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Purpose – The advent of social media is dramatically changing the way marketing communication is conducted. This paper reports a study regarding the use of social media in the wellness industry. This industry is competitive and utterly dependent on creating mutually beneficial relationships with customers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of social media marketing in the wellness industry. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative methods have been used. In-depth interviews have been carried out with marketing communication professionals in seven leading Swedish spa-hotels. The data from the interviews were analysed utilising the constant comparative method from the grounded theory approach. Findings – Dimensions describing the activities, challenges and results of social media in the hotels have been defined. The findings are related to service quality theory, in particular the service dominant logic of marketing (SDL), and a comprehensive framework is proposed. Research limitations/implications – The findings should be useful for the scientific understanding of the effects of social media in marketing. The study is based entirely on qualitative data. Practical implications – The results of the study should be useful for managers trying to market their offers effectively through social media. Originality/value – The connections between social media and the SDL has not previously been studied in the wellness industry and such studies in other industries are rare.
Social media marketing in the
wellness industry
Stefan Olof Lagrosen
School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden, and
Kerstin Grunde
University West, Trollha
¨ttan, Sweden
Purpose – The advent of social media is dramatically changing the way marketing communication is
conducted. This paper reports a study regarding the use of social media in the wellness industry.
This industry is competitive and utterly dependent on creating mutually beneficial relationships
with customers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of social media marketing in the
wellness industry.
Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative methods have been used. In-depth interviews have
been carried out with marketing communication professionals in seven leading Swedish spa-hotels.
The data from the interviews were analysed utilising the constant comparative method from the
grounded theory approach.
Findings – Dimensions describing the activities, challenges and results of social media in the hotels
have been defined. The findings are related to service quality theory, in particular the service dominant
logic of marketing (SDL), and a comprehensive framework is proposed.
Research limitations/implications – The findings should be useful for the scientific understanding
of the effects of social media in marketing. The study is based entirely on qualitative data.
Practical implications – The results of the study should be useful for managers trying to market
their offers effectively through social media.
Originality/value – The connections between social media and the SDL has not previously been
studied in the wellness industry and such studies in other industries are rare.
Keywords Social media, Service quality, Wellness, Marketing communication,
Service dominant logic of marketing, Spa-hotels
Paper type Research paper
Introduction and purpose
The wellness industry is expanding in most parts of the world. Still, very little research
has been carried out regarding this industry. While there have been large amounts of
research produced regarding traditional health care, recreational health care in the
form of spas, fitness centres, massage therapists, etc., have been almost neglected by
researchers. Nevertheless, this is an industry which is important for the well-being of
many people. This study concerns marketing of spa-hotels. It is part of a larger
research project in the spa-industry in which we examine different aspects of
marketing, management and health in the spa-industry. This particular section
concerns social media marketing. The development of social media and web 2.0 is
rapidly changing the conditions for marketing. In just a few years, people’s media
habits have been substantially altered. This is particularly true for young people
(Ruane and Wallace, 2013). Thus, the purpose for this study has been to investigate the
use of social media marketing in the wellness industry.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
The TQM Journal
Vol. 26 No. 3, 2014
pp. 253-260
rEmerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/TQM-12-2013-0129
The authors wish to acknowledge the Swedish Knowledge Foundation for its valuable financial
Social media
The theoretical basis has been the service dominant logic of marketing (SDL), which
lately has become quite wide-spread in the marketing field and many studies have been
based on it. However, there is room for further development of the framework.
In particular, social media marketing, which is becoming ever more important, is not
integrated. Our ambition is that this study will contribute to such integration.
The rest of the paper is structured as follows. First, we will discuss our theoretical
inputs in the form of SDL and social media marketing. Next, we will present the
methodology that we have used followed by the findings and a discussion regarding them.
Finally, we will summarise our conclusions and give some suggestions for further research.
In recent years, a new way of approaching marketing related to services has come to
light – the SDL (Vargo and Lusch, 2004a). Its originators claim that this is a completely
new paradigm of marketing thought and that it will change the way marketing is viewed
in the same way that traditional physics was revolutionised by the advent of quantum
mechanics (Lusch and Vargo, 2006). The novelty lies in the fact that it does not focus on
services as such. Services marketing is usually seen as a way of conducting marketing
for a certain kind of products, i.e. services. Therefore, much effort has been wasted on
identifying differences between goods and services while still departing from a goods-
based perspective (Vargo and Lusch, 2004b). SDL in contrast regards service marketing
as an approach, a way of conducting marketing for any kind of products in which the
focus is on providing value for the customer. SDL builds on a number of fundamental
premises which were originally formulated as follows (Vargo and Lusch, 2004a):
(1) the application of specialised skills and knowledge is the fundamental unit of
(2) indirect exchange masks the fundamental unit of exchange;
(3) goods are distribution mechanisms for service provision;
(4) knowledge is the fundamental source of competitive advantage;
(5) all economies are service economies;
(6) the customer is always a coproducer;
(7) the enterprise can only make value propositions; and
(8) a service-centred view is customer oriented and relational.
SDL has had a large impact on marketing thought and the framework is evolving. In a
later paper (Vargo and Lusch, 2008) the authors have revised the premises and added
two more:
(9) all social and economic actors are resource integrators; and
(10) value is always uniquely and phenomenologically determined by the
Despite its impact, critics hold that SDL need further development (Brookes, 2007) and
particularly that more empirical research is needed (Winklhofer et al., 2007). One area that
needs further development is the connection between SDL and branding (Brodie et al.,
2006). Interestingly, SDL may lead to branding being extended into wider communication
modes (Ballantyne and Aitken, 2007).
Social media and marketing
Social media have revolutionised our social contacts not only in every-day life. The use
of social media has also become more and more popular as a marketing tool for the
establishment and management of customer relationships and they have been found to
influence people’s shopping behaviour (Ruane and Wallace, 2013). According to the
traditional marketing paradigm, marketing is seen according to the one-way
interaction model, where the producer is the sender and the customer is the receiver.
In contrast, the use of social media in marketing is based on a multi-way interaction
approach, in which the roles of sender and receiver are mixed (Scott, 2010).
Social media can create value fusion, in which value is created for a whole network
including both customers and companies (Larivie
`re et al., 2013).
A pull-marketing strategy is more efficient for the use of social media than the
traditional push-marketing approach. This means that the producer uses social media
for the communication of information, knowledge, values and ethics related to the
service or product, in order to entice the customer to interact. When the customer is
interested in taking part in the interaction, valuable information about interests,
preferences and values could be interchanged in an informal process and affect the
further customer relationship and marketing activities in order to make the product or
service more attractive. Contrary to many other market communication efforts, social
media marketing is accepted by most users as long as it is not exaggerated (Hansson
et al., 2013). The combination of the use of different social media could also reinforce
the marketing effects. Social media could be an economic alternative especially for
entrepreneurs and smaller businesses as low costs are needed, apart from working
hours. Nevertheless, many companies are uncertain regarding how to use social media
and many use it just in order to appear modern (Lagrosen and Josefsson, 2011).
This study is part of a larger study focusing on quality management, marketing and
health in the wellness industry. The research is financed by the Swedish Knowledge
Foundation and it is carried out in collaboration between a group of researchers and
seven spa-hotels in southern and western Sweden. The hotels are all leading actors in
the Swedish spa-industry. They are presented in Table I.
This part of the study is based on qualitative methodology. In-depth interviews
(Patton, 1990) were carried out with people responsible for social media activities in the
hotels. In total, eight in-depth interviews were carried out, two in one of the companies
and one in each of the others. In addition, a workshop was carried out with the
managers of the hotels as participants. The data from the interviews and the workshop
Spa-hotel Comments
Sankt Jo
¨rgen Park
A spa-hotel in Gothenburg with many day guests and an integrated
golf course
Stenungsbaden Yacht Club A spa-hotel with a relaxed American east coast image
Ystads Saltsjo
¨bad The leading seaside spa-hotel on the south coast
Varbergs Kurort A seaside spa-hotel with a focus on traditional Swedish treatments
Hotel Tylo
¨sand A seaside spa-hotel with focus on art and music
¨s Hav Spa A spa-hotel in a serene rural coastal setting
Hotel Skansen A fashionable spa-hotel in the famous tennis resort, B˚
Tabl e I.
The spa-hotels included
in the study
Social media
were analysed using the constant comparative technique from the grounded theory
approach (Glaser, 1992; Glaser and Strauss, 1967; Strauss and Corbin, 1990).
When the constant comparative technique was applied to the data, four main categories
emerged, which depict the dimensions of the social media marketing activities. They are
presented below.
This dimension concerns how the social media marketing activities are organised and
managed. Usually, the activities on social media had been started by an enthusiast
having personal interest in social media. Being dependent on one or a few enthusiastic
people was seen as a problem by many of the hotels. Consequently, they tried to further
organise the social media activities and divide the responsibilities between more
people. Nevertheless, they were varyingly successful in this and some of the hotels still
rely to a large degree on the efforts of a very small number of enthusiastic people.
The social media marketing usually falls under the marketing department and is led
by the marketing manager although in some of the companies the “enthusiast” comes
from another department. Often IT-people are more knowledgeable regarding social
media but they may not be skilled in marketing. Some of the hotels also use external
consultants. The people handling social media marketing do not do it full time but as
a part of their other assignments.
Usually, the people handling the social media activities are not very young.
As social media sometimes is seen as a youth phenomenon, some of the hotels have
considered employing youngsters but none of them has realised this. Since the customers
normally are somewhat older people, youngsters may have difficulties creating fruitful
relationships with them.
The social media activities are part of yearly plans but it is difficult to plan them in
detail as the developments in this area are so fast. Thus, flexibility is needed and plans
for longer than one year are never made.
The hotels realise that people handling social media need to have sufficient
competencies for this. However, they do not have any formal training, instead they
learn from experience. Some even learn from their children.
This dimension concerns the choice of social media for the marketing communication.
Facebook is the most common medium by far. All the hotels use it actively. Twitter, blogs
and YouTube are also quite widespread. Some of the hotels also sometimes use Bambuser.
Moreover, they are affected by TripAdvisor and which are sites where customers
can share their views of the hotels. Some of the companies also use MyNewsDesk which
is a public relations medium rather than a social medium. In most hotels, one person is
responsible for all social media activities. However, sometimes the responsibilities are
divided such as, e.g. one person handles Facebook while another handles Twitter.
Facebook is usually connected to the homepage and some hotels have a connection
to a YouTube channel there as well. One of the hotels has a mobile application that is
connected to Facebook in the way that when customers check into it, they also check
into Facebook.
The hotels still use traditional media as a complement to social media for their
marketing communication, particularly since several customers, especially older people,
do not use social media. However, some of them are dissatisfied with the results of
traditional media advertising and believe that social media marketing will expand its
share of the communication efforts.
In this dimension, the substance of the communication of the companies on the
social media is contained. The amount of content on the social media varies in amount
over time and between the hotels, and it is difficult to plan in advance. The hotels
usually follow each other on social media in order to keep track of their competitors
and get inspiration. The content is usually concerning local matters and it is
always written in Swedish although some of the companies have a fair amount of
international customers.
Creating interest is vital. Contests of different kinds are quite common for this purpose,
for instance photo competitions, which also create a large amount of positive content.
Prizes can be free treatments or gift vouchers, etc. The hotels that have developed
a mobile app present their daily programme and the treatments available on it. One hotel
has created a service that they call “the digital reception” inwhich they try to integrate all
internet communication as well as bookings of rooms, classes and treatments.
Finding the right “tone” is important. Generally, the posts on the social media are
written in a personal, yet correct style. In addition, on Facebook the names of the
individuals writing are usually revealed in order to make it more personal. This is,
however, usually not the case on Twitter. Using pictures is very common as they attract
attention and express much. Creating feelings and impressions is often seen as more
important than conveying factual information. The objective is not hard selling but
maintaining positive relationships. Usually, the hotels also have a policy not writing
about the guests and not writing anything bad about the company.
The timing of publishing content is important. Usually, the late afternoon and
evening are seen as the best times for posting on Facebook since this is the time when
most people use it. One problem with a blog is that it requires frequent updating with
interesting content of some substance. Some hotels experience a difficulty in fulfilling
this. Since the tone is different on the different social media, the content cannot just be
copied and pasted but it has to be rewritten. This is also necessary for improving the
chances of rating high on Google searches. Nevertheless, this requires much attention.
The content posted by customers is generally not seen as a problem, although it is
easier to use a hard language on social media than face-to-face. Negative comments
are not removed unless they are offensive but the hotels try to answer them.
Most comments are posted by female customers, which is logical since most customers
are female, but negative comments are more frequently posted by male customers.
Some hotels present guest feeds from TripAdvisor directly on their web site although
there is some risk in this since they cannot control that content at all.
Nevertheless, the negative comments are rather few and in general the customers
share happy posts describing enjoyable experiences at the hotels. Also some funny
anecdotes are posted. Thus, the social media become something of a living and digital
guestbook. Sometimes the companies get useful tips from their customers regarding
their services. These are imparted to the manager in charge of this particular service.
This dimension regards the effects that the companies see from their social media
marketing activities. Analysing and measuring the effects of the social media marketing
Social media
is not done in any systematic way. This is something that they realise that they ought to
improve. They can see how many followers they have and how active the followers are
with comments but they are uncertain as to how much this contributes to their sales and
profits. Although they have not really measured it, several of the managers have the
impression that the social media activities have contributed to attract more customers.
This effect comes especially when they begin using a certain social medium or when they
have campaigns in the form of contests and the like. Nonetheless, the customers do not
want to be “bombarded” with offers so there is a certain attrition effect in this.
Social media activities take time from the employees, which means that they
generate costs. In addition, the competency of the people handling social media must be
assured. It might be a good investment to employ someone who is an expert on social
media, although this would be costly.
The main reason for being active on social media seems to be the effect that they are
supposed to have on their brand. The companies believe that their activities on social
media make them seem more modern and hip. In addition, they claim that it would
have seemed very strange for them not to be on social media. This is just something
they have to do in the current media situation, they suppose. They also see social media
as a way of spreading “word of mouth”.
The constructive comments and tips that the companies receive on social media are
very helpful in improving the services and thus achieving higher customer satisfaction.
The feedback is very fast and efficient. Notwithstanding their usefulness, constructive
comments from customers are not always acted upon for various reasons.
Discussion and connection to SDL
Previous research has emphasised the value of the interactive possibilities of social
media for creating meaningful interactions with the customers. The hotels in this study
utilise this to a certain extent. Nevertheless, it seems that they do not really take full
advantage of the interactive possibilities. They have some interaction with the
customers but they still seem to view social media as a communication channel rather
than as an interaction channel.
In SDL, it is emphasised that the customer is always a coproducer of value. This is
particularly true for social media interaction, which is created by active contributions
from consumers and producers alike. The hotels take some advantage of this by
allowing influences from the customers delivered on social media serve as an input to
their service offers. They could probably benefit from doing this to an even higher
degree. Nevertheless, this is time-consuming and requires competency as well as an
organisation that is structured in a way that facilitates this. That is probably the
reason that the interactive possibilities are not utilised to a higher degree.
What is exchanged, according to SDL, is specialised skills and knowledge.
The spa-hotels have extensive knowledge into how to create enjoyable and health
promoting experiences. This knowledge is the basis for their services. Imparting such
knowledge on social media should be possible to a large degree. Nevertheless, this
requires an organisation that supports the social media activities. This has been shown
to be difficult for the studied companies, partly due to social media being so new and
fast developing. Often the companies rely on one or a few enthusiasts, which is hardly
sustainable in the long run.
Moreover, SDL holds that knowledge is the fundamental source of competitive
advantage. This obviously concerns knowledge of the service processes. However,
it should also include the marketing knowledge, not least regarding social media.
Companies could use social media to create fruitful interaction with customers, which
could give them a competitive advantage not restricted to the social media activities
but also regarding the core activities since the value of them is determined by the
customer and the interaction on social media could help the companies to develop value
propositions that are more oriented to the wishes of their customers.
We have refrained from comparing the different hotels with each other as this
was not part of the purpose. Nevertheless, we can obviously see differences. Some of
the hotels use social media in creative and quite skilled ways. They know which
media to use and have a fairly good idea of what content is appreciated. Others
are beginners and do not at all take advantage of the possibilities that the social
media provides. Notwithstanding their better performance, even the best hotels
find it difficult to organise the social media marketing in an optimal way. In addition,
none of the companies have any well-grounded knowledge into the costs vs effects
of their social media activities. They do not measure or follow this up in systematic
ways. It is probably difficult to do this and this adds to the ambiguity and intricacy
of the whole area of social media marketing. Nevertheless, more knowledge of the
impact of different ways of working should be valuable for companies as well as for
the scientific understanding for this phenomenon.
We saw that one of the main reasons for using social media marketing was the effect
that it is believed to have on the brand. However, branding effects are not really
included in SDL. This is a phenomenon that goes beyond value and is more related
with identification. This is a field where SDL needs further elaboration as Brodie et al.
(2006) suggest. Further research is needed to develop the framework.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of social media marketing in the
wellness industry. We have studied the social media marketing of seven leading
Swedish spa-hotels. The study has shown how they organise their activities, what
media they use, what content they post and how they view the effects of their activities.
We have found that the organisation of the activities is difficult and some of the hotels
tend to be too dependent on one or a few enthusiasts. While choice of media and
content seem to be more manageable, the companies have very vague knowledge of the
effects of their efforts. In general, the companies seem not to fully use the interactive
possibilities of social media.
The study has several limitations. It has been carried out in one industry and in one
country. The possibilities of generalising the findings to other contexts are uncertain.
Furthermore, the study was explorative and based on qualitative methodology.
Quantitative studies based on the findings of this study would be interesting for
future research.
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Corresponding author
Professor Stefan Olof Lagrosen can be contacted at:
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The user-generated content are all the publications made available by online users in platforms. They can offer advantages to the companies because they can obtain feedback directly from the customers and improve specification attributes of the product or service features. Hereupon, since demands for reliable service, delivery and short answering times significantly increased, there is an enormous need for improvement in the quality of the products and services provided. One can define quality, as being the service characteristics, which correspond exactly to what customers need, require and expect, i.e., the attention given to the specification conformity, what makes the company to adopt different approaches to obtain information with direct contact with the customer. Considering that the digital platform encompasses the daily communication between customers and companies, it is important to analyse the user-generated content, such as comments, suggestions, ratings, criticism, especially in the tourism and hospitality industry (the majority of evaluation platforms). The specific goals of this research, consist in analysing and studying the data obtained from the digital platform “Booking”, where the customers hold the possibility to evaluate the services provided, with comments, to reveal important information in the field of quality, and how that information can be used to improve the performance and the decisions made by the company to obtain competitive advantage. To reach the proposed goals, a bibliographic analysis was carried out in which it was possible to analyse the maximum information, that exist about this topic.
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Using a sample of 11,889 observations from 2007 to 2016, we examine whether compensation committee financial expertise is associated with CEO pay. We find a negative relation between compensation committee financial expertise and total CEO pay. Other results that emerge from this study are a negative relation between compensation committee financial expertise and proportion of CEO equity compensation and a positive relation between compensation committee financial expertise and proportion of CEO cash compensation. Our findings imply that financial expertise on the compensation committee appears to increase monitoring effectiveness of the compensation committee by curbing excessive CEO pay. As to the impact of compensation committee financial expertise on CEO pay structure, our results suggest that financial expertise on the compensation committee makes the compensation committee more conservative regarding risk taking by the CEO which is reflected in a lower proportion of CEO equity compensation and a higher proportion of CEO cash compensation. Our results are consistent with Reiter (2004) who argues that the monitoring role of the compensation committee is enhanced by the knowledge and experience of compensation committee members. Finally, the present study provides insight into the role of compensation committee financial expertise in limiting risk-taking by the CEO and constraining excessive CEO pay. Keywords: Compensation committee, financial expertise, executive compensation, equity compensation
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Objective of the study: Examine which antecedent factors favored the use of social media and which, substantiated in the organizational resilience, provoked innovation in startups in times of pandemic. Methodology/approach: A survey was carried out on startups located in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil, listed on the StartupBase, obtaining 119 questionnaires answered by the managers. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis of the hypotheses. Main results: The environment, measured by external pressure, and the organizational, measured by the dimensions of internal readiness and strategic benefits, figure as antecedents of the use of social media. The use of social media has a direct and positive effect on organizational resilience and, mediated by organizational resilience, has positive effect on innovation. Theoretical/methodological contributions: The literature is expanded by analyzing antecedents and consequences of the use of social media, particularly related to the capacity for organizational resilience and the promotion of innovation. Relevance/originality: Empirical evidence indicates that social media can help develop resilience in startups and, consequently, promote innovation in times of pandemic. Social/management contributions: The focus on social media revealed that it can generate benefits in periods of restrictions, since the use of social media substantiated in organizational resilience enables interaction and value creation.
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In addition to good accommodation and sports infrastructure, Slovenia has an extremely developed system of training, testing, and rehabilitation of athletes. Slovenian athletes have always topped in various sports providing excellent training and friendly partnerships for athletes and sports teams coming to the preparations. These characteristics provide an opportunity for developing off-peak tourist products, focusing on sports and sports recreation. However, sports recreation marketing faces challenges like the division into sports-oriented and sports-related vacations. Accordingly, the main goal of this paper is to discern the link between sports and tourism, marketing strategies and tools, and identify the potential variables that could encourage Slovenian organizations in enhancing successful engagement of sports tourism in the following years. Therefore, to discuss the possibilities for sporting organizations to cooperate with the tourism industry, an in-depth discussion based on the case studies of Slovenian companies from two different destinations is conducted.
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Industri men's grooming di Indonesia meraup US$ 7,095 juta pada 2020 dan diprediksi akan terus tumbuh seiring meningkatnya kebutuhan laki-laki dalam menjaga penampilan. Merek men's grooming menyambut baik tren ini dengan memaksimalkan aktivitas pemasaran, termasuk melalui kanal media sosial. Penelitian dilakukan untuk menjelaskan pengaruh social media marketing activities merek men's grooming dalam kaitannya terhadap brand equity dan consumer response. Survei dilakukan pada 560 pengguna produk dan pengikut akun media sosial merek men's grooming di Jabodetabek. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis dengan Structure Equation Modeling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa social media marketing activities merek men's grooming berpengaruh signifikan terhadap brand awareness dan brand image. Selain itu, hasil menunjukkan bahwa brand awareness secara signifikan mempengaruhi commitment dan brand image secara signifikan mempengaruhi e-WOM dan commitment. (FA, DS, RRA)
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Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of “goods,” which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic focused on intangible resources, the cocreation of value, and relationships. The authors believe that the new per- spectives are converging to form a new dominant logic for marketing, one in which service provision rather than goods is fundamental to economic exchange. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.
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Since the introductory article for what has become known as the “service-dominant (S-D) logic of marketing,” “Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing,” was published in the Journal of Marketing (Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004a)), there has been considerable discussion and elaboration of its specifics. This article highlights and clarifies the salient issues associated with S-D logic and updates the original foundational premises (FPs) and adds an FP. Directions for future work are also discussed. KeywordsService-dominant logic-New-dominant logic-Service
It is increasingly being recognized that brands play a major role in contributing to the value of service businesses (e.g. Berry, 2000; de Chernatony, 2003). However, in their award-winning article about the emerging service-dominant logic, Vargo and Lusch (2004) pay little attention to branding. This article explores the case for integrating branding into the service-dominant logic (S-D logic). We review how diverse perspectives of brands relate to the S-D logic and then examine Rust, Zeithaml and Lemon's (2000) claim that brand equity is a component of the concept of customer equity. Next we review some recent research about brands in relationships and then examine whether there is a missing fundamental premise in the S-D logic about the service brand. Finally we consider the development of stronger underlying theory that integrates the concepts of brand equity, customer equity and network equity into the S-D logic.
Purpose Social media has increased as a marketing channel, and Facebook is the biggest social media company globally. Facebook contains both positive and negative information about companies; therefore, it is important for companies to manage their Facebook page to best serve their own interests. Although most users are familiar with business and marketing activities on Facebook, they use it primarily for fun and personal purposes. The most effective methods for companies to use Facebook have not been clear. The personal nature of Facebook presents unique challenges for companies by raising ethical and social responsibility issues that are important to users. The purpose of this paper is to discover how companies can optimize their use of Facebook as a marketing channel. Design/methodology/approach A survey was conducted. The respondents were 158 users of Facebook in Sweden; complete answers were provided by all respondents. In a series of specific questions and comments, the respondents were asked to describe an optimal marketing solution on Facebook for companies. They rated different functions, which were illustrated with pictures, to help in the cognitive process and to avoid misunderstandings. Findings Most users who have an opinion on the issue accept marketing on Facebook, but only in the right amount. There are basically two groups: those who think that companies have no place on Facebook and those who want companies to be active on Facebook. The latter group emphasizes the importance of meaningful posts without unsolicited sales messages, and would prefer to search for the companies themselves rather than being bombarded by company messages. By far, status updates and pictures/images were found to be the most important functions to respondents. Research limitations/implications The sample consisted of only Swedish users. Another limitation was that, since many Facebook users do not normally think about the implications of being exposed to marketing on Facebook, they have difficulty taking a position on many issues related to the service. Practical implications The results give companies a clear idea of how to effectively use Facebook in their marketing efforts. Originality/value A large number of companies are currently asking themselves, “How can we use Facebook in an optimal way?” The results in this study answer this question and lead directly to saving time and resources for these companies.
The purpose for this paper is to explore social media marketing from the perspective of entrepreneurial learning. The theoretical basis consists of contributions from the fields of organisational learning and entrepreneurship. An empirical study involving ten companies has been carried out. The data were analysed with methods inspired by grounded theory. Categories describing the companies' social media presence from an entrepreneurial learning perspective are provided. The value of using organisational learning as a framework for social media marketing is shown. Thus, the paper presents a novel way of studying social media activities which should contribute to the theoretical fields of organisational learning and entrepreneurship as well as to the understanding of social media marketing. For practitioners, the findings provide additional knowledge that should be useful for their own social media activities.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the relationships Generation Y females have with fashion brands online. Specifically, it examines the role of the internet and social networks in these relationships. Design/methodology/approach Narrative interviews were employed to gather data from Generation Y women. Analysis was conducted using inductive thematic analysis. Findings Two main themes emerged from the data: the importance of social media and the influence of the internet. Findings suggest social networks have a significant influence on the dynamics of brand consumption and inform our understanding of females' online shopping behaviours. Research limitations/implications A qualitative methodology was utilised to elicit insights from consumers. This allowed participants to express their thoughts in their own words, which provided rich data for analysis. Practical implications We provide guidance for marketing managers seeking to harness social networks to market brands. Findings illustrate the role of social networks in driving brand consumption among Generation Y women, and highlight the criticality of the social network as a source of information and reassurance for brand choices. Further, we identify concerns about online shopping, and provide suggestions for online retailers seeking to augment consumers' shopping experiences. Originality/value This study offers insights into Generation Y females' use of the internet and social networks for brand consumption. To date such research has been mainly quantitative. Further, Generation Y has been neglected in the marketing literature. This paper addresses these gaps and illustrates the significant impact social media has on the behaviour of female consumers.
We examine the Vargo and Lusch (2004, p. 1) argument for a “new dominant logic for marketing, one in which services provision rather than goods is fundamental to economic exchange”. In our Contemporary Marketing Practices work we find that in the consumer products industry, especially, the traditional differentiation between what used to be a product and what used to be a service is becoming less relevant. However, our main argument is that since contemporary marketing practices are characterised by a pluralism of approaches, the Service Dominant (S-D) logic can be strengthened by recognising that firms need both to serve and create customers. In other words, given the exigencies that drive organisations to innovate, an additional foundational premise (FP) to the S-D logic is required to recognise the theoretical and practical differences between market-driven and market-driving approaches to innovation.
Based on the key building blocks of S-D logic we review empirical studies in these areas to provide preliminary evidence on the adoption of S-D Marketing. We conclude providing a discussion about an instrument to measure S-D Marketing.