Technical Report

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC HABITAT RESTORATION SITES IN THE BUFFALO RIVER AREA OF CONCERN

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The Buffalo River is a recovering riparian system. Its history of heavy industrial discharge resulted in poor water quality and badly contaminated sediments. The river was considered biologically dead as recently as the early 1970’s (Buffalo Courier Express,1974) and it was designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC) in the mid-1980’s (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), 1989). Impaired beneficial uses include degradation of benthos, fish tumors, loss of fish and wildlife habitat, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, the tainting of fish and wildlife flavor, and the presence of bird or animal deformities or reproductive problems. Combined sewer overflows and upstream pollutant inputs remain concerns, but historical sediment contamination and poor habitat opportunities persist as the major obstacles to recovery.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Streamflow discharge values were obtained for the same period from each of the three tributaries mentioned above. The discharge at the head of the study river reach was calculated as the sum of the three tributaries, with each adjusted for the additional drainage area between the gauge and the upstream boundary of the model domain (Irvine et al., 2005). For the "streamflow-driven" scenario, annual maximum discharge data were obtained from these USGS stations from 1960 to 2019. ...
Article
Compound impacts on water level caused by seiche and high flow in freshwater coastal rivers can result in extreme flood risks. A seiche is an oscillation in the lake caused by strong wind or rapid change of atmospheric pressure. Seiching and high flow can be statistically dependent, therefore a copula-based joint distribution is used to investigate their compound effects on flooding in a freshwater coastal river. A hydrodynamic model is used to predict inundation areas for developing flood probability maps. This two-fold approach allows the development of a joint probability-based flood map resulting from seiche and high flow. The methodology is applied to the Buffalo River (Buffalo, New York), draining into Lake Erie, which is subject to significant seiching. Results show that seiches can have an impact on flooding and the compounding effects of seiche and high flow can increase the inundation area. The study also shows that the present Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 100-year flood scenario for the study site is equivalent to compound 100-year high flow and 10-year seiche, and the 100-year high flow and corresponding most probable water level (slightly larger than the long-term average lake level) is approximately 7 times more likely to occur than the FEMA scenario. The analysis framework can provide insight into the compounding effects of seiche and high flow on inundation, and on the probability of occurrence of such events for overall flood engineering in a freshwater coastal river.
... For example, if eight of the analytes under the NSF WQI indicate pristine scores, but pH scores 0, a water body might have an index value of 85. This rates as a 'good' score, but clearly, a water body with extreme high or low pH would not be capable of supporting certain aquatic life and may be unsuitable for recreation, drinking, or irrigation (Irvine et al. 2008). ...
... As noted previously, dry weather turbidity levels at the Ohio St. Bridge in 2006 were around 27 NTU. Irvine et al. (2005b) noted that mean dry weather turbidity (1-m depth) at 10 sites along the Buffalo River in the summers of 2003 and 2004 was in the range of 10-24 NTU. While additional evaluation could be done, at this point turbidity does not appear to have a major impact on algal abundance in the Buffalo River. ...
Article
Full-text available
A “weight of evidence” approach was used to assess trophic status and phytoplankton community characteristics as a step towards delisting beneficial use impairments in the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC). Using a combination of historical data and results of a sampling program conducted in 2006, trophic status was evaluated by considering threshold levels of total phosphorus and chlorophyll a, total phytoplankton abundance, reference-reach comparisons of total phosphorus and nitrate + nitrite, and an ecoregion (percentile) analysis. Microcystin toxin levels were used as an indicator of the presence of undesirable algae. Phytoplankton community characteristics were assessed through consideration of species richness, Shannon-Weaver Index of Diversity, presence of indicator species, centric:pennate diatom ratio, the Trophic Diatom Index (TDI), and the Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI). The weight of evidence suggests that the Buffalo River AOC does not have a eutrophication problem, but nutrient levels are sufficiently high to recommend further implementation of watershed Best Management Practices and continued water quality monitoring. Microcystin was present in all samples but at a level below the World Health Organization guidelines; based on this indicator we conclude that the AOC does not have a problem with undesirable algae. The phytoplankton community exhibits some anthropogenic impact as reflected by the TDI, PTI, and presence of certain indicator species, but these impacts do not indicate extreme stress. Based on the weight of evidence the Buffalo River Remedial Advisory Committee recently concluded that the AOC was not impaired in terms of eutrophication, presence of undesirable algae, and degradation of phytoplankton.
Article
A three-point approximation method, the perturbance moments method (PMM), is applied to quantify the uncertainty of predicted dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Buffalo River that arise from data variability and parameter uncertainty. A risk assessment is then conducted to systematically compute the probability of exceeding a predetermined water quality standard. Numerical investigations reveal that the overall uncertainty of the output DO concentrations does not necessarily equal the sum of the uncertainties of all individual variables or parameters of interest. Therefore, different sources of uncertainty can have compensative or additive effects on the overall uncertainty of output DO concentrations. In a particular case study of the Buffalo River, the variability of measured concentrations was demonstrated to have the largest influence on the overall uncertainty of predicted DO concentrations. Notably, data with a higher collection frequency should have a smaller uncertainty, and therefore a smaller variability in the expected values, and so contribute less to the magnitude of the standard deviation of the output DO concentrations. The effective risk that DO concentrations exceed the selected standard over time is evaluated. The effective risk that the DO concentration drops below the selected standard is relatively high in a higher-temperature season.
Article
Full-text available
Man's activities have had profound, and usually negative, influences on freshwater fishes from the smallest streams to the largest rivers. Some negative effects are due to contaminants, while others are associated with changes in watershed hydrology, habitat modifications, and alteration of energy sources upon which the aquatic biota depends. Regrettably, past efforts to evaluate effects of man's activities on fishes have attempted to use water quality as a surrogate for more comprehensive biotic assessment. A more refined biotic assessment program is required for effective protection of freshwater fish resources. An assessment system proposed here uses a series of fish community attributes related to species composition and ecological structure to evaluate the quality of an aquatic biota. In preliminary trials this system accurately reflected the status of fish communities and the environment supporting them.
Article
Full-text available
The lower Buffalo River, NY, is environmentally impaired and the 38 combined sewer outfalls within this reach historically were believed to be the primary source of bacterial contamination. A planning level evaluation of bacteria contamination was done through sample testing and compilation of existing source data, in part, with the aid of GIS technology. The intent of such evaluation is to provide an overview of the magnitude and sources of the water quality problem without extensive resource commitments, as a first step in developing remediation strategies. Testing for fecal coliform and fecal streptococci was done at 12 sites within the watershed for one year, 1992–93. Indicator bacteria densities at all sites generally were high and the state guideline for primary contact (200 fecal coliform 100 ml−1) was exceeded in 69% of 277 samples. Bacteria densities were greatest during storm events, suggesting runoff as an important source pathway. Mean fecal coliform densities significantly increased downstream, with higher levels of urbanization. Fecal coliform: fecal streptococci ratios, combined with the source inventory data, successfully were used to identify areas of human sewage inputs. Although combined sewer overflows in the lower Buffalo River have an impact on bacteria levels, upstream sources also degrade water quality. The costly elimination of combined sewer overflows in the lower river will not entirely alleviate problems with high bacteria levels. Water quality in the lower river will improve only through a basin-wide, co-ordinated reduction of bacteria inputs from multiple sources.
Article
Full-text available
Larval chironomid mouthpart deformities are used as indicators of anthropogenic stress. However, there are limited data on the incidence of naturally occurring deformities. Chironomid larvae were collected from 252 reference sites throughout the Great Lakes by Environment Canada from 1991 through 1993. Overall incidence of mentum deformities was 2.27% for Procladius (SE=0.46, n=1055), 2.15% for Chironomus (SE=0.51, n=839), 1.27% for Heterotrissocladius (SE=0.57, n=393), 1.38% for Tanytarsus (SE=0.61, n=363), and 3.25% for Polypedilum (SE=1.07, n=277). The most common deformity was one missing tooth in the mentum. Deformity frequency was highest in Northern Channel and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron. However, incidences were homogeneous among regions (G-test, p > 0.05). In examining contaminated conditions, a result greater than one 95% confidence interval above these reference deformity frequencies should be considered significantly elevated from baseline levels.
Article
Full-text available
As part of the planning effort for combined sewer overflow (CSO) abatement, a combination of sampling and mathematical modeling was used to characterize both CSO and receiving water quality in the city of Buffalo, NY. Samples collected during storm events showed that while CSOs within the city boundary are a source of fecal coliform to the Buffalo River, higher concentrations enter the river from the upper watershed, upstream of the city. Loading estimates of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Hg were made for design storms and on an annual basis using a combined model and sampling approach. While the metals loads were quantifiable from the CSOs, the loads associated with the upper watershed discharge were greater, for example, by a factor of 3 to 18 times for the design storms. Continuous, automated sampling of conventional parameters at 15 minute time steps indicated that the river experienced non-compliant periods for dissolved oxygen. In some cases, low dissolved oxygen levels may be associated with CSO inputs, but the hydraulics of the river system also had an important negative impact on dissolved oxygen. In developing CSO abatement options for the Buffalo River, it is essential to recognize that there are other significant contaminant sources in the upper watershed that will continue to negatively impact water quality.
Article
Full-text available
The index of biotic integrity (IBI) integrates 12 measures of stream fish assemblages for assessing water resource quality. Initially developed and tested in the Midwest, the IBI recently was adapted for use in western Oregon, northeastern Colorado, New England, the Appalachians of West Virginia and Virginia, and northern California. The concept also was extended to Louisiana estuaries. In regions of low species richness, the IBI proved difficult to apply and often required extensive modification. Adapting the 1BI to those regions required that metrics be replaced, deleted, or added to accommodate regional differences in fish distribution and assemblage structure and function. Frequently replaced metrics include: proportion of individuals as green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), proportion of individuals as insectivorous cyprinids, proportion of individuals as hybrids, and number and identity of sunfish and darter species. The proportion of individuals as top carnivore metric was often deleted. Metrics added include total fish biomass and the number and identity of minnow species. These modifications generally followed the original IBI concept and its theoretical underpinnings. Problems remain in establishing tolerance rankings and scoring criteria, and adjusting scoring criteria for gradient differences in streams of similar size. The IBI holds promise for direct biological monitoring because of its strong ecological foundation and flexibility. Vermont, Tennessee Valley Authority, Ohio, Kentucky, and Illinois have incorporated the IBI into their monitoring or standards programs. The IBI thus serves as a quantitative, biological goal for water resource management.
Article
Full-text available
Man's activities have had profound, and usually negative, influences on freshwater fishes from the smallest streams to the largest rivers. Some negative effects are due to contaminants, while others are associated with changes in watershed hydrology, habitat modifications, and alteration of energy sources upon which the aquatic biota depends. Regrettably, past efforts to evaluate effects of man's activities on fishes have attempted to use water quality as a surrogate for more comprehensive biotic assessment. A more refined biotic assessment program is required for effective protection of freshwater fish resources. An assessment system proposed here uses a series of fish community attributes related to species composition and ecological structure to evaluate the quality of an aquatic biota. In preliminary trials this system accurately reflected the status of fish communities and the environment supporting them.
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to develop a watershed-wide water quality management plan for the Buffalo River, NY, the Erie County Department of Environment and Planning has begun a pilot watershed management project for Cazenovia Creek, one of three major tributaries. In support of the management project a water sampling effort covering four events and two non-events for 25 different analytes at 12 sites was conducted between 4/24/96 and 7/10/96. The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Water Quality Index (wQI) was one of the analytical tools used to summarize the data. Essentially, the WQI converts the concentration data for nine analytes into one offive water quality classes, ranging from ·very bad" to· excellent". Based on the WQI values, water quality typically was in thegood" range. The sites nearest the headwaters had the highest water quality rating with significant decreases in water quality occurring downstream, particulary in urban-impacted areas. Water quality also was significantly impacted by stonn events. High fecal colifonn levels (>200 microorganisms/100 ml) are ofparticular concem at the majority of sites.
Book
Full-text available
All existing environmental index systems, along with principles for their design, application and structure, are included in this book. Chapter I introduces environmental data, presenting simple communicative approaches such as environmental quality profiles. It also describes the national monitoring activities that generate these data and discusses the difficulty of constructing meaningful environmental damage functions. Chapter II presents a new conceptual framework that is designed to embrace nearly all existing environmental indices, allowing the behavior of different index structures to be compared and probed in detail. Chapter III concentrates on air pollution indices, using the conceptual framework introduced in Chapter II to analyze and compare published air pollution indices. Chapter III also gives a detailed summary of the historical evolution and scientific basis for the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI), which has been developed for uniform application throughout the United States. Computational aids for applying PSI to actual air quality data are included. Chapter IV covers water pollution indices, using the theoretical framework and concepts from Chapter II to examine today's water pollution indices; it also presents design principles for an ideal water quality index and discusses a candidate index structure. In both Chapters III and IV, the current air and water index usage patterns in the United States are described in detail. Finally, Chapter V presents conceptual approaches, such as quality of life and environmental damage functions, that extend beyond the traditional fields of air and water pollution. This book should serve as a basic reference for users wishing to apply indices to analyze environmental data. Note: Copies of this book are available from Amazon.com. Please enter "Environmental Indices: Theory an Practice" into Google or use the following direct link: http://www.amazon.com/Environmental-Indices-Practice-Wayne-Ott/dp/0250401916
Article
Water-quality indices were developed to assess waters for two specific uses - public water supply and irrigation. The assessment for a specific water use is based on the availability of a set of limits for each water quality property selected, a rationale for selection, and information that permits one to appraise the relationship of the concentration of the selected property to the suitability of the specific water use. The selected properties are divided into two classes: Type-I properties, those normally considered toxic at low concentrations, and type-II properties, those which affect aesthetic conditions or which at high concentrations can be considered toxic or would otherwise render the water unfit for its intended use. The index is designed to provide numbers so that various waters can be compared directly with one another; allow for comparison of water-quality changes with time; indicate waters of both ″good″ and ″bad″ quality; and provide values which managers and other nontechnical personnel can use more easily to characterize water quality.
Article
This paper describes the method of the water quality index (WQI), which is used to estimate the cleanness of water. It contains the lists of basic and additional parameters, the formula for the summarized index and the algorithm for evaluation of summarized and guarantee index. It is illustrated by practical examples of evaluation of WQI in the rivers of the Vistula basin in Poland.
Article
To assist in the dissemination of water quality information to lay-people in particular, four suitability-for-use water quality indexes have been developed. The water users are: General, Bathing, Supply, and Fish Spawning although in the Bathing and Supply Indexes protection of aquatic life is also considered. To ensure that they tell us something useful and do not 'hide' important information as current indexing systems tend to do, the Minimum Operator has been employed as the sub-index aggregation mechanism. This is a robust, sensitive, and flexible method and seems more appropriate for this type of index than the more commonly used techniques (e.g. additive and multiplicative). Index development has been keyed into proposed New Zealand water legislation although this is not a pre-requisite for their use.
Article
The derivation, structure and application of a Water Quality Index (WQI) for the classification of surface water quality is discussed and the efficiency of the developed WQI is compared with the standard UK classification system of the National Water Council (NWC). The general WQI is developed through the objective and rigorous selection, transformation and weighting of determinands with rating curves based on legal standards and quality directives or guidelines. Three further indices intended for potable supplies and evaluation of toxicity are also discussed. The utility of the developed index for operational management is demonstrated by a comparative study with the NWC classification for a number of rivers in the Greater London region. The flexibility and advantages of a WQI approach in providing potential cost benefit/assessments for water quality on both temporal and spatial scales are also highlighted.
Article
An Oregon Water Quality Index has been developed which takes into account differences in water quality resulting from geographical characteristics of separate basins. The index was developed for the purpose of providing a simple, concise and valid method for expressing the significance of regularly generated laboratory data. The trend-monitoring value of the index was demonstrates for two quite different Willamette River stations. Correlations among this and several other proposed indexes averaged 0.87. Yearly and seasonal variations in water quality were quantitized and found to average 88.9 and 78.9 Oregon Water Quality Index units for the higher and lower water quality stations respectively over the period 1971-1976. Calculated rates of change in water quality were +0.68 and +0.91 Oregon Water Quality Index units/year for the two stations for 1971-1976. The Oregon Water Quality Index is now used routinely in Oregon's primary station sampling program to recognize water quality trends.
Article
A measure of macroinvertebrate community composition was developed using data from 46 shallow freshwater streams in New York State. It is intended for use in conjunction with other biological indices to assess water quality. Using unpolluted sites selected from 300 kick samples, an ideal community composition was developed and expressed as percent composition of seven major organism groups. The index of percentage similarity, as developed by Whittaker and Fairbanks (1958, "Ecology" 39:46-65), is used to measure the affinity of a community in a sampled riffle to that of the expected model community. Percent model affinity was found to be closely correlated with the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) and the species richness of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, and reflected water quality changes better than HBI did in instances of non-organic pollution. With modification of the model community abundances, this measure has potential for use in other geographic areas.
Article
Deterioration of ecosystem health is often reflected by changes in benthic community structure, but specific community metrics may differ widely in their usefulness as environmental monitors. We investigated the association of several of these metrics with concurrently measured sediment trace element levels at 15 sites within the Buffalo River, New York from 1990 to 1993. Site mean concentrations (9 sample dates) of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were subjected to principal component analysis, yielding 1 factor describing a spatial gradient in trace element levels. Community metrics were then regressed on this factor. The mean density of the family Chironomidae decreased (R2 = 0.41, p = 0.01) with increasing factor scores (i.e. higher trace element concentrations). However, the mean density of tubificid oligochaetes, which accounted for >80% of the benthic community, was not linearly associated with trace elements (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.08). Mean richness and diversity of the chironomid community were strongly negatively associated with factor scores (R2 = 0.77 and 0.76, respectively, p < 0.001), while the prevalence of the tolerant genera Procladius and Chironomus increased with trace elements levels (R2 = 0.55, p = 0.002). Mouthpart deformities in larvae of Chironomus thummi group also increased with higher trace element levels (R2 = 0.72, p < 0.001). Benthic community metrics can be very useful in ranking the health of specific sites, but our study shows that more detailed metrics (e.g., taxonomically detailed chironomid data, Chironomus mouthpart deformity frequencies) provide additional information on community health that justified the extra effort required for their assessment.
Article
The operational management of water quality requires a methodology that can provide precise information on cycles and trends in water quality in an objective and reproducible manner. Such information can be provided by the adoption of a water quality indexing system. The continuous scale afforded by a water quality index allows changes in river water quality to be highlighted. At the same time the sub-division of this scale into a series of water quality and water use categories provides an easy means of relating information to government and public. The development of four independent water quality indices (WQIs) is outlined. These have been applied to data for a number of UK river reaches. The results of these applications indicate the utility of these indices in the classification of water quality and the monitoring of ecosystem change.
Article
Conservation biologists have begun a concerted effort to educate the public, resource administrators, and politicians about the decline of temperate ecosystems, including their fishes. The United States harbors the most diverse temperate freshwater fish fauna in the world with about 790 species represented, about 90% of which are nongame fishes. From a state-by-state perspective, diversity of fishes in the United States is concentrated in the South, primarily in Alabama, Kentucky, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Virginia, each of which supports at least 200 native fish species. Endemicity of fishes is high in both the South and West; in the latter region, up to 70% of fishes in some drainages (e.g., Colorado River) are endemic. Imperilment apparently is not confined to particular taxonomic groups. Of the five most diverse fish families in the United States, total imperilment ranges from 7% in the Centrarchidae to 50% in nonanadromous salmonids and indicates widespread and pervasive degradation of aquatic habitats. Imperilment is most acute in areas of high diversity and/or endemicity (i.e., the southern and western states). States with 20 or more imperiled fishes include Alabama, Arizona, California, Georgia, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Virginia, Tennessee, and Texas. Backlogs in listing species as federally threatened or endangered are most egregious (10 or more backlogged taxa) in Alabama, Georgia, Nevada, and Tennessee.
Article
We present a historical review of 18 independent benthic macroinvertebrate and water quality studies of the Buffalo River, New York, Area of Concern (AOC), revealing dramatic changes between 1964 and 1993. Many results were taken from unpublished literature that is not widely obtainable. We focused on three biological metrics (invertebrate family richness, oligochaete abundance, chironomid abundance) and three water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen [DO], total suspended solids [TSS], summer temperature) consistently reported by the studies we reviewed. Most of the AOC was devoid of macroinvertebrates in 1964, but recolonization and community expansion occurred during the following decades. As many as nine families were encountered at river sites in 1990–1993 while typically no more than two could be collected before 1972. Trends suggest chironomid abundance and generic richness also increased over the study period. Water quality has improved since 1964, most notably in terms of increased DO (from near 0 to generally100 to>10 mg/L). These environmental improvements are encouraging, but continued dominance of the Buffalo River AOC by pollution tolerant tubificid oligochaetes and chironomids suggests further rehabilitation is needed.
Article
A comparison of the results from macrozoobenthic surveys of the Detroit River (1968 and 1980) showed spatial and temporal differences in the types and distribution of organisms recovered. Similar comparisons were also made from studies of the St. Clair River (1968 and 1977) and the western basin of Lake Erie (1967 and 1979). Results are also presented from a 1983 study of Lake St. Clair. These studies indicate a general improvement in the macrozoobenthos of the area, exhibited by a stronger representation of pollution sensitive organisms and an improved community structure. The studies demonstrate both the sensitivity of these large rivers and lakes and their recuperative capabilities following pollution abatement measures. Despite the documented improvements, large areas of impairment still exist, particularly in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers.
Article
The development of a better system for indexing water quality and its application to four water use classes are described. There are three dominant use classes: bathing, water supply, and fish spawning, and one general use class. In all of them protection of aquatic life is included. To ensure that the index score tells us something useful and does not hide important information as current indexes (or indices) tend to do, the water quality variable giving the lowest score (i.e. the minimum operator) has been employed to produce the final index score. Preliminary indications are that this is a more useful aggregation method than the more commonly used additive, and multiplicative techniques. Index development has been linked to recommended water quality standards developed for New Zealand water legislation. The indexes are intended to assist in the dissemination of water quality information, particularly to lay-people.
Article
A new method of a water quality index has been proposed. The unit indices were determined from the values of individual parameters using continuous functions. The base for such functions were the four water quality classes used in Poland. The summarized WQI is the square root of the harmonic mean of squares of unit indices. Using this mean we have eliminated the use of weights of parameters. Parameters are divided into basic parameters (7) and other additional parameters (19). The additional parameter is considered only if its unit index is lower than WQI from basic parameters. For many measurements at one point the guaranteed WQI has been calculated. The points of WQI were connected and the curves of WQI along the river were obtained. A method of WQI calculating and preparation of WQI curves has been shown using as an example the Pilica river in Poland. The WQI was then calculated for 31 rivers in the Vistula river basin by measuring points.
Article
A multivariate measure of stream quality, the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), was adapted to southern Ontario and calibrated to watershed land use on a variety of spatial scales. The fish fauna at 209 stream locations on 10 watersheds near Toronto, Ontario, was sampled with a backpack electrofisher in the summers of 1984 and 1985 to provide biological information for the IBI. Watershed urbanization, forest cover, and riparian forest were measured from 1:50,000 scale topographic maps and related to IBI estimates by linear regression. Of the biological measures tested, species richness, local indicator species (brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and Rhinichthys spp.), abundance of large piscivores, fish abundance, and incidence of blackspot disease were found to contribute significantly to IBI estimates. Variation in IBI estimates at the same location ranged from 0 to 8% within the sample season and from 0 to 24% between years. Linear models based on measures of watershed urbanization and forest cover accounted for 11–78% of the variation in IBI scores, depending on the spatial scale of the analysis. Significant IBI/land use relationships were found with whole-basin IBI estimates and for IBI estimates from individual stream reaches. Land use immediately upstream of sample stations was most strongly associated with stream quality as measured by the IBI.
Article
Results are presented from a field study performed on the Ciliwung, SunSet and Krukut Rivers in Jakarta. The rivers are used as raw water sources for Jakarta municipal water supply systems, yet the rivers are used as receiving bodies by some inhabitants and industries. In this study, the quality of the rivers' water was determined using a Water Quality Index (WQI) which is scaled from zero to a hundred. The higher number of the WQI indicates, the better quality of the river water. Among the results presented are the WQI and heavy metals concentration. River water sampled from upstream of Jakarta, intake areas, and estuary areas were tested during the dry and rainy seasons. In the dry season the WQIs of Ciliwung, Sunter and Krukut Rivers ranged between 21–42, 20–29 and 21–38, respectively. In the rainy season the WQIs of Ciliwung, Sunter and Krukut Rivers ranged between 34–47, 32–50, and 34–47, respectively. The level of heavy metals did not exceed current Indonesian Standards. It was concluded that the overall water quality of the Ciliwung, Sunter, and Krukut Rivers was between very poor and poor, and the rivers were polluted by Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Hg.
Article
The white sucker, Catostomus commersoni (Lacapede), has been proposed as a sentinel species to monitor environmental health in the Great Lakes. In a population of white suckers spawning in the Ganaraska River, Lake Ontario (Port Hope, Ontario) there was an elevated prevalence of lip papillomas (46%), body papillomas (1.4%), and mucoid plaques (47%) compared to an inland reference population from the Squaw River, Little Bald Lake, Ontario (5%, 0%, and 0.5%, respectively). Multiple lip papillomas, and papillomas in apposition were prevalent in Ganaraska River suckers (17%) but rare in Squaw River suckers (1.2%). The prevalence of lip papillomas was not related to age or size, but papillomas at the Ganaraska site were up to 10 times larger than papillomas at the Squaw site. Relative papilloma prevalences at the two sites were correlated with relative concentrations of persistent contaminants (PCBs and OC compounds) in fish tissue. Histologically, lip and body papillomas were classified as benign hyperplasia and could be differentiated from normal tissue and mucoid plaques on the basis of biochemical (Protein Kinase C) activity. In laboratory experiments, mucoid plaques disappeared completely within 96 hours of antibiotic treatments (100% of treated suckers vs. 15% of untreated controls) and re-infection was not observed. These experiments indicate that mucoid plaques are not true neoplasms.
Article
Tolerance values for families of arthropods are presented to enable calculation of a family-level biotic index (FBI) in the field. In six streams differing in substrates and degree of organic pollution, an average of 23 min, 35 s was needed to assess the condition of a stream in the field using the FBI; this period was at least an hour less than is normally required to evaluate a stream with the generic- and species-level biotic index (BI). Comparison of the FBI and BI of replicated samples from these six streams and from 120 random samples from other Wisconsin streams showed that some accuracy is lost by using the FBI, with the FBI usually indicating greater pollution than the BI in unpolluted or slightly polluted streams and less pollution in polluted streams. The purpose of the FBI is to provide a rapid, but less critical, evaluation of streams in the field by biologists who can recognize arthropod families by sight. It is not intended as a substitute for the BI.
Article
In Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), drinking water quality monitoring is conducted by the provincial government on all public water supply systems and results are communicated to communities on a quarterly basis. This paper describes the application of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) as a communica- tions tool for reporting the drinking water quality results. The CCME WQI simplifies the communication of results while integrating local expert opinion, without challenging the integrity of the data. The NL Department of Environment and Con- servation successfully tested the use of the CCME WQI on selected drinking water quality data sets, and developed a phased approach for its implementation as a practical means of presenting available physical, chemical, organic and microbiological results to communities. The CCME WQI index categorization schema was modified by adding a new ranking category to incorporate local expert opinion. This paper describes the development of the phased approach for calculating water quality indices, the testing methodology used, the rationale for modifying the existing CCME WQI index categorization schema, and the implementation of an automated CCME WQI calculator in the provincial drinking water quality database. The paper also discusses the challenges encountered in using the CCME WQI especially with respect to incorporation of contaminants, microbiological and trihalomethanes data. The benefits and downfalls of this application are also discussed.
Article
A water quality index was developed in order to integrate the composite influence of various physical, chemical and biological parameters measured by the Bureau of Reclamation of Anzali wetland in 18 different places in the area and some water courses in the basin during the last five years. This index depends upon a hierarchy of weights of parameters which were selected on the basis of a policy of land use in the area as well as considering nature and the amount of the polluted material and pattern of Caspian Sea water penetration into the Anzali wetland. Furthermore, rating curves were established for COD, DO, NH3, N03, P04, pH, temperature, TSS and EC to convert their values to a scale of 0 to 100. Using these rating curves and associated weightings, arithmetic water quality indices were calculated and on this basis the spatial distribution of water with different qualities (pollution distribution) was defined for this area. Eventually a five group classification system was developed to examine the possibility of improving the general management of water. The water quality index system, which was used for the first time in Iran, also served as a satisfactory means of unambiguous communication between experts and the public.
Article
The development of sewage "treatment" in the City of Buffalo is best described as a series of improvements in disposal methods. From the 18oos, sewage disposal advanced from individuals dumping their own wastes, to a sewer system discharging directly to local waterways, to construction of a primary and secondary treatment plant in 1938. Waterbome disease outbreaks in Buffalo were endemic until sewage discharges were routed downstream of the city's water intakes. Prior to implementation of primary and secondary treatment in Buffalo, downstream neighbors experienced various problems related to untreated sewage in their drinking water. The city ignored their plight until a coult order demanded the city treat its' sewage. Fortuitously, federal and state funding incentives coincided with the coult order. The evolution of Buffalo's sewage treatment also is assessed in context of other programs in U.S. cities at the time.
Article
The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) is carrying out a 5- year study and demonstration project, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS), with emphasis on removal of toxic pollutants from bottom sediments. Information from the ARCS program is to be used to guide development of Remedial Action Plans for 42 identified Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs). The AOCs are areas where serious impairment of beneficial uses of water or biota (drinking, swimming, fishing, navigation, etc.) is known to exist, or where environmental quality criteria are exceeded to the point that such impairment is likely. Priority consideration was given to five AOCs, including Buffalo River, N.Y. The WES Environmental Lab. reviewed existing data and information for each of these five AOCs. The approach used was to bring together WES scientists who have been conducting research on aspects of contaminant mobility in the aquatic environment to develop a list of information required to evaluate the potential for contaminant mobility. This report summarizes the information obtained for the Buffalo River. Topics include Fish tissue concentrations, Groundwater, Land use, Metal contamination, Pesticides, Point and nonpoint source discharges, Risk assessment, Spills, Toxicity bioassay, and Water quality.