More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued.
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... e experiments use P@N as the evaluation index, and for each method, P@5, P@10, P@20, P@100, and P@200 are calculated for the comparison experiments. Table 1 shows a comparison of the effectiveness of different recommendation algorithms using Last.fm as the dataset [25,26]. ...
Music performance research is a comprehensive study of aspects such as emotional analysis and personalisation in music performance, which help to add richness and creativity to the art of music performance. The labels in this paper in collaborative annotation contain rich personalised descriptive information as well as item content information and can therefore be used to help provide better recommendations. The algorithm is based on bipartite graph node structure similarity and restarted random wandering. It analyses the connection between users, items, and tags in the music social network, firstly constructs the adjacency relationship between music and tags, obtains the music recommendation list and indirectly associated music collection, then fuses the results according to the proposed algorithm, and reorders them to obtain the final recommendation list, thus realising the personalised music recommendation algorithm. The experiments show that the proposed method can meet the personalised demand of users for music on this dataset.
... The results of the present study are congruent with findings in the wider research and educational context (see Macnamara et al., 2014;Manturzewska, 1974;McPherson, 2000;Lehmann et al., 2007;Stumpf, 1890), which show that the path to musical achievement involves intensive, goal-oriented work, training, and practice. Young musicians face requirements and expectations such that they are encouraged to commit themselves to engagement in education for musical excellence, demonstrating extreme perseverance of effort. ...
Grit, defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, is investigated as a predictor of academic success and well-being. This trait may have special importance for musicians’ functioning as their lives revolve around practice routines and mastering their craft for years. However, there is a growing recognition that extreme perseverance may be maladaptive in some cases. Persistent overinvolvement in goal-oriented activities is related to compulsive overworking, conceptualized within the behavioral addiction framework as work and study addiction. A previous study showed that study addiction is relatively highly prevalent among young musicians and has a clearly negative effect on their functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between grit, study addiction, and psychosocial functioning among music academy students. It was hypothesized that perseverance of effort is related to well-being, grade point average (GPA), and study addiction, and that it becomes maladaptive for individuals addicted to studying. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted among 213 music academy students in Poland. Perseverance of effort was positively related to GPA and study addiction. The relationships between perseverance of effort and self-rated general health, and between perseverance of effort and quality of life, were moderated by study addiction. The results suggest that grit may become maladaptive perseverance in the cases of individuals at risk of study addiction. Based on these findings, further investigations of grit among musicians, as well as further studies of the negative aspects of grit in general, are warranted. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.
... This model rejects the role of ''innate'' predispositions on expert development (Ericsson et al., 1993). However, recent work indicates that deliberate practice likely accounts for only 30% of the variance in expert musicianship, implicating other factors (Hambrick et al., 2018;Macnamara et al., 2014). Research has now turned to exploring the behavioral and molecular genetic bases of music ability to assess the unique and interactive effects of genes and environment. ...
Singing ability is a complex human skill influenced by genetic and environmental factors, the relative contributions of which remain unknown. Currently, genetically informative studies using objective measures of singing ability across a range of tasks are limited. We administered a validated online singing tool to measure performance across three everyday singing tasks in Australian twins (n = 1189) to explore the relative genetic and environmental influences on singing ability. We derived a reproducible phenotypic index for singing ability across five performance measures of pitch and interval accuracy. Using this index we found moderate heritability of singing ability (h² = 40.7%) with a striking, similar contribution from shared environmental factors (c² = 37.1%). Childhood singing in the family home and being surrounded by music early in life both significantly predicted the phenotypic index. Taken together, these findings show that singing ability is equally influenced by genetic and shared environmental factors.
... The amount of time spent with focused and deliberate practice is an essential condition to improve performance in a wide range of fields such as musical instrumental skills [3,4], sport related skills [5,6], chess  or mathematical problem solving . Study time is also a predictor of later individual differences in performance  and related to the maintenance of training specific skills in musical performance when general performance tends to decline in older age . ...
Background: Adolescence is a sensitive period in motor development but little is known about how long-term learning dependent processes shape hand function in tasks of different complexity.
Procedure: We mapped two fundamental aspects of hand function: simple repetitive and complex sequential finger movements, as a function of the length of musical instrumental training. We controlled maturational factors such as chronological and biological age of adolescent female participants (11 to 15 years of age, n=114).
Results: We demonstrated that experience improves performance as a function of task complexity, the more complex task being more susceptible for experience driven performance changes.
Conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that fine motor skills involving cognitive control and relying on long-range functional brain networks are substantially shaped by experience. On the other hand, performance in a simple repetitive task that explains fine motor speed is primarily determined by white matter development driven by maturational factors.
... Even prior to the pandemic, classical musicians faced intense competition and financial insecurity (Macnamara et al., 2014;Pecen et al., 2016;Ascenso et al., 2018), two intense occupational stressors that categorize the occupation as precarious work. Precarious work is defined as employment that is uncertain and unpredictable from the point of view of the worker (Kalleberg, 2009), causing far-reaching consequences to individuals' mental health and social outcomes (Kalleberg, 2011(Kalleberg, , 2018Benach et al., 2014;Kelly et al., 2014;Schneider and Harknett, 2019). ...
The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated the economic and social wellbeing of communities worldwide. Certain groups have been disproportionately impacted by the strain of the pandemic, such as classical musicians. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly harmed the classical music industry, silencing the world's concert halls and theaters. In an industry characterized by instability, a shock as great as COVID-19 may bring negative effects that far outlast the pandemic itself. This study investigates the wellbeing of classical musicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. 68 professional classical musicians completed a questionnaire composed of validated measures of future time horizons, emotional experience, social relationships, and life satisfaction. Findings show that feelings of loneliness had a significant negative association with other measures of wellbeing and were significantly mediated by increased social integration and perceived social support from colleagues, friends, and family. These findings help to characterize the present psychological, emotional, and social wellness of classical musicians in the United States, the first step toward mitigating the hazardous impacts of COVID-19 on this vulnerable group's mental health and wellness.
We examined the effectiveness of a second exposure to ACCEL, a novel driving training program, on latent hazard anticipation (HA) performance several months after their first exposure.
Past research has demonstrated that PC-based driver training programs can improve latent HA performance in young novice drivers, but these improvements are below the ceiling level.
Twenty-five participants were randomly assigned to either the Placebo group, the ACCEL-1 group, or the ACCEL-2 group. Following the completion of the assigned training program, participants drove a series of eighteen scenarios incorporating latent hazards in a high-fidelity driving simulator with their eyes tracked. Participants returned two to six months following the first session and completed either the placebo program (ACCEL-1 and Placebo groups), or a second dose of training program (ACCEL-2 group), again followed by simulated evaluation drives.
The ACCEL-2 group showed improved HA performance compared to the ACCEL-1 and Placebo groups in the second evaluation.
ACCEL enhances young novice drivers' latent HA performance. The effectiveness of ACCEL is retained up to 6 months, and a second dose further improves HA performance.
Policy makers should consider requiring such training before the completion of graduate driver license programs. Young novice drivers that do not show successful latent HA performance could be required to complete additional training before being allowed to drive without restrictions.
Mehta et al. (Am Psychol 75:431–444, 2020) coined the term established adulthood to cover the age-range 30–45. Established adulthood comes after emerging adulthood (18–29), but before middle adulthood (45–65). There has been considerable theoretical and empirical work on emerging adulthood since Arnett (Am Psychol 55:469–480, 2000) proposed it, one important element being the five features model of psychological/phenomenological states accompanying emerging adulthood (Arnett Emerging adulthood: the winding road from the late teens through the twenties, Oxford University Press, 2004; Reifman et al. J Youth Dev 2:37, 2007a). Per the model, emerging adulthood is a time of (1) identity seeking, (2) open possibilities, (3) self-focus/responsibility for oneself, (4) stress/instability, and (5) feeling in-between adolescence and adulthood. Despite the richness of the five features approach, Mehta et al. did not extend it to established adulthood, focusing instead on practical challenges associated with careers, marriage/relationships, and parenting. The present theoretical review paper, therefore, extends and expands the five features model to established adulthood. Specifically, established adulthood should entail (1) solidifying identity, (2) somewhat diminishing sense of possibility in work/career and other domains, (3) focusing on others, (4) continuing stress, albeit in different domains from emerging adulthood, and (5) considering oneself an adult, although not necessarily fully wise. Although established adulthood emphasizes solidification, there remain aspirations and opportunities for new endeavors (e.g., becoming a grandparent or company head). Evidence from the literature supporting or not supporting these propositions is reviewed and future research directions are discussed.
This study’s procedure, carried out by university musicians in a naturalistic practice environment, explored the effect of attention to musical cognitive skills on self-reported characteristics of practicing. One hundred university music majors carried out a practice session that targeted an expressive performance skill, and while doing so, responded to written prompts to report their thought processes. Musicians in the treatment condition, prior to practicing, read a 650-word excerpt that explained three component cognitive skills of music performance: goal imaging, motor production, and self-monitoring; their instructions prompted them to report their thoughts related to the three component skills. The musicians in the control condition received no such excerpt and were prompted to simply report their thoughts before, during, and after performance attempts to improve their targeted skill. Participants’ written responses were coded according to the presence of seven characteristics, specifically four indicators of self-regulation and three strategies of effective practice. The results showed that musicians in the treatment condition reported significantly more self-regulation indicators and practice strategies. This finding suggests that conscious attention to the underlying cognitive skills of music performance can prompt musicians to practice more effectively and lead them to have greater confidence in the efficacy of their practicing.
As research in psychology becomes more sophisticated and more oriented toward the development and testing of theory, it becomes more important to eliminate biases in data caused by measurement error. Both failure to correct for biases induced by measurement error and improper corrections can lead to erroneous conclusions that retard progress toward cumulative knowledge. Corrections for attenuation due to measurement error are common in the literature today and are becoming more common, yet errors are frequently made in this process. Technical psychometric presentations of abstract measurement theory principles have proved inadequte in improving the practices of working researchers. As an alternative, this article uses realistic research scenarios (cases) to illustrate and explain appropriate and inappropriate instances of correction for measurement error in commonly occurring research situations.
This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and the 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed.
The coming of language occurs at about the same age in every healthy child throughout the world, strongly supporting the concept that genetically determined processes of maturation, rather than environmental influences, underlie capacity for speech and verbal understanding. Dr. Lenneberg points out the implications of this concept for the therapeutic and educational approach to children with hearing or speech deficits.
The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 years. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning.
This chapter is an attempt to address the central question of the expert-performance approach for creative performance—namely, how can one identify and examine reproducibly superior performance the expert-performance approach offers a unique framework for studying skill and expert performance. Whereas studies of expertise have traditionally identified highly educated and experienced individuals as experts and compared their performance to less experienced individuals, the expert-performance approach is committed to the objective study of superior performance, which captures the underlying skill in that domain and then designs controlled tasks that reproduce the relevant performance in standardized laboratory settings. The successful research on expert performance has focused on a single individual's performance, such as the surgeon, the soloist or the nurse in charge of post-operational care. The expert-performance approach is strongly committed to objective measures of performance and actively avoids judgments and ratings by supervisors or teachers, unless they can be demonstrated to be a valid shortcut to objective measures.
Discussion in this paper centers around the circumstances under which unequal sample size in the two-group study arises and when the point-biserial correlation resulting therefrom should be construed as attenuated and therefore corrected. Formulas are provided for correcting the coefficient either directly or through the mediation of relevant statistics found in studies where the coefficient itself is not reported. Problems and solutions discussed in the two-group study with a single dependent or independent measure are generalized to the two-group study with two or more such measures.