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The Effect of Gender and Self‐Care Behaviors on Counselors' Perceptions of Colleagues With Depression

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of gender and self‐care behaviors on counselors' perceptions of depressed colleagues. Three hundred and six respondents completed 1 of 8 versions of vignettes describing either a male or female counselor responding to his or her depressive symptoms through the use of antidepressants, counseling, alternative therapies, or no course of action. Target counselors who took antidepressants were perceived as more competent than counselors who practiced holistic measures and those who chose no course of action. Target counselors who sought personal counseling were perceived as more ethical than those choosing no course of action.

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... Counselors entering the field experience high anxiety, stress, and are at risk of burnout and compassion fatigue (Butler & Constantine, 2005; Young & Lambie, 2007). Research has been conducted on the benefits of implementing wellness strategies with trainees (Chandler et al., 2000; Carroll, Gilroy, & Murra, 2003; Hermon & Hazler, 1999). Chandler and colleagues found that trainees who received biofeedback assisted relaxation training had reduced stress symptoms and enhanced well-being. ...
... Counselors entering the field experience high anxiety, stress, and are at risk of burnout and compassion fatigue (Butler & Constantine, 2005; Young & Lambie, 2007). Research has been conducted on the benefits of implementing wellness strategies with trainees (Carroll, Gilroy, & Murra, 2003; Chandler et al., 2000; Hermon & Hazler, 1999). Wellness has been shown to mitigate stress, energize and vitalize counseling professionals (Littrell & Peterson, 2001), and is suggested to correlate positively with higher self-efficacy (Hattie, Myers, & Sweeney, 2004; Hermon & Hazler, 1999). ...
Article
Recent research in counselor training has focused on the difficulties and challenges facing counseling practitioners that result in high stress, burnout, compassion fatigue, vicarious trauma, and counselor impairment. The American Counseling Association's (ACA) Code of Ethics has addressed the ethical issues inherent in counselor impairment. Further, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) has focused on the development of counselors that will assist them in being resilient to workplace stressors. Wellness is a theoretically based construct that holds much promise for bolstering the resilience of pre-service counselors. In addition, counselor self-efficacy has been linked to greater advocacy for self and others, the use of higher order counseling skills, greater problem solving practice, and more self-regulated, ethical decision making. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between counselor self-efficacy and counselor wellness. A total of 88 participants completed both the Five Factor Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Inventory and the Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale. Demographic and descriptive statistics were included along with a Multiple Regression Analysis. Results did not indicate a statistically significant relationship. Potential limitations, implications for counselor educators, and future research directions were elucidated.
... Starostlivosť o seba možno definovať ako celok, ktorý zahŕňa intrapersonálnu prácu, interpersonálnu podporu, profesijný rozvoj a podporu ako i fyzické aktivity (Carrol, Gilroy a Murra, 1999). Oremová (1995) sa zameriava na dosiahnutie subjektívnej pohody, opisuje starostlivosť o seba ako aktivity, ktoré človek robí sám pre seba a to vtedy, keď dospeje do stavu zrelosti, ktorý mu umožňuje konzistentnú, kontrolovanú, efektívnu a zmysluplnú činnosť. ...
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The publication „Helping professions and self-care from the perspective of psychology and social work“ includes research studies focused on self-care, and the positive and negative effects of helping among specific groups of helping professionals – psychologists and social workers. Research interest in the phenomena is especially important in the context of the mental health of helping professionals and in reducing the negative consequences of helping. A number of Slovak as well as foreign authors contributed to the book of proceedings. The contributors were researchers and professionals from Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Slovakia; Department of Social Work, Faculty of Arts, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Slovakia; Institute of Social Sciences, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia; Institute of Educology and Social Work, Faculty of Arts, Prešov University in Prešov, Slovakia; College of Social Work, University of Kentucky, USA; Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Humanities, Cracow University of A. F. Modrzewski, Poland and Centre of Mental Health Facilitas, Košice, Slovakia. The contributions are theoretical studies, research studies and case studies. Some of the research studies have been supported by grant projects APVV and VEGA. The contributions are focused on important issues of professional helping: self-care, compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, burnout, perceived stress, secondary traumatic stress, mindfulness, empathy and job satisfaction among psychologists and social workers. The studies deal also with the turnover in helping professions and discuss the usefulness of art therapy in self-care in helping professionals. The aim of the proceedings is to bring a comprehensive view on the phenomena of self-care among helping professionals and the consequences of professional helping. We believe that it will be a useful source of information for everyone who is interested in self-care and the positive and negative effects of professional helping.
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Individuals who struggle with anxiety or depression often turn to experts for help in overcoming these disorders. In this study, we consult three expert 'populations': the popular self-help literature, well-respected therapists, and individuals who believe that they have successfully recovered from either anxiety or depression for their recommendations to those who are currently anxious or depressed. In Part I, we content-analyse recommendations from 10 current self-help books on anxiety and 10 on depression. In Part II, we asked 17 respected therapists and 18 individuals who believed that they have recovered from anxiety and 23 individuals who believe they have recovered from depression what they believe are the 'keys' for recovery. We also asked them to rate the efficacy of seven popular affirmations. Through content analysis and descriptive statistics, we summarize their collective wisdom. Among the main findings are the recommendations for anxious and depressed individuals to actively seek help from multiple people and interventions, as well as to being open to trying innovative self-tailored interventions. Affirmations relating to 'not being crazy' in relation to anxiety and that the depression will subside in time were deemed most helpful for recovery. Discussion focuses on practical application.
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Psychotherapists are susceptible to prevailing negative stereotypes that exist in society at large. Inappropriate negative attitudes toward depressed and ill patients can adversely affect interactions with such clients. The authors examined the reactions of 410 psychologists to vignettes that described a client who emitted either depressed or nondepressed behavior and who varied in terms of cancer prognosis. Clinicians had negative mood reactions after reading the vignette of the depressed client; they also believed the depressed client possessed many undesirable personal attributes. Practicing psychologists are urged to reflect on their attitudes and beliefs so they do not negatively affect assessment and therapy services.
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Considerable evidence has shown that the way others respond to depressed people may play an important role in the development and course of depression. A model is presented that conceptualizes depressogenic interpersonal processes in terms of social-cognitive processes that may underlie interactions involving depressed persons. This working model is intended to be integrative and heuristic. Relevant theory and research from the following areas are incorporated into the model: social cognition (e.g., attributions and trait representations), marital-relationship satisfaction, cognition and affect, and perceptions of others' appraisals. The model is most applicable to the role that interpersonal processes may play in the maintenance or worsening of depression; however, it also suggests ways that similar interpersonal processes may be involved in the development of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Psychotherapists are susceptible to prevailing negative stereotypes that exist in society at large. Inappropriate negative attitudes toward depressed and ill patients can adversely affect interactions with such clients. The authors examined the reactions of 410 psychologists to vignettes that described a client who emitted either depressed or nondepressed behavior and who varied in terms of cancer prognosis. Clinicians had negative mood reactions after reading the vignette of the depressed client; they also believed the depressed client possessed many undesirable personal attributes. Practicing psychologists are urged to reflect on their attitudes and beliefs so they do not negatively affect assessment and therapy services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A survey of 800 psychologists (return rate = 59.5%) found that of 84% who had been in therapy, only 2 described therapy as unhelpful, 22% found it harmful, 61% reported clinical depression, 29% reported suicidal feelings, 4% reported attempting suicide, 26% reported being cradled by a therapist, 20% reported withholding important (mostly sexual) information, and 10% reported violations of confidentiality. Women were more likely than men to report sexual material in therapy; psychodynamically oriented respondents were more likely to report sexual material. Of those who had terminated, 63% reported recent consideration of resuming therapy. Most believed that therapy should be a requirement of graduate programs and licensure, but only about a third believed therapy mandated by licensing boards for resuming practice after violations of professional standards to be clearly or even likely effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To investigate if extracts of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) are more effective than placebo in the treatment of depression, are as effective as standard antidepressive treatment, and have fewer side effects than standard antidepressant drugs. Systematic review and meta-analysis of trials revealed by searches. TRIALS: 23 randomised trials including a total of 1757 outpatients with mainly mild or moderately severe depressive disorders: 15 (14 testing single preparations and one a combination with other plant extracts) were placebo controlled, and eight (six testing single preparations and two combinations) compared hypericum with another drug treatment. A pooled estimate of the responder rate ratio (responder rate in treatment group/responder rate in control group), and numbers of patients reporting and dropping out for side effects. Hypericum extracts were significantly superior to placebo (ratio = 2.67; 95% confidence interval 1.78 to 4.01) and similarly effective as standard antidepressants (single preparations 1.10; 0.93 to 1.31, combinations 1.52; 0.78 to 2.94). There were two (0.8%) drop outs for side effects with hypericum and seven (3.0%) with standard antidepressant drugs. Side effects occurred in 50 (19.8%) patients on hypericum and 84 (52.8%) patients on standard antidepressants. There is evidence that extracts of hypericum are more effective than placebo for the treatment of mild to moderately severe depressive disorders. Further studies comparing extracts with standard antidepressants in well defined groups of patients and comparing different extracts and doses are needed.
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The heads of 107 programs in professional psychology certified by the American Psychological Association participated in a questionnaire study designed to learn their views about well-functioning in professional psychologists and what they had done and would like to do, programmatically, to maintain and enhance it. Their responses were compared with those of 339 licensed psychologists in a prior study. Although the 2 groups both assigned high ratings to self-awareness, a balanced lifestyle, relationship with spouse or partner, and personal values, overall the program heads put more emphasis on the didactic-supervisory items, whereas the practitioners emphasized the personal-existential items. Modifications of psychology programs to place well-functioning of students on par with other major purposes are described in detail.
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Context.— With the public's increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine, medical schools must consider the challenge of educating physicians about these therapies.Objectives.— To document the prevalence, scope, and diversity of medical school education in complementary and alternative therapy topics and to obtain information about the organizational and academic features of these courses.Design.— Mail survey and follow-up letter and telephone survey conducted in 1997-1998.Participants.— Academic or curriculum deans and faculty at each of the 125 US medical schools.Main Outcome Measures.— Courses taught at US medical schools and administrative and educational characteristics of these courses.Results.— Replies were received from 117 (94%) of the 125 US medical schools. Of schools that replied, 75 (64%) reported offering elective courses in complementary or alternative medicine or including these topics in required courses. Of the 123 courses reported, 84 (68%) were stand-alone electives, 38 (31%) were part of required courses, and one (1%) was part of an elective. Thirty-eight courses (31%) were offered by departments of family practice and 14 (11%) by departments of medicine or internal medicine. Educational formats included lectures, practitioner lecture and/or demonstration, and patient presentations. Common topics included chiropractic, acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal therapies, and mind-body techniques.Conclusions.— There is tremendous heterogeneity and diversity in content, format, and requirements among courses in complementary and alternative medicine at US medical schools.
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Being a psychotherapist is a complex challenge. Research has suggested that therapists are changed by their work, but it has not been clear whether these changes are the same for research psychologists and practitioners. Representatives of these 2 groups were surveyed. Although therapists reported more anxiety, depression, and emotional exhaustion than did researchers, they were also more satisfied with their lives and more likely than researchers to feel that their work had influenced them in positive ways. Therapists' work as practitioners may be emotionally stressful but it may also enrich our lives.
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the inclusion of therapist self-care issues is one of the most innovative aspects of the Feminist Therapy Code of Ethics / it exemplifies the proactive, educational, and preventive ethical approach feminist therapists have advocated / the inclusion of self-care issues as an ethical imperative is based upon a common assumption about therapy: that therapist well-being is positively related to the client's therapeutic outcome definitions of therapist self-care / therapist self-care protects clients [boundary violations, power abuses, inappropriate emotional involvement] / therapist self-care enhances growth in clients / therapist self-care protects the therapist (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Alternative therapies are appearing to be a viable option for practitioners who provide treatment for psychological and related disorders. Psychologists who choose to use alternative therapies have a lack of professional guidance, and controversy exists over whether providing alternative treatment to clients is within the appropriate scope of practice. State psychological association presidents, state licensing board chairpersons, researchers who are knowledgeable about alternative therapies, and Ohio Psychological Association convention attendees were surveyed to determine professional opinions regarding when a consultation with a physician is necessary for using alternative therapies. The total number of respondents across the four groups was 138. Results of the study, along with the ethical and legal implications of psychologists' use of alternative therapies in psychological treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The fact that psychologists may not realize how much their own diagnosable emotional problems can impact their practices led to the undertaking of an exploratory survey of practicing psychologists in order to assess that notion. The results of a random sample of 1,000 psychologists indicate that women were more frequent respondents than men by a ratio of 3 to 2 and that depression (dysthymia) was the most frequently acknowledged diagnosis. Respondents felt that their emotional issues gave them more empathy for their clients; however, they also experienced an increased sense of isolation from their colleagues and lessened energy and ability to concentrate in their relationships with their clients. Recommendations are offered for self-care practices for psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Psychotherapy practitioners ( N = 155) responded to an anonymous self-report questionnaire focused on their personal problems, their recent self-care patterns, and their attitudes toward personal therapy. The most frequently reported personal problems clustered around emotional exhaustion and fatigue, but these were concerns only among less than half of the sample. Personal therapy had been experienced by almost 90% of participants, and their average ratings of its value were very positive. Cost and accessibility were the most frequently noted concerns regarding personal therapy. These findings afford a more positive image of the personal life of the psychotherapist than has been rendered by previous surveys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Experienced professional psychologists identified factors that contributed to their ability to function well in Study 1, through interviews with 6 well-functioning psychologists, and in Study 2, through questionnaire responses from 339 randomly selected licensed psychologists. Collectively they highlighted self-awareness and monitoring; support from peers, spouses, friends, mentors, therapists, and supervisors; values; and a balanced life, including vacations and other stress-reducers. Discussion focuses on stress-management enhancers to maintain well-functioning, especially at times of deep and pervasive change, like the present and the foreseeable future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Argues that despite the awareness among mental health professionals of the need for the care of fellow practitioners, with emphasis on professional burnout and occupational counseling, the difficulties encountered by therapists in the treatment of their colleagues have been noticeably neglected. Based on experience treating colleagues, interventions and insights designed to avoid pitfalls while facilitating treatment are offered. It is suggested that the choice of a therapist should permit the patient a reasonable degree of social life-space anonymity, a sense of compatible treatment values and philosophy, and knowledge of and respect for the therapist's professional expertise. Factors that motivate a therapist to seek personal therapy are often more complex in reality than for the general patient population. Therapists who become patients have apprehensions that feelings emerging in their own psychotherapy will erode the carefully honed sense of self-as-healer/patients-as-wounded paradigm. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The heads of 107 programs in professional psychology certified by the American Psychological Association participated in a questionnaire study designed to learn their views about well-functioning in professional psychologists and what they had done and would like to do, programmatically, to maintain and enhance it. Their responses were compared with those of 339 licensed psychologists in a prior study. Although the 2 groups both assigned high ratings to self-awareness, a balanced lifestyle, relationship with spouse or partner, and personal values, overall the program heads put more emphasis on the didactic-supervisory items, whereas the practitioners emphasized the personal-existential items. Modifications of psychology programs to place well-functioning of students on par with other major purposes are described in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[topic is] the well-being of ourselves as therapists and its ethical impact on clients in particular, . . . discusses the importance of attending to the interconnected domains of emotions, physical self, play, and cognition in total wellness (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Suggests that the commonly reported preponderance of female over male depression in incidence and prevalence studies requires further analysis. One explanation is that the social consequences of expression of depressive symptomatology are different for males and females. A comparison of 157 male and 189 female undergraduates' reactions to male and female case histories of common reactions to stress confirmed the hypothesis. Depression elicited more rejection of males than of females, and the sex difference in rejection of depression was more pronounced than for anxiety or flat affect-detached responses. A discriminant analysis suggested that depressed males are especially likely to be perceived as impaired in role functioning as compared with depressed females. Results suggest that depressed males are not rejected for expression of emotionality as such. Speculations about the causes and consequences of differential rejection of depression are noted.
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With the public's increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine, medical schools must consider the challenge of educating physicians about these therapies. To document the prevalence, scope, and diversity of medical school education in complementary and alternative therapy topics and to obtain information about the organizational and academic features of these courses. Mail survey and follow-up letter and telephone survey conducted in 1997-1998. Academic or curriculum deans and faculty at each of the 125 US medical schools. Courses taught at US medical schools and administrative and educational characteristics of these courses. Replies were received from 117 (94%) of the 125 US medical schools. Of schools that replied, 75 (64%) reported offering elective courses in complementary or alternative medicine or including these topics in required courses. Of the 123 courses reported, 84 (68%) were stand-alone electives, 38 (31%) were part of required courses, and one (1%) was part of an elective. Thirty-eight courses (31%) were offered by departments of family practice and 14 (11%) by departments of medicine or internal medicine. Educational formats included lectures, practitioner lecture and/or demonstration, and patient presentations. Common topics included chiropractic, acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal therapies, and mind-body techniques. There is tremendous heterogeneity and diversity in content, format, and requirements among courses in complementary and alternative medicine at US medical schools.
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