal role that uncertainty plays in creative learning, with a focus on mindfulness as an approach to working with uncertainty and supporting creativity. Creativity is a highly sought capacity across disciplines, and creative thinking operates as a force that drives new knowledge and ideas, advancing growth and change in society. We live in an uncertain world of rapid, often accelerating, change and instability. Creativity offers us ways of thinking that prepare us to manage and address unexpected situations and consider fresh perspectives or possibilities to devise better outcomes. However, creativity can be uncomfortable for some, given the uncertainty inherent in the creative process, as well as the risk of embarrassment that comes with failure. Thus, people may hold back and hesitate to engage creatively. Such risk-aversion can be ramped up in traditional educational environments or school settings, which tend to focus on one-right-answer approaches and punitive responses to mistakes or failures. In this chapter, we explore the critical and complex relationship between creativity and uncertainty, suggesting mindfulness as a valuable approach to supporting creativity in school settings and addressing the perception of risk associated with failure. We discuss existing research around the relationship between mindfulness and creativity, and position mindfulness as a way to ameliorate fears, allow for uncertainty and open up new creative possibilities—particularly by changing one’s relationship to uncertainty, becoming a better observer of the world, enabling greater openness to experience, and expanding empathy. We conclude with a call-to-action for creativity in learning settings, recognizing the need for uncertainty as part of the process, as well as the challenges that uncertainty presents to the human psyche and in school processes. We offer strategies for mindfulness in learning settings that can reduce restrictions on creativity, by supporting mindsets that are geared toward allowing and working with uncertainty.
Article
The aim of the present study is to analyze the relationship between the social skills and creativity of children aged between 7 and 11 years. 312 children, aged 7–11 years and their mothers were the participants of the present study. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TToCT) Verbal and Nonverbal tasks fluency Form A was administered to the children in decades. The participating mothers completed the Social Skill Assessment Scale (SSAS) to evaluate the social skills of the children. The administration of the test took 80 min and was evaluated by two experts who converted the results into standard scores. Whereas at the end of the study a positive relationship was determined between the sub-dimensions of TToCT and the subdimensions of the SSAS, the multiple regression analysis results have determined that the subdimensions of verbal flexibility and figural enrichment have interpreted the subdimension of problem solving of the SSAS with statistical significance.
Presentation
The entanglement between creativity and psychotherapy runs deep. Client and psychotherapist engage in the relational, intersubjective endeavour of constructing and reconstructing the self, which underlies the development of creativity. Through a bidirectional and dialogical process, both become creative agents, able to shape and share the construction of their therapeutic pathways. Psychotherapy should provide a safe space for clients to co-construct more creative versions of themselves and the world(s) they inhabit, adding complexity to their sociocognitive development matrix. Because creativity is related to flexibility, critical thinking, social perspective-taking and meaning-making (to name a few psychological processes), patterns of thinking, experiencing and acting can be enhanced when creativity is nurtured in psychotherapeutic settings. However, for such a level of psychological change to be enacted, it might be relevant to resort to strategies anchored in a structural and developmental perspective of the psychological subject. Our goal was to empirically explore how the re-constructive exploration strategies can pose a meaningful psychotherapeutic possibility for clients to construct and create a coherent sense of self in the face of the unknown. We designed a theoretical study based on a review of recent literature focused on those strategies (n=8) selected from online international databases. We examined the definition, characterization, approach to creativity, and contexts in which they were applied. Subsequently, we performed a qualitative discourse analysis of the results, seeking to unveil potential differences between those strategies and information, instruction, and programming ones. Our findings seem to highlight that the re-constructive exploration strategies can provide a unique possibility to foster the re-organization of individual and contextual structures by cultivating a new construction of meaning. Moreover, through re-creating the elements of the “spontaneous”, dialectical, and dynamic process of psychological change in psychotherapy, they might significantly nurture creative potential, complexifying one’s matrix of sociocognitive development.
Chapter
Intraoperative mapping of the neural processes that support noun and verb production has generally focused on naming of objects and actions. Action naming has been proposed as a good complement to object naming for intraoperative language mapping. While action naming taps into similar language functions as object naming, the processing of verbs may also recruit partially different neural substrates and tap into morphosyntactic processes that are particularly relevant in everyday communication. In this chapter, we review the neural basis of object and action naming, long-term deficits in people who did not benefit from its intraoperative use, knowledge gained from lesion-symptom mapping, variations in the design of these tasks, functional improvement as a function of the type of mapping carried out, and some of the anatomo-functional knowledge we have from prior studies on awake mapping. Finally, we step back to situate action naming in two broader contexts: a subtype of verb processing on the one hand, and nonlinguistic knowledge of objects and actions more generally. Looking forward, there are many exciting questions to be pursued using action naming in an intraoperative context, and the clinical preparation afforded by awake language mapping holds tremendous potential to disclose new insights about the neural basis of nouns and verbs.
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This review article examines current knowledge about the efficacy of art therapy based on the findings of 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted with adult populations from 2008–2013 that met a high standard of rigor. Of these studies, all but one reported beneficial effects of art therapy. Review findings suggest that art therapy may benefit a range of individuals, including older adults, war veterans, and prison inmates. However, there is a need for further research using RCTs to examine more conclusively art therapy outcomes and the specific populations in which art therapy interventions offer greatest benefit.
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Despite creativity's many benefits and positive outcomes, there are still both explicit and implicit teacher biases against creative students. We argue that teachers do not dislike creativity but rather dislike inappropriate creativity that can come from students at poorly chosen times. After reviewing the literature on metacognition and creativity, we propose the adapted construct of creative metacognition (CMC), a combination of self-knowledge (knowing one's own creative strengths and limitations) and contextual knowledge (knowing when, where, how, and why to be creative). We end with ways that teachers can raise students' CMC.
Book
This title proposes an insightful and original approach to understanding these disorders, one that focuses on what they have in common. Instead of examining in isolation, for example, obsessive compulsive disorders, insomnia, schizophrenia, it asks - what do patients with these disorders have in common? It takes each cognitive and behavioural process - attention, memory, reasoning, thought, behaviour, and examines whether it is a transdiagnostic process - i.e., serves to maintain a broad range of psychological disorders. Having shown how these disorders share several important processes, it then describes the practical implications of such an approach to diagnosis and treatment. Importantly it explores why the different psychological disorders can present so differently, despite being maintained by the same cognitive and behavioural processes. It also provides an account of the high rates of comorbidity observed among the different disorders.
Article
Aristotle proposed that to achieve happiness and success, people should cultivate virtues at mean or intermediate levels between deficiencies and excesses. In stark contrast to this assertion that virtues have costs at high levels, a wealth of psychological research has focused on demonstrating the well-being and performance benefits of positive traits, states, and experiences. This focus has obscured the prevalence and importance of nonmonotonic inverted-U-shaped effects, whereby positive phenomena reach inflection points at which their effects turn negative. We trace the evidence for nonmonotonic effects in psychology and provide recommendations for conceptual and empirical progress. We conclude that for psychology in general and positive psychology in particular, Aristotle’s idea of the mean may serve as a useful guide for developing both a descriptive and a prescriptive account of happiness and success.
Chapter
Are creative people more likely to be mentally ill? This basic question has been debated for thousands of years, with the 'mad genius' concept advanced by such luminaries as Aristotle. There are many studies that argue the answer is 'yes', and several prominent scholars who argue strongly for a connection. There are also those who argue equally strongly that the core studies and scholarship underlying the mad genius myth are fundamentally flawed. This book re-examines the common view that a high level of individual creativity often correlates with a heightened risk of mental illness. It reverses conventional wisdom that links creativity with mental illness, arguing that the two traits are not associated. With contributions from some of the most exciting voices in the fields of psychology, neuroscience, physics, psychiatry, and management, this is a dynamic and cutting-edge volume that will inspire new ideas and studies on this fascinating topic.
Article
Creativity, which is generally defined as the generation of novel and useful ideas or products, is essential to human progress and flourishing. As such, many intervention approaches have been designed to promote creativity and its associated benefits. The goal of this chapter is to provide a review of existing research examining the conceptual basis and effectiveness of creativity interventions. In doing so, this chapter focuses on two main kinds of interventions. First, we discuss interventions that aim to increase creativity for its own sake and highlight one method that has been investigated in business and educational settings, the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) approach. Second, we discuss interventions that aim to increase creativity in order to increase psychological well-being, and provide an overview of scholarship describing the practice and effectiveness of art therapy. This chapter ends by describing future directions for building and testing brief creativity-based positive interventions.