Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: I. Estudo no intestino delgado proximal

Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 11/2002; 31(6). DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982002000900021
Source: DOAJ


Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região anterior do intestino delgado, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 bezerros machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se a presença de células vacuoladas do duodeno ao jejuno médio no recém-nascido, preenchidas por material absorvido após a ingestão de colostro. Foram verificadas mudanças nas características morfológicas aos três dias de idade, com o início da detecção de reação da fosfatase ácida em lisossomos, indicando ação enzimática sobre o material absorvido. A morfologia aos três dias de idade pode representar o diferente estádio de maturação das células epiteliais do intestino delgado de bezerros, indicando que o processo depende das características da primeira geração de células desta região do intestino.

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    • "In ruminants, colostrum is the sole source of initial acquired immunity for the offspring (Stelwagen et al., 2009), with IgG being the major immunoglobulin class present, which ensures protection in early life (Larson et al., 1980). However, the increased abomasal secretions and proteolytic activity of the intestinal mucosa (Kruse, 1983; Bessi et al., 2002), as well as the reduced ability of the cells of the small intestine to absorb immunoglobulin (Quigley, 2001), result in a linear reduction of the IgG absorption efficiency after birth (Kruse, 1970). In fact, the cells of the small intestine in ruminants are able to internalize and transfer colostrum IgG in its intact form to the blood only during the first 24 h of life (Stott et al., 1979b; Sheldrake and Husband, 1985; Castro-Alonso et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition and the IgG concentration of the colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk of Santa Inês ewes as well as the transfer of passive immunity to lambs. Thirty-two pregnant ewes and 38 lambs were used. Ewes were milked immediately after lambing and at 12, 24, 36 h and 10 d postpartum. Colostrum was provided to the lambs at 40 ± 15 min (mean ± SE) after birth and then at 30-min intervals for obtaining the intake closest to 10% of body weight, and transitional milk was provided ad libitum. Blood from the lambs was collected 36 h after birth for measuring the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin. The production was lower in primiparous than in multiparous ewes with body condition score (BCS) < 2.75, but did not differ between primiparous and multiparous with BCS ≥ 2.75 (interaction parity and BCS). The IgG concentration and fat, protein, lactose, and defatted dry extract percentages were not affected by the BCS of the ewe at lambing or by the parity. The total solids percentage in the colostrum was higher in ewes with BCS <2.75 (interaction BCS and time). The production and the protein, total solid, and defatted dry extract percentages showed quadratic behavior, the fat percentage decreased linearly, and the lactose percentage increased linearly with time postpartum. The IgG concentration in the colostrum was not correlated with the ewe's weight or BCS at the time of lambing. Moreover, the parity, the BCS, the ewe's type of gestation, and the lamb's sex did not influence the serum concentrations of IgG, total protein, albumin, and gamma-globulin in lambs. Adequate passive immune transfer (PIT) was observed in lambs for which the IgG intake was higher than 30 g. Failure in PIT was observed in 39.5% of lambs when considering a serum IgG concentration lower than 15 mg/mL and in 21% when considering a serum total protein concentration lower than 45 mg/mL. The mean apparent efficiency of absorption was 38.10%, with values between 0.02% and 98.80%. The serum IgG concentration was correlated with the total protein concentration (according to the enzymatic colorimetric method), the gamma-globulin concentration, and the absorption efficiency. The extreme variation on apparent efficiency of absorption may have an effect on the success of PIT. Lambs should consume at least 30 g of IgG in the first 24 h of life to ensure adequate PIT. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Dairy Science
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    • "Several factors were related to intestinal mucosa development and maturity including colostrum factors, replacement of absorptive cells of the small intestine, hormones, physiological and environmental stressors factors, preterm birth, early release of gastric secretions, as well as, animal age (Bessi et al., 2002a,b; Jeffcott, 1972; Kelly and Coutts, 2000; Kindlein et al., 2008a; Kruse, 1983; Leece and Morgan, 1962; Moretti et al., 2010; Pauletti et al., 2007). Goat colostrum ingestion by goat kids is associated with Caprine Arthritis–Encephalitis (CAE) contamination, a severe infectious disease that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality decreasing, consequently, the profitability of the commercial activity (Blacklaws et al., 2004; Callado et al., 2001; Peterhans et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The immunoglobulin G (IgG) uptake and enterocyte nucleus position in the villous were studied in newborn goat kids fed goat or lyophilized bovine colostrum. Two groups of 15 newborn goat kids, each received 5% of body weight of goat colostrum (GC) or lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC) containing 55 mg/mL of immunoglobulin G (IgG) at 0, 7 and 14 h of life. Three animals were sampled just after birth, receiving no colostrum intake, to be used as control. Samples of duodenum, medium jejunum and ileum were collected at 0, 18, 36 and 96 h of life. IgG vacuoles were not observed in the duodenum throughout the experiment regardless of all the experimental time points. In this segment, at 0, 18 and 36 h of life, nuclei were found in the apical, medial and basal positions in the enterocytes, and localized in the upper, medial and lower parts in the villous, respectively. At 96 h, a basal nuclei position was observed in the enterocytes, throughout the villous. In jejunum, IgG vacuoles were distributed along the villous at 18 and 36 h. In this segment at 0 h the nuclei were positioned predominantly apically in the enterocytes, throughout the villous. At 18 and 36 h, no consistent nuclei pattern was verified; however at 96 h, the nuclei were positioned basally in the enterocytes, throughout the jejunal villous. In the ileum at 0, 18 and 36 h, a great number of vacuoles without IgG were verified in the medial–apical part of the villous. In this segment, at 0 h of life and 96 h of life, the predominance of basal nuclei was observed. Nuclei were positioned in medial–apically part of the ileal enterocytes in the upper part of the villous at 18 and 36 h. It was found that the jejunal epithelium was the most important segment related to absorption process. The IgG absorption and nucleus position in the newborn goats were dependent on the small intestine segments and experimental time points, regardless of the colostrum source, GC or LCB. Considering the IgG uptake mechanism observed in the present study, the lyophilized bovine colostrum might be used instead of goat colostrum.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Livestock Science
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    ABSTRACT: Colostrum intake in neonatal calves is essential to obtain passive immunity and to influence metabolism, endocrine systems and the nutritional state. This study compares morphologic features of small intestine of calves fed a colostrum second meal at 12 hours of life with concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) higher than 100mg mL-1 (fresh colostrum or artificially prepared with addition of lyophilized colostrum) or smaller than 30mg mL-1. Twenty-four Holstein calves were randomly grouped according to concentration of IgG intake at 12 hours of life: low (less than 30mg mL-1); high (more than 100mg mL-1); plus lyophilized colostrum (more than 120mg mL-1). Intestinal tissue samples were collected at 0, 10, 24 and 72 hours after birth to evaluate morphology in segments: duodenum; proximal, middle and distal jejunum and ileum by examined with a scanning electron microscope. Villi of all segments showed more organized and uniform morphology characteristics with age. Only the animals fed colostrum with more than 100mg mL-1 of IgG at 24 hours after birth still showed the distal jejunum villi disoriented and more united in comparison to the other ages and groups. Intake of lyophilized colostrum affected ileum morphology along experiment period. Higher concentration of immunologic and bioactive elements supplied for longer period of time could be responsible for promoting effects on the enterocytes. Use of colostrum with high IgG concentrations, with or without addition of lyophilized colostrum, influenced the precocity of the intestinal mucosa development in newborn calves, suggesting earlier maturation of the mucosa.
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