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Social Justice Advocacy: Community Collaboration and Systems Advocacy

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Abstract

This article discusses the community collaboration and systems advocacy domains of the ACA (American Counseling Association) Advocacy Competencies (J. A. Lewis, M. S. Arnold, R. House, & R. L. Toporek, 2002). A case illustration is presented, and the 8 Advocacy Competencies within each domain are applied to the case study.

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... As agents whose duties are to serve and protect citizens, the police can be deemed as a destructive rather than productive force in the lives of Black and Brown male youth (Aymer, 2016;Smith, 2015). Counselors and service providers have a professional mandate to protect the lives of vulnerable and marginalized youth (ACA, 2014;Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). Thus, these service providers must create a united front to stand up for Male youth of Color, and their White counterparts. ...
... Thus, these service providers must create a united front to stand up for Male youth of Color, and their White counterparts. This can be achieved by developing policies and political mandates that are aimed at holding police accountable for the killings of children and teens (Gilbert & Ray, 2015;Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). Such policies should further aim to hold police to the same standards, or higher, in the court of law granted to any person or citizen of the US accused of murder. ...
... In addition, youth advocates, family and community members of victims, along with trusted activists must collectivize efforts to demand justice and police accountability (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009) only provide safety and protection for potential youth victims of police killings, but can also act as the base in which justice, dignity, and equity for deceased youth are demanded (Hill, 2016). In recent times, systemic and policy changes have resulted from the above-mentioned activism, which have included monetary compensation to victims' family, law reforms, increased police transparency while on duty (e.g. ...
... Counselors have been called on to become systemic change agents who "challenge social, cultural, or economic barriers to optimal psychosocial development" (Lee & Rogers, 2009, p. 284). At this level of engagement, counseling clearly becomes a political endeavor since interventions seek to change governmental and political systems so they are more just and equitable towards marginalized individuals and communities (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). The focus on the public arena is particularly salient in light of research showing the continued impact of power, privilege and oppression on marginalized members of society and the growing awareness of the connection between oppression and poor outcomes in mental health (Aldarondo, 2007;Jacobs, 1994;Prilleltensky, 2008). ...
... Scholars have recently begun to conduct studies of advocacy interventions by examining practices in the social political arena in tightly structured experiments. However, the onus is on counselors to build a comprehensive body of knowledge by documenting the effectiveness of social justice counseling interventions in spite of the frustrating and circuitous nature of advocacy work (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009;McNutt, 2011). Future training will be "…required to expand service delivery skills to include preventive interventions, client advocacy and social action" (Speight & Vera, 2004, p 116). ...
Article
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The authors seek to initiate a broader dialog within the social justice movements across disciplines to include a deeper understanding of how power politics plays out in the social/political domain of the public arena outlined in the American Counseling Association (ACA) Advocacy Competencies. In this domain, counselors act as legislative/policy change advocates. However, in recent years social justice advocates within the profession have called for a more activist stance focusing on changing social structures of unjust systems and institutions as an adjunct to legislative/policy advocacy. Activities engaged in by policy/legislative advocates and structural change activists are discussed. Delineation between the differences in perception of power by political operatives and counseling professionals is examined so counselors may have a more comprehensive understanding of the challenges associated with being social change agents. Future implications for the field are discussed with focus on evidence-based research, training, and the potential use of technology and social media in the social justice advocacy movement.
... Some results of this study are consistent with prior studies, including behavioral health providers find value in interprofessional collaboration, they are engaging in these experiences in various roles, and they appreciate the experiences of working with diverse professionals with a shared goal of supporting clients [5,7,10,12,13]. While there were some points of contention, overwhelmingly, behavioral health providers in this study found interprofessional clinical collaboration as beneficial to their own professional development and to clients. This mutually beneficial theme is important because it can be motivation to engage in interprofessional collaboration even with underlying hesitancy or confusion [5]. ...
... Although further research is required to gain a more complete understanding of the relationship between behavioral health providers and interprofessional collaboration, the current study identified new elements that could benefit BHP's and future engagement in IPC. The past and current literature on interprofessional collaboration suggests that behavioral health providers collaborate with other professionals in order to provide timely and holistic care to patients, and the current study found that while this is true, other motivations include personal and professional growth [7,11,12]. Interprofessionalism is not without its challenges, as conflicts between the various professions can often create a barrier to interprofessional engagement. However, despite its challenges, many behavioral health providers within the current study noted that interprofessionalism has significant benefits and they were actively engaged in interprofessional collaboration. ...
Article
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Interprofessional clinical collaboration (IPC) is an approach in which healthcare providers from different professions work to collaboratively improve health outcomes for patients. Limited research exists on behavioral health provider’s attitudes toward IPC. This qualitative study included 32 participants with results highlighting two major themes: (1) benefits (to the profession and client) and (2) collaboration (collaboration experience and consultation). Finally, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis was used to operationalize the findings and develop implications.
... Although the counseling profession continues to struggle with articulating a clear professional identity in the face of decreasing resources, counselors are addressing some of the nation's most complex social issues, issues that may increase the risk of, or exacerbate, concerns such as school dropout, poverty, discrimination, substance abuse, and chronic illness and disability. Recognizing that no single profession can effectively address all these issues in isolation, the counseling profession is increasingly emphasizing collaboration as a best practice strategy for addressing interrelated social issues across school, family, and community systems (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). Collaborative consultation, for example, is one of the primary models school counselors have embraced to address the evolving and diverse needs of students, schools, and the families they serve (Woodward & Davis, 2009). ...
... Participants further emphasized that the profession of social work is more focused on systemic issues that affect client concerns, whereas counseling is primarily focused on the individual. This finding is particularly interesting given the increasing emphasis on advocacy and social action within the counseling profession, which asks counselors to partner with other professionals to identify and address systemic issues affecting the well-being of their clients (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). ...
Article
This exploratory, qualitative study examined the professional identity of 238 practicing counselors and how they perceived counseling as distinct from psychology and social work. Participants' professional identities seemed to be grounded in a developmental, prevention, and wellness orientation toward helping. Participants also seemed to embrace a unified professional identity. Psychology was perceived as emphasizing testing and social work as focusing on systemic issues. Findings and implications for the counseling profession and interprofessional collaboration are discussed.
... increased racial/ethnic and linguistic diversity) and educational disparities between majority and minority students, ASCA (2003) revised its national model for professional school counselors. The revised role of today"s professional school counselors is rooted in the counseling profession"s philosophical orientation towards achieving social justice by proactively confronting the issues which impinge on students" academic development (Bemak & Chung, 2009;Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009;Toporek, Lewis & Crethar, 2009). ...
Article
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Professional school counselors can play an instrumental role in the academic development of students with whom they interact. To empower professional school counselors in promoting improved academic performance the American School Counseling Association (ASCA, 2003) revised its national model. Now more than ever, professional school counselors are expected to advocate on behalf of all students to facilitate their optimal academic development. One student demographic in particular—African American males—has experienced chronic academic difficulties. In the position of advocate, professional school counselors can promote improved academic performance in African American adolescent males through school/community collaboration. This article will include suggestions for professional school counselors to become more effective advocates capable of establishing collaborative relationships that facilitate academic achievement for African American male students.
... Scholars have pointed out that social justice work takes courage (Bemak & Chung, 2008;Glosoff & Durham, 2010;Harrist & Richardson, 2012;Lee & Rodgers, 2009) and is never convenient (McWhirter, 1997). Thus, leadership is needed for effective and ongoing advocacy to lead to systemic changes so that all students, including students who belong to groups which have been marginalized in employment, are able to access the resources and opportunities they desire (J. A. Lewis, Ratts, Paladino, & Toporek, 2011;Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). These directors seemed to agree with this notion and be open to new ideas and best practices. ...
Article
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Research indicates that career development practitioners value social justice and desire additional skills to be able to advocate effectively. Many of these practitioners work on college campuses under the supervision of career center directors; however, directors' perspectives on social justice have been missing from the literature. Following the National Career Development Association's mandate to actively practice the professional value of honoring diversity and promoting social justice, we surveyed 11 career center directors regarding advocacy in career services. Results of thematic analysis yielded center directors' insights into both defining and promoting social justice. Participants addressed the roles and responsibilities of career counselors, career center directors, and institutional culture. Implications for practice include the importance of open communication and the need for collaboration inside and outside of the career center. These findings highlight potential areas for future research into best practices for integrating social justice and advocacy in university career services.
... Conditional language regarding such groups should be removed from the subsection on LGBTQ issues. A school counseling model that seeks to interrupt heteronormativity would directly encourage professional school counselors to become knowledgeable about forms of institutional discrimination specific to each community and to advocate for their queer and transgender students at the community and systems level (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). A school counseling department that sets promoting safe schools for queer and transgender youth as a priority should be challenged to build an advisory council of students, educators, parents, and community members who are committed to identiftying and destablizing heteronormativity within their school. ...
Article
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This article expands the discussion on safe schools for queer youth by utilizing critical theory (Parker, 2012) to interrogate the American School Counseling Association's National Model (ASCA; 2012). Within this article the ASCA National Model is reviewed and summarized. The author introduces foundational information about critical theory. Drawing on a case vignette from professional school counseling practice, the author argues that the ASCA National Model may be used as a tool for confronting or maintaining the heteronormative status quo within schools, depending upon the critical consciousness of the professional school counselors who use it. Finally, the author provides suggestions for revising the ASCA National Model in a manner that will more effectively interrupt heterosexual and cisgender hegemony to advance safer schools for queer and transgender youth.
... The counseling profession is increasingly emphasizing collaboration as a best practice strategy for addressing social issues across school, family, and community levels (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). However, lack of clarity of professional roles and responsibilities from related disciplines and conflict over power and identity have led interprofessional collaborations to rarely involve professional counselors (King & Ross, 2003). ...
Article
INTRODUCTION Interprofessional collaboration is essential to improve coordination, communication, quality, and safety of patient care. Interprofessional perception is an important variable in interprofessional collaboration as it can impact attitudes, ability to successfully engage in interprofessionalism, and willingness to engage. The study focuses on understanding perceptions and experiences of interprofessional collaboration of professional counselors and other allied health professionals. METHODS Participants were recruited online and through snowball sampling. The survey was taken by a diverse sample of healthcare professionals. The survey items consisted of demographic information, the 18 item Interprofessional Education Perception Scale (IEPS), and the 16 item individual construct subscale for the Perception of Interprofessional Collaboration Model Questionnaire (PINCOM-Q). Chi-Square and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups on the IEPS and the PINCOM-Q. RESULTS Results suggested that 31% of professional counselors had previous interprofessional education (IPE) and 41.4% reported that they had engaged in interprofessional clinical experience, and the majority of counselors have positive perceptions of interprofessional collaboration. Results from the ANOVA indicated that counselors have similar professional perceptions as other behavioral health professionals, however their professional beliefs are different from that of other allied health professionals. CONCLUSION Professional counselors are gaining experiences with interprofessionalism and seem to have positive perceptions of interprofessional collaboration. It is thought that the inclusion of professional counselors on interprofessional teams will not only affect the teams positively but also the clients that are served.
... Identifying elements of social justice advocacy, Lopez-Baez and Paylo (2009) suggested that counselors must move beyond direct intervention with individuals and involve themselves at the community and systems levels. PSCs can accomplish this via stakeholder collaboration in the school system using some of Mallon's (2001) suggestions for organizational shifts. ...
Article
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This article provides an overview of best practices for professional school counselors working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ) youth. The authors provide a rationale for this work and introduce ethical and legal issues that further support this work. Authors then introduce potential points of professional school counselor collaboration across a comprehensive, develop- mental model of school counseling. The article concludes with a review of systemic change strategies that can facilitate a school culture that supports the unique needs of all youth, specifically LGBTQ youth.
... School counselors no longer work in isolation with individual students. Rather, their role has been transformed to require a social justice orientation-a perspective that deepens the ability to understand the nuanced complexities inherent to engaging in multicultural counseling and addressing systems of oppression that students may encounter (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). School counselors serve as social agents of change through removing barriers to learning and working to close the achievement gap on a systemic level (Bemak & Chung, 2011;Dahir & Stone, 2009). ...
Article
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Transition from high school to postsecondary education (PSE) and employment can be challenging for all youth, and particularly for youth with intellectual disability (ID). Promoting equity and access to PSE for students with ID is a social justice mandate, and high school counselors are uniquely positioned to assist youth with ID in accessing appropriate PSE options. This article describes how high school counselors can effectively support the postsecondary transition needs of students with ID through applying a framework of advocacy and social justice, using the Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Competencies.
... Case studies and films that highlight issues of oppression can be used within the classroom to help students identify systems of oppression and privilege and develop advocacy skills (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). In using a case study, students can identify themes of oppression and privilege. ...
... Medicare Mental Health Coverage Gap practice may reflect a type of social justice on behalf of clients (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009) that is admirable and essential. However, this practice's long-term viability is unsustainable, prompting a need for greater advocacy in the public arena to eliminate the MMHCG. ...
Article
Nearly one in four Medicare beneficiaries have been diagnosed with mental health or substance use disorders, and research indicates this population responds well to mental health treatment. However, Medicare policy omits licensed mental health counselors (LMHCs) and licensed marriage and family therapists (LMFTs) as approved providers, exacerbating an existing national provider shortage. Emerging research demonstrates that the provider omission, referred to as the Medicare mental health coverage gap (MMHCG), profoundly impacts excluded providers and the communities they serve. This paper represents a synthesis of the most current scholarship on Medicare research, policy, and advocacy. In particular, we explore three ways the MMHCG impacts providers and beneficiaries alike: limiting provider choices, thwarting continuity of care, and creating challenging decisions for beneficiaries and providers. Our aim is to help mental health counselors better understand and navigate the MMHCG and aid in advocacy efforts for legislation to include LMHCs and LMFTs as approved Medicare providers.
... Consultative participation is more active in that individuals provide information and give their opinions to those in a position to make a difference. Lopez-Baez and Paylo (2009) found that having residents contribute to community development is itself a component of advocacy. Likewise, they cite effective listening and identifying strengths and weaknesses as also contributing to advocacy. ...
Article
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As a requirement for a federal neighborhood revitalization grant, the authors trained resident interviewers and coordinated the conduct of more than 1000 door-to-door interviews of a stratified random sample. The targeted area was a multiethnic, lower income neighborhood that continues to experience the effects of past segregation. Monitoring and pivots to the training procedures are described within the context of community development and capacity-building theory. Including local participation in the interview process yielded enhanced collaborative participation in decision making on the part of interviewers and interviewees. Resident contribution to community development is described within the framework of advocacy and consultative participation.
... Research that highlights the efficacy of community-based family and couple education prevention programs would be important to (a) demonstrate effects on decreasing stigma for mental health care and help-seeking behaviors, (b) increase individuals' efficacy for intervention and willingness to refer parents or couples in distress whom they interact with in the community, and (c) demonstrate increased interprofessional collaboration regarding appropriate roles for supporting families and couples to improve client care. Practitioners and researchers alike may serve families better by being more visible in their respective communities by engaging in therapeutic efforts that are embedded in neighborhoods and community centers (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). ...
Article
James Robert Bitter has more than 38 years of teaching experience and has authored numerous publications focused on marriage and family therapy. Bitter credits Adlerian therapy and the early pioneers of marriage and family therapy for his professional development in the field. Mentored and heavily influenced through his training with master therapists, Virginia Satir and Michael White, Bitter reflects on the history of family therapy, its theories and practices, and his anticipation of future developments.
... Their potential roles in advocacy are as liaisons and allies for their clients and client families and more directly as activists in community development representing themselves and their profession in crafting a more accommodating and fair world. The American Counseling Association (ACA) provides a profi le of the community-based counselor in its recitation of competencies in social justice advocacy (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). The ACA profi le suggests strategies for action as much as qualities of the changeagent role. ...
... Whereas empowerment focuses on increasing participation and voice for families in the partnership process and in their children's education, social justice focuses on increasing access to resources, information, skills, and knowledge for families (Nelson et al., 2001). Principle-based collaboration among counselors, students, families, and community members is a vital tool of social justice (Bryan, 2009;Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi, & Bryant, 2007;Kiselica & Robinson, 2001;Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). In social-justice-focused partnerships, counselors and other partners collaborate with traditionally marginalized students and families to intentionally develop quality programs that give students and families access to information and resources, such as advanced classes, health care, and academic enrichment and college planning programs. ...
Article
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The extant literature documents the importance of school counselors’ roles in school–family–community partnerships, yet no model exists to guide school counselors through the process of building partnerships. The authors propose a model to help school counselors navigate the process and principles of partnerships. They define partnerships; discuss the principles of democratic collaboration, empowerment, social justice, and strengths focus that should infuse partnerships; enumerate a partnership process model; and discuss implications for practice and research.
... In the context of school counseling, social justice advocacy involves addressing inequitable practices and conditions that impede students' academic, collegecareer, and socioemotional development (Holcomb-McCoy, 2007;Ratts & Hutchins, 2009). School counselors who are social justice advocates understand and practice student and family empowerment, student and family advocacy, systems advocacy, and community collaboration and advocacy (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009;Ratts & Hutchins, 2009). ...
Article
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Using the School Counselor Leadership Survey and the School Counselor Involvement in Partnerships Survey, this study of 546 school counselors explored which of the 5 school counselor leadership dimensions were associated with involvement in school–family–community partnerships. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the leadership dimension that predicted counselor partnership involvement was systemic collaboration along with self-efficacy and role perceptions about partnerships, collaborative climate, and principal expectations. The authors discuss practice and training implications for school counselors.
... These competencies include the awareness of personal values and beliefs, understanding cultural worldviews and experiences of oppression, and developing counseling skills to serve diverse cultural populations (Arredondo et al., 1996). In addition, the MSJCC conceptual framework adopts a social justice orientation in counseling practice, an approach that focuses on identifying and addressing systems of oppression that affect students and families (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). ...
Article
We examined the high school experiences of 133 African American, Latina/o, and biracial college students through employing a mixed methods concurrent nested design, including survey analysis and qualitative content analysis, to identify themes and the extent school counselors provided assistance with promoting academic and college readiness. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model and Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Competencies (MSJCC) were used as a conceptual framework to guide the study. Findings included the need for greater support from school counselors, to strengthen collaborative efforts across school community members and access to academic resources. Implications for counseling practice in urban schools are provided.
... But what of environments that are not usually seen as sites of knowledge generation or, to the extent that they are, the knowledge is intrinsically seen as inferior and devalued? Many users and survivors of the mental health system in the Industrialized West have produced new and different understandings of distress and helpful supports in the course of advocacy work, campaigning, collective peer support and educational endeavors (Molyneux and Irvine, 2004;Basset et al., 2006;Lopez-Baez and Paylo, 2009;Mead, 2014;Voronka, 2017). However, these spaces also reflect existing power relations within society when they exclude, exoticize or marginalize racialized people and their knowledge (Gorman et al., 2013;Tam, 2013). ...
Article
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This paper examines the concept and practice of coproduction in mental health. By analyzing personal experience as well as the historical antecedents of coproduction, we argue that the site of coproduction is defined by the legacy of the Enlightenment and its notions of “reason” and “the cognitive subject.” We show the enduring impact of these notions in producing and perpetuating the power dynamics between professionals, researchers, policy makers and service users within privileged sites of knowledge production, whereby those deemed to lack reason—the mad and the racialized mad in particular—and their knowledge are radically inferiorised. Articulating problems in what is considered knowledge and methods of knowing, we argue that modern “psy” sciences instantiates the privilege of reason as well as of whiteness. We then examine how the survivor movement, and the emergent survivor/mad knowledge base, duplicates white privilege even as it interrogates privileges of reason and cognition. Describing how we grapple with these issues in an ongoing project—EURIKHA—which aims to map the knowledge produced by service users, survivors and persons with psychosocial disabilities globally, we offer some suggestions. Coproduction between researchers, policy makers and those of us positioned as mad, particularly as mad people of color, we argue, cannot happen in knowledge production environments continuing to operate within assumptions and philosophies that privilege reason as well as white, Eurocentric thinking. We seek not to coproduce but to challenge and change thinking and support for psychosocial suffering in contexts local to people's lives.
... Although this form of client-level social justice advocacy is laudable and necessary (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009), it is important to consider whether it is sustainable in the long term. Drawing on findings from a related study, many counseling professionals indicated problems with this approach, such as working for agencies that would not allow them to provide pro bono services, the inability of many clients to pay directly for services, even when they were offered at a sliding scale rate, and the long-term economic ramifications on their own professional practices due to providing services at reduced fees (Fullen, Wiley, & Morgan, under review). ...
Article
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The authors surveyed 6,550 members of the American Counseling Association regarding the current impact of Medicare policy on counseling professionals. Over half of respondents (54.8%) had been directly impacted by Medicare reimbursement barriers, including 70.0% of practicing counselors. Statistical analyses indicated significant associations between years in the profession, direct experience with the Medicare coverage gap, and participation in professional advocacy related to Medicare. Implications for counselors, counselor educators, and counseling scholarship are discussed.
... Scholars describe cultural competence as the idea of understanding one's own culture along with another's culture in order to effectively work with individuals from that culture (Hwang & Wood, 2007;Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992;Sue et al., 1982;Sue & Sue, 2016). Other sources added that with cultural competence there must be a level of appreciation for culture (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009;Priester et al., 2008;Sammons & Speight, 2008). Further, multicultural and diversity issues should be infused into each course to support counselors as they progress toward competence (ACA, 2014;CACREP, 2016). ...
Article
In addition to the normal developmental tasks, racial and ethnic minority youth may experience other unique challenges that are related to their social, cultural, and structural positions in the US. Specifically, African American adolescents are at increased risk for dropping out of schools and engaging in health risk behaviors due to contextual stressors such as poverty, neighborhood disorder, community violence, and racial discrimination. Group counseling is a developmentally appropriate approach for working with adolescents; however, the counselor training concerning culture-specific considerations for working with African American adolescents in group settings was rarely explored. Therefore, this article aims to serve as a fundamental conceptual framework for working with African American adolescents in groups across different settings by addressing the appropriateness of group counseling for African American adolescents; reflecting on the current counselor preparation and training in group work with African American adolescents; discussing the development, culture, stressors, and strengths of African American adolescents; and providing implications and practical suggestions.
... Therapeutic techniques help applicants better understand their personal relationships and analyze how environmental factors affect their problems [43]. Such understanding may encourage persons to take measures to reduce the risks they face and to enlist others in helping them deal with the social and political obstacles they encounter [50]. The techniques include focusing on their clients' strengths, supporting the development of the skills and qualifications they need, and cultivating a sense of self-worth and enthusiasm to make decisions more effectively [51,52]. ...
... These issues may include, but are not limited to, education, health care, jobs, and housing. Community advocacy describes the geographic limits of the advocates' work, but the effort may still involve political work (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). ...
Article
This dissertation sought to explore the skills necessary to become an effective advocate in the mental health profession. Additionally, this study sought to discover how and where mental health professionals learned the necessary skills to be advocates. This qualitative study examined the factors identified by individuals actively engaged in advocacy work.
... Efforts to meet these educational standards and uphold the values of the profession include both direct instruction and immersive experiences where trainees have direct involvement with culturally diverse individuals (Barden & Greene, 2014). Training and level of education have been found to be significant predictors of CSE levels; however, negative implications may be present in terms of lower selfefficacy for students in counseling programs with a limited multicultural training approach (Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009). Further, relationships exist between cultural competence and multicultural self-efficacy (Matthews, Barden, & Sherrell, 2018), suggesting that increasing students' multicultural training could bring about benefits in self-efficacy as well. ...
... An attempt to measure the efficacy of anti-racism training should, therefore, include items that assess these varied components of anti-racism advocacy. Indeed, challenging racism has been identified as an integral aspect of social justice advocacy in counseling and counseling psychology (see Lopez-Baez & Paylo, 2009;Steele, 2008). Therefore anti-racism advocacy, namely engaging in behaviors that advocate the dismantling of racist attitudes and institutions, should be included in any assessment of an individual's commitment to anti-racism. ...
Article
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This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the anti-racism behavioral inventory, a measure designed to assess anti-racism awareness and behavior among students in counseling and counseling psychology programs within the United States (US). Data from 513 participants were collected over three related studies. Factor analyses suggested that the 21-item scale was best represented as a bifactor model with one general anti-racism behavior factor and three domain-specific factors, namely individual advocacy, awareness of racism, and institutional advocacy. Additional validity was supported through inverse associations with measures of symbolic racism and color-blind racial attitudes, as well as positive associations with scores on the Quick Discrimination Index. Potential utility of the measure and future directions for ongoing development is discussed.
Article
This qualitative study explored trainees' experiences in an outreach program for refugee/immigrant women to examine if those experiences facilitated the development of multicultural competency and social justice advocacy. Twelve students were interviewed, and their responses yielded 3 categories: development of cultural knowledge, counseling‐related skills, and personal growth and reactions. The results indicate that student involvement in an outreach program can strengthen multicultural sensitivity and advocacy engagement.
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The purpose of this article is to provide counselors with an overview of best practices for the treatment of women who experience prenatal depression (PND). The authors first discuss issues in the screening and diagnosis of PND. Next, the 2 most common treatments, antidepressants and psychotherapy, are reviewed and discussed in relation to current best practice guidelines. Guidelines for counselors' roles in treatment and advocacy are also provided.
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Creating and retaining empathic connections with the most disenfranchised among us can take a toll on the wellness of counselor advocates. The Advocacy-Serving Model is introduced as a creative approach to strengthening the ability of advocates to serve through enhancing awareness, focusing actions, and connecting to community. The model integrates Buddhist practices into advocacy work. This article includes a brief description of advocacy, an overview of applicable Buddhist approaches, and an illustration of the model used in individual advocacy work.
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The article applies the American Counseling Association Competencies for Counseling with Transgender Clients to transgender and gender nonconforming students, thereby assisting school counselors in understanding how to apply the competencies to their school setting. Drawing upon their experience as educators, feminists, and safe schools activists, the authors provide collaboration-specific strategies school counselors can use to advocate with students, parents, school personnel, community members, and other stakeholders on behalf of transgender youth across grade levels. Guided by feminist and social justice perspectives, the school counselor strategies described in this article apply the ACA Transgender Competencies through the framework of the community collaboration and systems advocacy domains outlined in the American Counseling Association Advocacy Competencies.
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The Critical Incident Technique (CIT) was used to gather information from master's level counseling students regarding their perceived preparedness to engage in multicultural counseling and social justice practice. Thirty-two participants provided critical incidents and responded to a series of prompts in an online survey to document the helpful and hindering aspects of their graduate education. The data analysis paralleled the Enhanced CIT three-stage inductive process for analyzing thematic content. The participants' critical incident statements were fragmented into simpler text segments representing distinct, nonoverlapping themes. More than 800 items were coded into 51 specific themes, 13 broad categories, 3 organizing domains, and 3 critical incident categories. These critical incident categories were (a) single graduate course, (b) practicum/practicum supervisor, and (b) specific learning activities. The three organizing domains described the outcomes of the participant experiences: (a) competencies facilitated, (b) barriers encountered, and (c) gaps identified. Most of the data reflected the competencies facilitated domain, indicating that students reported their multicultural and/or social justice education was generally positive, although certain barriers and gaps were identified. The data also showed that the participants' education primarily resulted from a single course design and an emphasis on awareness and knowledge of culture; however, attainment of multicultural counseling skills and attention to social justice tenets and advocacy were reported as lacking or absent from their education. Implications for counselor education are discussed.
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The nursing literature emphasizes that there are still inadequacies, differences, and inconsistencies in the definition of nurses' advocacy role, and that nursing education plays an important role in educating nurses for patient advocacy. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of advocacy education onsocial justice advocacy and ethical sensitivity. Pre-test, post-test, parallel group, randomized controlled study. The study was carried out on 80 undergraduate nursing students in Turkey. Students was divided into experimental (40) and control (40) groups. Experimental group received advocacy education cirruculum. Both groups were applied as Socio-Demographic Characteristics, as pre- test and post-tests Social Justice Advocacy Scale, and Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. The data were statistically evaluated with, the chi-square test, Two-Way Anova. The study was approved by Selcuk University Faculty of Health Sciences Non-Interventional Clinical Research Ethics Committee (09.25.2019/1218). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The pre-test score of the intervention group and that of the control group were similar(p > 0.05). The study group's post-test score was significantly higher than its pre-test score and the post-test score of the control group “social justice advocacy skills” and “moral sensitivity Questionnaire.” In two-way analysis of variance in repeated measures, there was a significant main effect of the type of groups. The two-way ANOVA results in repeated measures showed that group-time interaction was significant. The advocacy education cirruculum the experimental group increased in the social justice advocacy knowledge, attitude and skills and moral sensitivity. The advocacy education cirruculum the experimental group increased the social justice advocacy skills and moral sensitivity. The Advocacy education cirruculum can be suggested to be integrated into the undergraduate nursing curriculum.
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Student Veterans and Service Members in Higher Education bridges theory to practice in order to better prepare practitioners in their efforts to increase the success of veteran and military service members in higher education. Bringing together perspectives from a researcher, practitioner, and student veteran, this unique author team provides a comprehensive but manageable text reviewing relevant research literature and presenting accessible strategies for working with students. This book explores the facilitators and barriers of student veteran learning and engagement, how culture informs the current student veteran experience, and best practices for creating and maintaining a campus that allows for the success of these students. The latest to publish in the Key Issues on Diverse College Students series, this volume is a valuable resource for student affairs and higher education professionals to better serve veteran and military service members in higher education.
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The concepts of multicultural counseling, social justice, and advocacy may be utilized without a clear sense of how best to operationalize them in counselor training. In this article, the authors offer a perspective on how advocacy and social justice interrelate and share strategies for infusing advocacy into counselor training to achieve social justice goals. The authors provide six experiential activities counselor educators may use to provide counselors-in-training experience in a range of advocacy skills.
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Taking the fear out of changing OH: Adams Media. FiGuRE 1 Counselor Tool for Charting and Studying Anticipated Responses to Change The counselor and his skill base to bring about change The other agencies' involve-Prochaska
  • O Grady
O'Grady, D. (1993). Taking the fear out of changing. Dayton, OH: Adams Media. FiGuRE 1 Counselor Tool for Charting and Studying Anticipated Responses to Change The counselor and his skill base to bring about change The other agencies' involve-Prochaska, J. O., Norcross, J. C., & DiClemente, C. C. (1994).