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INTRODUCTION: Plant derived medicinal products have been used throughout the world. Elaeocarpus ganitrus belongs to family Elaeocarpaceae. Genus Elaeocarpus contains approximately 350 species and distributed in India, and Hawaii in the east. The greatest concentration of species is found in the islands of Borneo and New Guinea 1, 2 . Elaeocarpus ganitrus is commonly known as Rudraksha and grows in India, South-East Asia, The fruits of Elaeocarpus ganitrus is covered by arduous endocarp and used as religious jewellery throughout India and Southeast Asia 4 . Fruit of Rudraksha contain alkaloids 5, 6 flavonoids, tannins 7 and fatty acids 8 . After development of advance techniques like HPTLC new flavanoid Quercetin have been determined 9 Rudraksha fruits are thermogenic, sedative and are useful in anorexia, bronchitis, neuralgia, cephalagia, migraine, manic conditions and other brain disorders 10 . The pulp of stony fruit may be useful in epilepsy and other mental disorders 11 . Moreover, some other studies reported that it exhibit various pharmacological activities i.e analgesic 12, 13 , antiasthamatic 14 , anti-inflammatory 15 , antihypertensive 16 hypoglycemic 17 , smooth muscle relaxant and hydrocholeretic 18 , antiulcerogenic 19 , anticonvulsant 20 , antimicrobial 21 . Earlier the fruits of Rudraksha used to be employed as auspicious and for getting rid of bad spirit 22 .
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Dadhich, et al., IJPSR, 2014; Vol. 5(7): 2807-12. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2807
IJPSR (2014), Vol. 5, Issue 7 (Research Article)
Received on 22 January, 2014; received in revised form, 24 March, 2014; accepted, 06 April, 2014; published 01 July, 2014
ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECTS OF FRUIT EXTRACT OF ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS IN
FORCE SWIM TEST
Amit Dadhich
1
, Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja*
2
, Subhash Chandra
1
and Gargi Sharma
1
Department of Biotechnology and Allied Science, Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women’s University
1
, Jaipur,
Rajasthan, India
School of Sciences, Suresh Gyan Vihar University
2
, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
INTRODUCTION: Plant derived medicinal
products have been used throughout the world.
Elaeocarpus ganitrus belongs to family
Elaeocarpaceae. Genus Elaeocarpus contains
approximately 350 species and distributed in India,
Southeast Asia, Japan, Australia, Malaysia,
Southern China, New Zealand, Fiji and Hawaii in
the east. The greatest concentration of species is
found in the islands of Borneo and New Guinea
1, 2
.
Elaeocarpus ganitrus is commonly known as
Rudraksha and grows in India, South-East Asia,
Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, Guam, and
Hawaii
3
.
QUICK RESPONSE CODE
DOI:
10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5(7).2807-12
Article can be accessed online on:
www.ijpsr.com
DOI link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5(7).2807-12
The fruits of Elaeocarpus ganitrus is covered by
arduous endocarp and used as religious jewellery
throughout India and Southeast Asia
4
. Fruit of
Rudraksha contain alkaloids
5, 6
flavonoids, tannins
7
and fatty acids
8
. After development of advance
techniques like HPTLC new flavanoid Quercetin
have been determined
9
Rudraksha fruits are
thermogenic, sedative and are useful in anorexia,
bronchitis, neuralgia, cephalagia, migraine, manic
conditions and other brain disorders
10
. The pulp of
stony fruit may be useful in epilepsy and other
mental disorders
11
. Moreover, some other studies
reported that it exhibit various pharmacological
activities i.e analgesic
12, 13
, antiasthamatic
14
, anti-
inflammatory
15
, antihypertensive
16
hypoglycemic
17
, smooth muscle relaxant and hydrocholeretic
18
,
antiulcerogenic
19
, anticonvulsant
20
, antimicrobial
21
. Earlier the fruits of Rudraksha used to be
employed as auspicious and for getting rid of bad
spirit
22
.
Keywords:
Elaeocarpus ganitrus, force swim test,
imipramine, fluoxetine and
antidepressant
Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja
School of Sciences, Suresh Gyan Vihar
University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur-
302017, Rajasthan, India
E-mail: nakuljasuja@gmail.com
ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate antidepressant
effects of fruit extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (75% ethanol) on albino
mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30g were divided into seven
groups and each group contains six animals. The animals were housed in
polypropylene cages (38×23×10cm
3
) with not more than six animals per
cage. Group I, II and III were administered orally with distilled water,
fluoxetine and imipramine respectively. Group IV, V, VI and VII were
administered orally with different doses (20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg body
weight) of Elaeocarpus ganitrus fruit extract (EGFE). Antidepressant
effect of EGFE assessed by forced swim test. The (EGFE) (20 and
40mg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time and it also
increased climbing and swimming time significantly. Duration of
immobility of mice increased (246.00±1.73) at high dose (80mg/kg) as
compared to vehicle (228.00±4.28). It is concluded that the EGFE exhibit
antidepressant effect in tested animal model at low dose but at high dose
it is sedative.
Dadhich, et al., IJPSR, 2014; Vol. 5(7): 2807-12. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2808
The biological and pharmacological properties of
many plants are still unknown
23
. Therefore, the
present study was designed to explore the
antidepressant effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus in
mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Plant material and extraction: Elaeocarpus
ganitrus (Family: Elaeocarpaceae) were identified
by Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan,
Jaipur. The specimen preserved in the Herbarium
(Voucher specimen: RUBl21124) for the reference.
Ripened fruits of plant were shade dried, powdered
and extracted with 75% ethanol for 24 to 36 h by
soxhlet extraction method. Then, ethanol was
separated under reduced pressure to obtain solid
mass. The hydro-alcoholic extract was dried and
stored in air tight amber-colored bottle in
refrigerator until further use.
Animals: Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-
30g were housed individually under diurnal light
conditions (12 h light/12 h dark) in polypropylene
cage and testing was carried out during the light
phase. The animals were fed with food pellets,
germinated/sprouted gram and wheat seeds as an
alternative feed. Tap water was supplied ad libitum.
The animals were handled as per guidelines of
committee for the purpose of control and
supervision on experimental animals (CPCSEA),
Government of India. Animals were acclimatized
to laboratory conditions before testing. The study
was conducted according to the Indian National
Science Academy Guidelines for the use and care
of experimental animals.
Drugs and Treatments: Imipramine hydrochloride
(IMP) and Fluoxetine hydrochloride (M/s.Alkem,
Ltd.Mumbai, India) were used as reference
standard drugs (positive controls). The drug was
dissolved in distilled water and administered to
animals through oral intubations at doses of 15 and
20 mg/kg body weight. Negative control group
received distilled water. Animals were intended
into seven groups containing six animals each
(n=6). All solutions were prepared freshly on the
test days and administrated orally in a volume of
300µl per 30g of the body weight of mice.
Group I and II, III served as negative and positive
controls. The animals of group IV, V, VI and VII
were treated with EGFE of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/
kg body weight, respectively.
Experimental design: The mice were divided into
7 groups
Group
Treatment
I
Untreated Control received vehicle (Distilled
water) only
II
Control (Fluoxetine) 20 mg/kg body weight
III
Control (Imipramine) 15 mg/kg body weight
IV
EGFE 1 20 mg/kg body weight
V
EGFE 2 40 mg/kg body weight
VI
EGFE 3 60 mg/kg body weight
VII
EGFE 4 80 mg/kg body weight
*EGFE - Elaeocarpus ganitrus fruit extract
Forced swimming test: The test was performed
according to a modification
24
of the traditional
method
25
. Mice were placed individually in a
transparent glass cylinder (25 cm height x 18cm in
diameter) filled with 25
o
C water to a 15-cm depth.
Two swim sessions were conducted. An initial 15-
min pre-test was performed by placing mice into
water, the mice were then removed from the water,
dried and placed in their home cages with paper
towels and heat lamp. Distilled water, fluoxetine,
imipramine and different doses of EGFE (20, 40,
60 and 80 mg/kg body weight) were administered
after 24hrs of pre-test and prior to the FST.
During the 7-min test, the climbing, swimming and
immobility behaviors of the mice were recorded at
5 second intervals. Initial 2 minutes were
discarded. Increases in climbing or swimming and
reduction in immobility were considered as
behavioral responses consistent with an
antidepressant-like action
24
.
Statistical analysis: Statistical evaluation of the
results was made with SPSS 14.0 (SPSS Inc.
Chicago, Illinois, USA). All values were expressed
as mean ± SEM. The differences in the mean of
activity counts per 5 minutes and the mean of
immobility, climbing and swimming counts among
different treated groups were statistically analyzed
by one-way ANOVA followed by Post hoc Dunnett
t test.
Dadhich, et al., IJPSR, 2014; Vol. 5(7): 2807-12. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2809
In view of the exploratory nature of the study,
probability values P≤0.1 were regarded as
statistically significant
26, 27
.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION: In this study FST
test was performed to evaluate antidepressant
activity of EGFE in mice. It was observed that low
dose (20mg/kg) of EGFE exerted antidepressant
activity, whereas high dose (80mg/kg) of EGFE
showed sedative effect. FST is suitable and widely
used model for assessing antidepressant activity in
rodents
25, 28
. Relatively this test is more sensitive to
all major classes of antidepressant drugs including
trycyclics, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors,
and MAO inhibitors
24, 29
.
Along with reduction of immobility antidepressant
drugs also produce two distinct active behavioral
patterns i.e. swimming and climbing
24
. Post hoc
tests included to determine the statistical
significance between all groups, in case of climbing
except Group II i.e. Fluoxetine (p=0.998) rest of all
groups had shown significant difference with
Group I i.e. Vehicle control. Compression of Group
III i.e. Imipramine with group IV i.e. EGFE 1
(p=0.940) had shown no statistically significant
difference whereas all other groups (Group I, II,
V&VI) had shown significant difference (Fig. 1
and 2).
FIG. 1: COMPARISON OF STANDARD AND ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS FRUIT EXTRACT (EGFE) TREATED
ANIMALS IN THE FORCED SWIMMING TEST. DATA REPRESENTS MEAN ± SEM OF THE MEAN ACTIVITY
COUNTS PER 5 MIN DURING 20-MIN TEST PERIOD. COMPARISONS WERE MADE USING ONE-WAY ANOVA
FOLLOWED BY POST HOC DUNNETT TEST
FIG. 2: EFFECTS OF EGFE 20-80 MG/KG BODY WEIGHT ON ACTIVE BEHAVIORS IN THE FST. DATA
REPRESENTS MEANS ± SEM OF THE CLIMBING COUNTS DURING THE 5 MIN TEST SESSION (n=6 mice per
group). Comparisons were made using one-way anova followed by post hoc dunnett test
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Time (Sec)
Groups
Climbing (Sec)
Swimming (sec)
Floating (sec)
Dadhich, et al., IJPSR, 2014; Vol. 5(7): 2807-12. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2810
Multiple Comparisons of all groups in swimming
revealed that Imipramine (p=0.947), EGFE 1
(p=0.730), EGFE 2 (p=0.999) and EGFE 3
(p=0.710) had shown no significant difference with
control vehicle treated animals whereas, mice
administered EGFE 4 (p=.015) had shown
significant difference as compared to control
vehicle (Fig. 1 and 3).
FIG. 3: SWIMMING COUNTS DURING THE 5 MIN TEST SESSION (N=6 MICE PER GROUP). COMPARISONS
WERE MADE USING ONE-WAY ANOVA FOLLOWED BY POST HOC DUNNETT TEST
In case of Floating, EGFE 3 treated mice (p=.093),
had shown no significant difference with Vehicle
control. Imipramine (p=.382), EGFE 1 (p=.051)
and EGFE 2 (p=.144) had also shown no
significant difference with Fluoxetine treat animals
whereas, EGFE 4 showed a significant difference
as compared to Fluoxetine treated animals,
indicated the sedative effect of high dose of extract
on mice. When group III i.e. Imipramine compared
to Fluoxetine (p=0.382) and EGFE 1 (p=0.875)
treated animals there was no significant difference
observed in case of floating (Fig. 1 and 4).
FIG.4: FLOATING COUNTS DURING THE 5 MIN TEST SESSION (N=6 MICE PER GROUP). COMPARISONS
WERE MADE USING ONE-WAY ANOVA FOLLOWED BY POST HOC DUNNETT TEST
Dadhich, et al., IJPSR, 2014; Vol. 5(7): 2807-12. E-ISSN: 0975-8232; P-ISSN: 2320-5148
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2811
The study revealed that EGFE 1 treated animals
showed better response as compared to the standard
and all other groups. The EGFE 1 significantly
reduced immobility and increased climbing at
doses of 20 mg/kg, compared to vehicle control
group. The EGFE 4 at the dose of 80 mg/kg
increased the immobility in comparison to group II
and III. Tukey post hoc comparison between
different doses showed a significant effect of EGFE
4 (80 mg/kg) on immobility, compared to the dose
of 20 mg/kg (p=0.01).
Serotonergic drug like fluoxetine, decreases
immobility and increases swimming without
changing duration of climbing. Whereas, drug such
as imipramine increases level of dopamine and
norepinephrine cause decreased immobility and
increased climbing without changing the duration
of swimming
24, 30
.
The present study showed that the ethanolic fruit
extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus had significant
antidepressant effects in mice. Different doses of
the extract (20, 40, 60 and 80mg/kg) were
administered to mice. Low doses (20, 40 and
60mg/kg) were able to reduce immobility and to
enhance active behaviors, i.e. climbing,
simultaneously. However, the effect of high dose
(80mg/kg) on immobility and climbing were
decreased. This effect is similar to the sedative
effect which is shown by a reduction in general
motor activity. There may be three major reasons
for this effect.
The first reason may be due to interference of the
phytoconstituents present in the extract with its
antidepressant effect. Second may be due to the
lack of dose-dependent effect of the extract on
immobility and climbing behaviors. The third
reason might be the doses itself used in this study
which may have reduced plasma levels of
tryptophan, an essential amino acid that is used for
the synthesis of serotonin.
This substrate amino acid (for serotonin synthesis)
is metabolized by the liver through the kynurenine
pathway and only a small amount is transported
into the brain actively and used for serotonin
synthesis via the 5- hydroxytryptophan pathway
31
.
They might not be in the linear portion of dose-
responsive curve.
Nevertheless, the low doses of the extract showed
antidepressant activity, close to that observed for
IMP in this study. Since IMP is a standard tricyclic
antidepressant, the extract may also play an
important role in the management of depressive
disorders. In addition high dose of the extract
showed a sedative effect which was interpreted by
a dose dependant reduction in spontaneous motor
activity. Several studies have also shown sedative
effect of fruit of E. ganitrus
18, 32
. This sedative
effect of the extract ensures that the increment of
climbing time in FST were caused by increment in
general motor activity, not by possible CNS
stimulating effect and confirms the specific action
of extract as an antidepressant.
Since the pattern of behaviors showed by the
extract in the FST is similar to those of imipramine,
it suggested that this extract acts by enhancement of
dopamine and nor-epinephrine. The fruit of E.
ganitrus contains alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and
fatty acids may be responsible for this activity.
Further studies are required to identify the active
constituents of the plant extract responsible for the
antidepressant effects.
CONCLUSION: This study had shown that the
ethanolic fruit extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus
possess antidepressant effects. The present findings
support the use of Elaeocarpus ganitrus as an
antidepressant recommended in traditional
medicine system and open an avenue to develop a
new antidepressant agent from well-known herbal
remedies.
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Dadhich A., Jasuja
ND, Chandra S and Sharma G: Antidepressant effects of fruit extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus in force
swim test. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014; 5(7): 2807-12.doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5 (7).2807-12.
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... Furthermore it is noted to have myriad pharmacological activities that involve antiinflammatory, 7 analgesic, 8 hypoglycemic, 9 antidepressant, 10 antiasthmatic, 11 sedative, 8 antihypertensive, 12 antiulcerogenic, 11 anticonvulsant, 13 and antimicrobial. 14 As per our literature survey, no scientific study has been conducted to evaluate antiatherosclerotic/ cholesterol lowering activity of E. ganitrus Roxb. ...
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... The widespread investigation of literature exposed that Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. is an imperative basis of various pharmacologically and medicinally significant chemicals, such as indispensable triterpenes, tannins like geraniin and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy geraniin, indolizilidine alkaloids grandisines, rudrakine and flavnoids quercitin. 10 Furthermore it is noted to have myriad pharmacological activities that involve antiinflammatory, 11 analgesic, 12 hypoglycemic, 13 antidepressant, 14 antiasthmatic, 15 sedative, 12 antihypertensive, 16 hydrocholeretic, smooth muscle relaxant, 17 antiulcerogenic, 18 and antimicrobial. 19 As per our literature survey, no scientific study has been conducted to evaluate antiatherosclerotic/cholesterol lowering activity of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. ...
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The present study was designed to investigate the antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of 70% ethanolic crude extract of Elaeocarpus ganitrus seed in cholesterol fed rabbits. The E. ganitrus extract was administered at a dose level of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day (p.o) for 120 days to cholesterol fed rabbits. Lipid profile in serum and tissue biochemistry as well as antioxidant parameters in heart were determined. The histological change in coronary artery was examined. Statistical analysis was carried out by using One way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests using Graphpad PRISM software (version 5). Rabbits fed with cholesterol and E. ganitrus extract concurrently showed significant (P ≤ 0.01, ≤ 0.001) decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL, VLDL and atherogenic index along with a considerable improvement in HDL ratio in a dose dependant manner. Further, a significant reduction was also recorded in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides; phospholipids in heart of plant extract administered group animals. Lipid peroxidation levels decreases significanlty as well as marked elevation in Glutathione, Catalase and SOD levels were observed in treated group rabbits. Histopathological analysis revealed significant increase in lumen size of coronary arteries when E. ganitrus extract supplemented concurrently to cholesterol fed animals. Our study exhibited that the phytoconstituents like phytosterols, fats, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins and tannins present in the E. ganitrus ethanolic extract may be attributed to the significant antiatherosclerotic as well as antioxidant activity, signifying the potential protective role in coronary artery disease.
... The extensive investigation of literature exposed that E. ganitrus Roxb. is a vital source of many pharmacologically and therapeutically significant chemicals such as triterpenes, flavonoids like quercetin, tannins which include geraniin, and 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy geraniin and indolizidine alkaloids, grandisines, and rudrakine [7]. In the experimental studies, extracts of E. ganitrus showed large range of pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory [8], analgesic, sedative [9], hypoglycemic [10], antidepressant [11], antiasthmatic [12], antihypertensive [13], and antimicrobial [14]. ...
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Objectives: Atherosclerosis was experimentally induced in New Zealand white male rabbits by cholesterol feeding for 120 days for investigating effects of 70% ethanolic Elaeocarpus ganitrus seed extract (EEGS) against atherosclerosis.Methods: Anti-atherosclerotic activity of E. ganitrus extract was evaluated at a dose level of 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight (p.o). On 121st day, the animals were sacrificed to collect the aorta for determining tissue lipid profile, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test was used for the statistical analysis.Results: Aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits for 120 days showed marked elevation in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids. EEGS extract treatment significantly (p≤0.01, ≤0.001) corrected disturbed lipid profile in cholesterol-fed rabbits in a dose-dependent manner during the 60 days of the treatment period. A significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and a considerable raise in glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels (p≤0.01, ≤0.001) were accompanied by post-treatment with EEGS extract to cholesterol-fed rabbits. The histopathological modifications such as accumulation of foam cells, atheromatous plaque formation, and lumen size reduction supported the successful induction of atherosclerosis in rabbits. The treated rabbits showed significant protective effect by lowering the deposition of cholesterol and increasing the lumen size compared to cholesterol-fed group.Conclusions: Phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and carbohydrates in the ethanolic extract may be attributed to effective anti-atherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of plant extract. Our study exhibited that EEGS extract could be a potent herbal therapeutic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia-related diseases.
... Elaeocarpus contains approximately 350 species and distributed in India 11,12 . Elaeocarpus ganitrus is commonly known as Rudraksha and grows in India, South-East Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, Guam, and Hawaii 13 . ...
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Herbal medicines have good efficacy, safety, and lesser side effects. They have great demand in developed world for primary health care. India has rich traditional knowledge, heritage of herbal medicines and large biodiversity but despite it India has dismal share of world market. Many Pharma companies marketed herbal preparation as neutraceutical and took excuses from quality control parameter set by W.H.O. India has thousands of medicinal plants but in Indian Pharmacopoeia. Quercetin, one of the most abundant natural flavonoids, presents in daily food. Quercetin is of interest because of its pharmacological function. The quantitative determination of flavonoids compound in seeds of Elaeocarpus ganitrus was carried out in high performance thin layer chromatography. Concentration of quercetin in Elaeocarpus ganitrus seeds was calculated based on calibration curve.
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