Article

From 'pastoral care' to 'care': meanings and practices

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Abstract

Pastoral care is the term used in education in the United Kingdom to describe the structures, practices and approaches to support the welfare, well-being and development of children and young people. This article takes a historical perspective and charts the shifts in priorities that pastoral care practice has taken over the past 50 years. The purpose of the overview is to challenge the notion of a common discourse or shared understandings. The article goes on to look at 'care' as a concept and to underline the need for an increasingly multi-agency staff with different cultures, language and priorities to establish what is meant by care and pastoral care in schools and beyond, with a view to a greater understanding and more effective working practices.

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... 4 Este nombre se asocia al pastor que guía y acompaña, tinte eclesiástico o de raíces agrícolas. Este concepto es utilizado principalmente en el Reino Unido (Calvert, 2009). Se reconoce el concepto en los sistemas escolares de Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Singapur, Hong Kong, Kenya, entre otros. ...
... Funciones y tareas que ejercen los líderes medios para el cuidado y desarrollo personal y social en los centros escolares El trabajo de estos líderes ha presentado fuertes cambios a través del tiempo. Calvert (2009) señala cómo ha transitado desde un ejercicio centrado fuertemente en el control o disciplina al interior de la escuela, a la atención de casos, luego de grupos, para finalmente ser comprendido como un ámbito necesario de ser incorporado como parte del currículum. En la actualidad, estos cargos realizan funciones ligadas a: (a) el bienestar de los estudiantes (Bennett et al., 2007), (b) mantener una cultura escolar y promover un ambiente adecuado para el aprendizaje (Murphy, 2011) y (c) mediar en la participación de la comunidad (Thorpe y Bennett-Powell, 2014). ...
... Las políticas educativas se han traducido en fuertes presiones para que las escuelas alcancen mejores resultados en pruebas estandarizadas (Smylie, Murphy y Seashore . Esto ha significado un menor énfasis en el trabajo sobre problemáticas sociales y emocionales que toman al alumno como un todo, enfocando los mayores esfuerzos de las escuelas en el ámbito académico (Calvert, 2009). Actualmente, se están realizando importantes esfuerzos por comprender que tanto lo académico como lo «no académico» son interdependientes. ...
Book
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Este libro tiene como objetivo proporcionar diferentes claves de gestión educativa y liderazgo para mejorar la convivencia en nuestras escuelas. This book aims to provide different keys of educational management and leadership to improve coexistence in our schools.
... Pastoral care, in an educational context, has become a diffused concept with a limited understanding (Calvert, 2009). Pastoral care has been described as an 'umbrella term' as it encompasses: counsellors, learning co-ordinators, teaching assistants, careers advisors and pastoral care middle leaders (Best, Jarvis, & Ribbins, 1977;Calvert, 2009). ...
... Pastoral care, in an educational context, has become a diffused concept with a limited understanding (Calvert, 2009). Pastoral care has been described as an 'umbrella term' as it encompasses: counsellors, learning co-ordinators, teaching assistants, careers advisors and pastoral care middle leaders (Best, Jarvis, & Ribbins, 1977;Calvert, 2009). The pastoral system has a significant role in secondary schools where there can be highly complex pastoral care teams (Blandford, 2006). ...
... While there are attempts to position pastoral care as a primary function in education, the meaning of the term is elusive and unclear (Best et al., 1977;Calvert, 2009). Pastoral care itself has traditionally been associated with notions of help, advice, values development and children's moral welfare (de Jong & Kerr-Roubicek, 2007). ...
... Traditionally the HOY was perceived to be a position of responsibility within the hierarchical structure of the school (Dean, 1993). For example, such a structure would consist of a: pastoral deputy, HOY and a form tutor. Bell and Maher (1986) assert that notions of control and power were factors historically associated with such pastoral structures and the HOYs portrayed as 'superdisciplinarians' (Calvert, 2009). This was also the stance adopted by Best et al. (1977, p.10) to explain the use of such pastoral care structures, as they argued that they were formed to "facilitate social control." ...
... Whereas, the parents were likely to view pastoral managers as 'disciplinarians' on the basis that their contact with them was often related to the occurrence of a problem or incident. It is not surprising that the pastoral managers were seen to be authority figures as previous literature noted that those responsible for the delivery of pastoral care tend to be associated as the 'disciplinarian's' (Williamson, 1980;Bell and Maher, 1986;Best 1994;Calvert, 2009). ...
... Much formal support of marginalized learners, such as inclusive education practices, which require schools and teachers to develop new ways of working, is ultimately about achieving 'education for all' (: p. ix; Ainscow et al., 2013). Similarly, many care and support practices within school settings are driven by recognition that failure to consider the social and personal problems of children and young people impedes the efforts of teachers and interferes with learning by pupils (Marland, 1974;Calvert, 2009;Sharpe, 2014). Such practices may include school-based projects that focus on specific problems, such as bullying or substance abuse, or by connecting children and young people with agencies that are equipped to meet the needs of those with social, mental or physical health problems (Calvert, 2009;Tucker, 2013;Adelman and Taylor, 2014). ...
... Similarly, many care and support practices within school settings are driven by recognition that failure to consider the social and personal problems of children and young people impedes the efforts of teachers and interferes with learning by pupils (Marland, 1974;Calvert, 2009;Sharpe, 2014). Such practices may include school-based projects that focus on specific problems, such as bullying or substance abuse, or by connecting children and young people with agencies that are equipped to meet the needs of those with social, mental or physical health problems (Calvert, 2009;Tucker, 2013;Adelman and Taylor, 2014). Care and support can also be offered in informal ways. ...
... The pastoral curriculum was usually delivered by teams of form tutors, through the provision of, for example, group activities (Calvert, 2009). Further to this the pastoral curriculum was seen as a means for delivering National Curriculum agreed topics. ...
... Each school however, was free to organise and manage the structure of provision as appropriate. Given that the provision of the pastoral curriculum was not statutory, there was no consistent approach and in some schools there was a growing importance placed on the engagement of outside agencies to provide support (Calvert, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
This research sets out to explore the perceptions of school Ethos, Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) including self-esteem, of teachers and students in Catholic and common secondary schools. These form important aspects of education that are often marginalised but potentially play a vital role in preparing young people for adult life. One aspect of PSHE is self-esteem which makes a significant contribution to personal development. In order to gain an understanding of their perceptions, eight schools, four common and four Catholic schools, were involved in a longitudinal study. A mixed methods approach was adopted in order to increase the credibility and validity of the results. Therefore, I employed interviews, questionnaires and focus group interviews as methods of collecting data. Interviews were undertaken with 32 teachers in phase 1 and in phase 2 in Catholic and common schools. Two thousand, one hundred and forty-six students in two cohorts (Years 7 and 9, Years 9 and 11) completed questionnaires and 16 focus group interviews were undertaken in the first phase of research. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy students completed questionnaires in the second phase and 16 focus group interviews were undertaken. The questionnaires and the interviews with students explored their perceptions of the ethos of their schools, their progress and attainment, the implementation of PSHE, and its impact on their personal development.
... Authors such as Carnell and Lodge (2002) and Purdy (2013) describe the Form Tutor's role as being the person who has an oversight of their tutees learning, social and emotional wellbeing, though Purdy explains that the role lacks clear definition. Calvert (2009) distinguishes between two perspectives regarding the role of the Form Tutor, with some teachers preferring a more progressive, child-centred approach while others adopt a more traditional approach, an apposite description of arguably two of the biggest conflicting views in education today (Birbalsingh, 2020). ...
Thesis
Background and aims: The importance of the social, emotional and mental health needs of children and young people (CYP) is becoming more apparent, with recent government legislation and advice suggesting schools have a role in supporting the wellbeing of their students. The pastoral system is one way that schools provide such support. Form Tutors occupy a prime position within the pastoral system to provide regular and consistent social and emotional support for CYP people through Form Time sessions. However, there is limited research explaining what a Form Tutor does, how they do it and the importance or impact of their role. Furthermore, there is limited evidence regarding the nature and purpose of Form Time, despite this occupying a substantial proportion of a student’s school week. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate Form Time, the role of the Form Tutor, and Form Tutor’s views on both their role and Form Time in Secondary schools in England. Method: This study provides a broad yet rich picture of Form Tutors and Form Time using a mixed methodology in a two phase, sequential design. First, a survey was carried out of Form Tutors (N = 1,234) working across 27% of Secondary schools in England. This was followed by semi-structured interviews with Form Tutors (N = 29) who had participated in phase one of the research. Results: This study provides novel insights into the role of the Form Tutor and Form Time and strengthens the evidence base in this area. Findings from this study illustrate that the role of the Form Tutor is taken for granted and lacks clear definition. To address this, the present research provides a characterisation of an ‘ideal’ Form Tutor as encompassing five key and important features: the Form Tutor is relational and supportive, advocative, has an oversight of tutees, upholds standards, and is a conduit or ‘first port of call’ between their tutees, their parents/carers and the wider school system. Central to their role is the Form Tutor-tutee relationship which is a means for CYP to access readily available and consistent support. Findings highlight that Form Tutors feel they have a lack of training, guidance and CPD in relation to their role, along with capturing Form Tutor’s feelings that the quality and effectiveness of Form Time programmes tends to be poor. Conclusion: This study highlighted the potential of the role of the Form Tutor and Form Time in supporting the mental health and wellbeing of CYP. The Form Tutor and Form Time can provide CYP with a sense of autonomy and competence (Ryan & Deci, 2000), a sense of belonging (Allen & Kern, 2017) and a sense of community (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). This in turn may facilitate school engagement (Allen & Kern, 2017), learning and attainment (Cornelius-White, 2007; Roorda et al., 2011). The potential positive impact of this on the wellbeing of CYP (Carroll & Hurry, 2018), set in the context of the need for preventative and proactive support for CYP in terms of their mental health (NHS Digital, 2020) emphasises the unrealised potential of Form Tutors and Form Time. The implications of this study are wide: it signals the need for clear guidance in relation to the role of the Form Tutor and Form Time which has implications for government policy. This study is the first to consider the role of EPs in relation to the role of the Form Tutor and Form Time, outline what training and CPD should be available for staff in the role of Form Tutor and provide guidance in terms of good practice. It also highlights the need for schools and Form Tutors themselves to consider their vision for the Form Tutor role, Form Time and their practices and systems in relation to this.
... Entre los aspectos mencionados están: el ethos escolar; el sentido de comunidad y respeto mutuo; la participación de los alumnos en la escuela; el empoderamiento a los alumnos como aprendices; la calidad de la comunicación entre estudiantes y entre docentes y estudiantes; la colegialidad y coordinación entre el personal; la atención a la motivación y moral de todo el personal; la participación de los alumnos en la escuela; para que sus voces sean escuchadas y sus inquietudes atendidas. Calvert (2009) señala las formas por las que ha pasado este liderazgo "formativo" o de "cuidado" en países angloparlantes, pasando de ejercer una función de control, a una necesidad de atención individual de apoyo a estudiantes, a comprenderse como una necesidad grupal, y posteriormente a incorporarse como parte del currículum. Estudios realizados en Nueva Zelanda (Fraser, 2014) señalan que estos liderazgos destinan la mayor parte del tiempo a realizar un trabajo que se concentra en temas sociales, emocionales o de conducta (48%), seguido por temas académicos (32%), y finalmente, por temas de administración y gestión (20%). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Los procesos de mejora escolar requieren fortalecer los liderazgos educativos de otros actores con posiciones formales de liderazgo en las escuelas, potenciando sus capacidades y transformándolos en agentes de cambio. Dentro de estos liderazgos escolares encontramos cuatro cargos que resultan clave para las escuelas y liceos de nuestro país, nos referimos a: Jefes de Unidad Técnico Pedagógica (UTP), Inspectores Generales, Encargados de Convivencia y Jefes de Departamento y/o Ciclo. Para la literatura internacional estos líderes escolares forman parte de los denominados liderazgos medios (middle leadership), los cuales presentan un rol estratégico para la mejora escolar. En Chile, la investigación sobre estos liderazgos es escasa, especialmente en identificar las necesidades formativas que presentan. Para abordar esta brecha, LIDERES EDUCATIVOS ha elaborado una reseña bibliográfica que espera contribuir a relevar la importancia de estos liderazgos y aportar al diseño de instancias formativas, alineadas con las necesidades de desarrollo profesional que presentan quienes ejercen estos cargos.
... Visit a nursery or a primary school on any day of the week and you will most likely observe groups of children from age three upwards forming a circle in which they will be invited to share their most personal experiences with the teacher, possibly a teaching assistant, and with one another. In these sessions, as well as in other areas of the curriculum, children will be engaged in activities that are heavily influenced by the Every Child Matters (ECM) agenda, and which are designed to ensure their social and emotional well-being (Goldman, 1996;Coppock, 2007;Calvert, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of pupil voice is widely employed in research from across the world when claiming children and young people have a genuine, legitimate right to be heard on matters they consider important, and when considering ways of engaging them as important ‘influencers’ of policy and decision-making. This article is concerned with problematic issues around power and pupil voice during circle-time. It is argued that the space in which children and young people are ‘allowed’ a voice is prescribed by adults and is frequently located within interventions for improving schools, pupil behaviour and promoting their social and emotional development. Based on a rigorous analysis of the findings from a small case study about children’s experiences during circle-time, and using the concepts of social identity and social representation, this article highlights the dangers of inadvertently creating a climate within which children can feel isolated and threatened, and bullying can thrive. Increasingly, it would seem children are being invited and expected to reveal things in circle-time that will need careful and experienced handling from the point of safeguarding the child’s well-being, offering the required support and ensuring the child’s protection and confidentiality. It is argued these findings highlight the need for a robust research-informed debate about children’s lived experiences during circle-time, and the impact of those experiences in terms of children’s identities and self-esteem.
... A dilemma of inclusion can be that at the same time as these demands for demonstrating achievement, there is less focus on learning and removing barriers to student learning. In essence, there is less time to devote to a pastoral care role of enhancing students' personal and social development which can't be measured but is essential for overcoming barriers and achieving learning outcomes (Calvert, 2009). This role acknowledges the influence of the emotions and the need for emotional and psychological well-being to support learning and perhaps ironically, improve test results (Algozzine, Putnam, & Horner, 2010). ...
Book
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This book is the first in a series that incorporates essays focused on issues informing the work of the contemporary teacher. While broad in scope, the book provides the reader with a snap-shot of research endeavours that are informing teacher work. The book specifically examines issues that inform the changing nature of teacher work, including teacher capabilities for the information age, the changing nature of school curriculums and the diverse range of learners needs in today’s classrooms. The book is edited by Professor David Lynch and Professor Bruce Allen Knight, two of Australia’s foremost thinkers in teaching related matters
... Pastoral care is one of the criteria against which the quality of UK schools is assessed (Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills, 2012). Although there does not appear to be a widely accepted UK definition (Calvert 2009), it has been described as: 'the term used in education in the United Kingdom to describe the structures, practices and approaches to support the welfare, well-being and development of children and young people' (Calvert 2009: 267). In respect of students' emotional wellbeing, it is common practice to deliver emotional support programmes to whole schools, cohorts, or to students identified as vulnerable (CAMHS EBPU et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Background Little is known about high school students' perceptions of school-based pastoral support. This study aimed to explore this in the context of a high school–based emotional support project. Methods Qualitative interviews explored perspectives on help seeking of students (N = 23) and staff (N = 27) in three UK high schools where a pastoral project was introduced. Data were analysed thematically. ResultsStudent peer groups perceived help seeking as a sign of weakness. However, students valued learning skills in managing emotions and friendships. Staff expressed concerns about students' ability to help seek proactively, and highlighted organisational influences on pastoral support. Conclusions Increasing student control over the process, and involving trusted staff, could encourage help seeking in high school. It is possible to access the views of students who do not help seek, to improve understanding of help-seeking behaviour.
... The role of the dean is a unique and complex contextspecific one, influenced by the school in which it is operating. The findings of this case study support the literature (e.g., Calvert, 2009;Marland, 2001) in that the role was found to be predominantly reactive. Our findings indicate that evaluating current school pastoral care systems using the perceptions of students, teachers, deans, and managers could highlight areas of strength and inform areas of need for change (Howeison & Semple, 2000). ...
Article
Pastoral care structures in New Zealand schools often include a role of dean. The dean’s responsibilities are often defined by schools to satisfy growing expectations of schools’ responsibilities for student wellbeing and achievement. This study explored the role of year-level deans within one state co-educational secondary school. Senior managers, deans, teachers, and students were interviewed, and deans completed a daily activity log. Findings indicate challenges exist for providing care for all students owing to the reactive nature of the role and unclear reporting lines. Results indicate that collaborative approaches to pastoral care may improve its provision.
... Pastoral care is a school-based intervention that falls under the umbrella concept of 'guidance and counselling' , delivered to children individually, in groups or as a whole school approach. Although both 'pastoral' and 'care' are difficult concepts to define (see Calvert, 2009), in their classic paper, Best, Jarvis, and Ribbins (1977) define it quite simply as 'the form guidance and counselling takes when it is provided by school teachers within a particular institutional setting ' (p. 126). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite an interactional analysis being able to offer valuable insight into the institutional workings of pastoral care practice, pastoral care delivery remains largely unstudied. This paper will contribute new knowledge to the field of counselling and education by o ering an interactional analysis of one-to-one pastoral care provision within a primary school. Much pastoral care practice is informed by theory, often accompanied by guidelines about how to deliver pastoral care activities effectively. The pastoral carer needs to convert these guidelines into talk in order to deliver the intervention as an interactional encounter. However useful these guidelines are, they cannot show what the actual delivery of those pastoral care activities might look like in real life. Using conversation analysis, we examine video recordings of pastoral care delivery to reveal the ways in which a pastoral carer supports a child’s behaviour, social and emotional well-being. The significance of the findings is that those who provide pastoral care can see in close detail what delivery might look like as a real-life encounter, imparting valuable knowledge that can then be applied alongside theory and guidelines to enhance professional practice. Of further significance is that the findings can also show how an interactional analysis of pastoral care work can be used to demonstrate social and emotional learning and that the work being done effectively supports children.
... The school environment is a critical institution in facilitating the education, both academic and personal, of young people. While services designed to support mental health and wellbeing vary widely depending on the school, it is beneficial for students to be provided with holistic support in their education (Calvert, 2009;Willis, Clague, & Coldwell, 2013). ...
Article
There is limited research detailing school-based counselling services and how they are utilised by students. This study presented counselling service data for a Preparatory to Grade 12 school. Specifically, it examined the number of students seen and sessions provided, and differences between users and non-users of the service. The results showed that approximately 20% of students engaged in counselling. Frequency data indicated that many students had brief contact with counselling and that there is no clear relationship for when this occurs during the term or year. There were also significant differences between users and non-users within key demographics. Implications for use of this information in school as well as recommendations for effective use of counselling service data are presented.
... In addition to Norman's statement, literature suggests that very few pre-service teachers receive adequate education or preparation in areas such as human relationships and pastoral care (Goldman & Torrisi-Steele, 2009). Many of the teachers reported upon across these and other research samples (e.g., Best, 1990;2014;Calvert, 2009;Goldman & Torrisi-Steele 2009;Norman, 2002) have indicated lacking confidence, direction and commitment in this important aspect of teaching and learning. It is very possible that these reported inadequacies were further reflected in the findings of the Australian Scholarships Group Student Social and Emotional Health Report (Bernard, Stephanou & Urbach, 2007), which identified a lack of sufficient training into the implications of students' emotional health and wellbeing as being a significant problem for pre-service teachers. ...
Conference Paper
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A teacher's preparedness to deliver quality pastoral care presents an ongoing challenge for teacher education institutions. It also presents a similar challenge for teachers and pre-service teachers who work in school boarding house contexts. The expectations and requirements of what pastoral care involves is ever shifting in response to the evolving challenges faced by students and staff alike. There are diverse interpretations and sometimes conflicting understandings of what pastoral care in education contexts involves. This ambiguity can have implications for how teachers are prepared to provide appropriate and quality pastoral care post initial teacher education. This paper explores the perceptions and experiences of what constitutes pastoral care from the perspectives of staff that are teachers (pre-service and in-service) working in a Tasmanian boarding school context. Using narrative analysis, the implications of professional learning opportunities in place and inherent to working in a residential-education context are elucidated. In doing so, the challenges and benefits of being/becoming a teacher in a residential-education context emerge, and the implications of the nexus between perception and enactment of pastoral care in this space is articulated.
... Yet many studies of social breakdown will emphasise these very characteristics as a triggering attitude. As Calvert (2009) least two meanings. The first of which is 'caring for someone' (doing caring work); the second is 'caring about someone' (having caring feelings) (p. ...
Article
From the earliest modern academic literature of industrial organization, supervision education and training, managerial considerations involve leveraging to improve the work of the supervisor and supervisee, and accentuating the value added opportunities for work improvement (Dawson, 1926, pp. 293-295). Reflecting the incorporation of the ‘pastoral’ within the industrial, Kadushin’s model of supervision has short and long-range objectives. The short-range objective is “to improve the [knowledge] worker’s capacity to do [his or her] job more effectively”. The long-range objective is to instill the capacity to perform a “particular service” that the organization is mandated to offer (Kadushin & Harkness, 2002, p. 20). This article discusses the concepts of mindfulness and pastoral care in teaching practices. By defining both pastoral care and mindfulness and situating them in a context of relational teaching practice it is argues that self-esteem, confidence and student focused support may be enhanced by the application of concepts from auxiliary health fields.
... This included increased levels of whole-class teaching with the advent of the Higher Level Teaching Assistant role where whole-class teaching can be assigned under the supervision of a qualified teacher. For some, this 'rapid transformation' (Groom 2006) has also included pastoral (Calvert 2009;Leach 2009) and formalised management responsibilities (Bailey 2007). This group of workers are therefore now engaging in increasingly varied workplace activities significantly beyond those traditionally associated with this role (Feng 2006). ...
Article
This article explores teaching assistants' (TAs) perceptions of suggestions that English schools should encourage large numbers of ‘low‐achieving’ school leavers to become apprentice teaching assistants. It reports on a piece of qualitative research that aimed to capture teaching assistants' views of these proposals. Semi‐structured interviews were utilised to enable 44 TAs to express their views. These individuals were all enrolled on a foundation degree programme at a new university in the North of England. The findings of this research suggest that established teaching assistants' reactions to apprenticeships are likely to promote a learning environment where an already restricted form of apprenticeship experience will be subject to further constraint. This article highlights the risks that vocational education and training (VET) of this type poses in terms of reproducing gender and class‐based inequalities. It further maintains that diluting the meaning of apprenticeship learning to meet ambitious governmental targets potentially endanger the integrity of this form of learning.
... For this reason, the intervention of form teachers in students' affairs is superficial. Their focus is on the preservation of order and coercing students to conform to the expectations of the school instead of getting to the source of their problems (Calvert, 2009;Lodge, 2006). ...
Article
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This paper, explores, through the lens of a Pastoral Care Model, deans' actual roles in secondary schools, and the extent to which these roles were enacted. A qualitative multi-site case study, was employed to generate pertinent data from six secondary schools in a single education district. The sample comprised 6 principals, 12 deans and 67 teachers. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to garner the perspectives of principals, teachers and deans. The findings suggest that most deans at the secondary schools, spent a disproportionate amount of their time monitoring student indiscipline. As a result, they were rarely engaged in the performance of their other prescribed roles.
... At present, this term has a much broader meaning. Although there is no generally accepted definition of pastoral care in the UK, the term is generally used to refer to the responsibility of the teacher for the general well-being of their students (Calvert, 2009). It refers to the daily work of the teacher and is understood as the type of influence on the student's personality and environment which is intended to support the development of their intellectual and social skills and contribute to their emotional stability. ...
Article
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Since their beginnings, universities have been places where science has been developed and a Christian form of spirituality has been nurtured. Pastoral care for university students is still part of what universities around the world offer today. This article outlines the basic characteristics of pastoral care for university students in Slovakia and in English-speaking countries. The comparison shows that there is a significantly different understanding of this service. The research problem-how participants assessed the educational activity of the university pastoral centre (UPC) compared to the university where they studied-was investigated using a qualitative research method, the in-depth interview, which is the main research method of phenomenological analysis. The research findings suggest that the participants perceived the educational activity of the university pastoral centre and the university as directly contradictory in some areas, in others as neutral. In addition, they suggested they had an expectation of integrating the expert knowledge acquired at the university with their spiritual beliefs. The research also includes facts which are not obvious at first glance and were found during the in-depth examination of the research problem, especially in the form of critical comments that students made, to a greater extent about the work of the university pastoral centre and to a lesser extent about the university where they studied.
... En la misma línea, este estudio levanta una alerta sobre este fenómeno, al observar las Figuras 3 y 5, relativas a capacidades y conocimientos profesionales que los encuestados identifican cómo requeridos para el óptimo ejercicio de su rol, encontramos un fuerte énfasis en necesidades formativas tradicionalmente asociadas al ámbito de la convivencia, en desmedro de lo pedagógico. Esto a su vez es reportado y problematizado desde la investigación internacional y nacional (Calvert, 2009;Smylie, Murphy, & Seashore Louis, 2016;López, Díaz, & Carrasco, 2015). Esta alerta amerita investigar más profundamente en la comprensión de dualidad antes mencionada. ...
... En la misma línea, este estudio levanta una alerta sobre este fenómeno, al observar las Figuras 3 y 5, relativas a capacidades y conocimientos profesionales que los encuestados identifican cómo requeridos para el óptimo ejercicio de su rol, encontramos un fuerte énfasis en necesidades formativas tradicionalmente asociadas al ámbito de la convivencia, en desmedro de lo pedagógico. Esto a su vez es reportado y problematizado desde la investigación internacional y nacional (Calvert, 2009;Smylie, Murphy, & Seashore Louis, 2016;López, Díaz, & Carrasco, 2015). Esta alerta amerita investigar más profundamente en la comprensión de dualidad antes mencionada. ...
Article
Purpose The aim of the paper is to locate the role of social and emotional support during the school‐to‐work transitions of apprentices, within the Australian vocational education and training context. Design/methodology/approach The research reported here is based on an independent evaluation of an apprentice suicide prevention and support program. This program has been implemented in rural and regional Australia, and findings highlight the program's retention of key messages in the long‐term (i.e. 6 months to 2 years post‐completion). The work is based on both quantitative questionnaires from 119 apprentices as well as 18 face‐to‐face interviews. Findings The research showed that apprentices’ resilience to face school‐to‐work transitional challenges can be enhanced by increasing knowledge of suicide risk factors and sources of social and emotional support had increased. Findings indicate that a number of apprentices had made significant changes in their lives as a result of participating in the program. While 10 per cent of apprentices identify as “socially isolated”, it was encouraging to note that peer support, as a result of the program, can be considered an informal referral point to formal help‐provision and support. Research limitations/implications While the program has been successfully applied to building and construction industry apprentices, there is overlap in school‐to‐work transition issues of other types of apprenticeships/traineeships; this merits consideration of wider application of apprentice support programs within the Australian vocational education sector. Originality/value This paper draws together a focus on school‐to‐work vulnerabilities and social‐emotional support (similar to that found in youth development programs) as it can be applied to the vocational education and training sector.
Article
The social and emotional wellbeing of all students, regardless of setting, is recognised as a fundamental requirement for successful learning and social development. The COVID-19 pandemic of the past two years has witnessed disruptions to teaching and learning and peer relationship development for students. Societies have been in lockdown; learning has gone online; schools and universities have been delayed in opening/returning and operating in hybrid forms, with some students off-and-on campus at different times; and new university students have arrived in 2022 after two years of disrupted school learning and interrupted peer and social relationships. These challenges highlight the importance of pastoral care in these settings for all stakeholders. The authors reflect on their university’s approach to supporting staff and students as they pivoted rapidly to online learning and how the pastoral care/social and emotional strategies they employed offer opportunities for positive outcomes moving forward.
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During the 2020 spring semester, as COVID-19 infection rates increased, universities and colleges closed campuses and moved courses online. All of these responses occurred as the Center for Disease Control (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO), and other national and global health organizations attempted to understand this new and deadly illness. Library and Information Science (LIS) schools were, in particular, ready for this unexpected education shift with their long history of online learning and online engagement. This article is both a reflection on and analysis of the teaching experiences of the author during this period of crisis.
Article
The changing landscape of higher education and increased prevalence of mental health issues have placed pressure on universities to respond effectively to the needs of an increasingly diverse student body. Whilst higher education institutions provide support services to help students who are encountering difficulties, it often falls to fellow students to offer support. However, peers may lack awareness and knowledge about how to intervene or be reluctant to intervene due to the ‘bystander effect’ that diffuses responsibility for action in group settings. This article describes an initiative called Seas Suas, a programme developed by the Chaplaincy at an Irish university that encourages students to be more aware and observant of challenging issues impacting other students’ academic and personal lives and to equip them with the knowledge and skills to respond appropriately. A mixed methods research design was undertaken to assess outcomes from the programme (N = 193). Findings indicate that students showed higher levels of empathy, social responsibility and confidence in helping others after participating in the Seas Suas programme. The implications of the findings for pastoral care in higher education are discussed.
Article
Abstract: Research on adolescent intervention programs reveal many personal, social, and academic benefits to students, yet there remains a lack of detailed knowledge regarding the subjective experience of girls who take part. This study used interpretative phenomenological methodology to explore the meanings that thirty adolescent female school students give to their identity within a 10-week program in Western Australia. The primary discourses of the girls were friendship and family, and community resilience by seeking social support from family, friends, and peers. These reflections are discussed in context of including the topic of parental supports as a way of changing purposes of education for shaping new kinds of citizen and personal identities, and the changing shape of educational institutions in showing effective leadership in a changing society.
Article
How to best support pupils who are considered to be in danger of temporary or permanent exclusion from secondary school is an issue that is currently exercising policy makers, school managers and teachers in the UK. Using primary research data gained from interviews with secondary pupils, school managers and behaviour support staff in a group of secondary schools in Birmingham, UK; a range of strategic responses employed to respond to the pastoral support needs of vulnerable young people in danger of being temporarily or permanently excluded from school are considered. Adopting a case study methodology, qualitative data were generated from a series of semi-structured interviews with 49 year nine pupils, eight behaviour co-ordinators across seven secondary schools and three school managers. The findings indicate that the need for secondary schools to adopt comprehensive and appropriately resourced pastoral care policies and practices that have the capacity to both formally and informally respond to the needs of vulnerable young people at risk of being excluded from school.
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This chapter reports an institutional ethnography (IE) which seeks to explicate the everyday experiences of learning mentors (LMs), introduced into English secondary schools 15 years ago. Within the context of the New Labour (NL) policy agenda characterized by an analysis of the relationship between "risk" and "social exclusion" as the root cause of many social problems, LMs were part of a transformative agenda which elevated 'low level' workers to paraprofessional status across a range of public services. The official narrative embedded in policy documents talked of LMs "raising achievement" by "removing barriers to learning," but this tells us little about the way in which such texts are mediated in the sites where they were enacted. The starting point of the IE was to establish how the work of learning mentors was practiced, viewed, and understood within the school by all parties. The enquiry did not start with pre-existing conceptualizations of "pastoral care" or "disaffected youth" but tracing the genealogy of LM practice became more significant as the research developed, thus attention was paid to the legacy of the US tradition of mentoring and how that was re-imagined in the ruling texts of NL policy. The problematic of the study that emerged was that although warmly received by pupils, LM practices were marginalized, misunderstood, and relatively unseen, casting doubt on the influence suggested in formal prescriptions and giving rise to wider questions regarding the increasingly liminal nature of work undertaken by people working in similar roles in other institutions.
Article
Educational paraprofessionals have had an increased presence in English state schools since the first decade of the 21st century, but research has been limited in terms of who undertakes paraprofessional roles, what they entail and how such work is perceived by others. This paper compares one such paraprofessional role, the learning mentor, with the ‘community agent’, found in the United States of America during the 1960 s. It identifies a number of similarities around the lived experience of this work in terms of status, career progression and policy assumptions about the efficacy of these roles. It argues that a historical analysis is invaluable in gaining a more complete understanding of how such roles have an air of impermanency, are subject to the vagaries of policy but nevertheless continue to be recycled as a limited and partial response to deepening social and educational inequalities.
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In this chapter the authors discuss the ways in which pastoral care in schools in the United Kingdom can be meaningfully reframed in a contemporary context of multi-agency working. Drawing on research and scholarship from the field, the authors show how pervasive discourses have been used to problematize the lives of specific groups of children and young people that have, in turn, been used to justify particular approaches to pastoral care and multi-agency working. Contesting the instrumental configurations of multi-agency working in British state schools, the authors argue for a more sophisticated conception of inter-professional practice that is educationally grounded, emphatically pastorally focused, and professionally dynamic. In this undertaking, dynamic forms of collaborative action and inter-professional practice in pastoral care transcend partisan occupational allegiances, biases, and political interests that offer instead new but still largely developmental approaches for the effective pastoral support of the well-being of children and young people in schools.
Article
This mixed methods exploratory study, reports the main tasks and capacities and obstacles that ECEs face, as well as the skills to address them. The purpose of this study is to deepen with empirical evidence in the role of the Coordinator of School Convivence (ECE) in Chilean public schools. Results indicate that the ECEs perform multiple and diverse emergent and reactive tasks. Mainly supervision and control of the discipline, case solving, and accountability. The main obstacles reported are: highly demanding external and internal accountability, and difficulties to engage staff in collaborative work. ECEs report that for effective role performance it is necessary to develop leadership capacities to bring together and mobilize others, conflict management, encourage reflections in their teams, and strengthen their leadership. Findings suggest the need to move from a role centered in contingency management to one focus on convivence development, to be able to co-construct school communities that improve in a participatory, democratic and inclusive way.
Article
In the context of this paper, social pedagogy concerns how a person trained in social pedagogy can take up the role of a trusted and caring adult to help, support and empower troubled and vulnerable pupils to meet the demands they face in their lives so that they are better able to lead fulfilling and satisfying lives and can, in their turn, contribute to the betterment of society. This paper describes the nature of social pedagogy, highlights its origins and practice in mainland Europe, considers some key developments within the current context in England and outlines its implications for pastoral care in schools. There has been a marked growth in social pedagogy as an aspect of professional practice amongst the pastoral care community in England. Its further development will depend on an increasing recognition that pastoral care needs to follow the pupil into the different social settings they inhabit.
Article
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Engagement in further education, employment or training following the completion of compulsory schooling is an important predictor of adult life adjustment. As a key microsystemic context, supportive school environments can facilitate positive transitions, especially for disadvantaged youth who are at higher risk of underachievement and not engaging in further education, employment or training (NEET) in emerging adulthood. The present research consists of quantitative and qualitative analyses of secondary data of three student cohorts from a New Zealand boarding secondary school for males from disadvantaged backgrounds to investigate positive transition outcomes and experiences. The quantitative study (N = 178) compared participants’ educational attainment and NEET status across cohorts and with national statistics. Results showed that participants’ achievement and transition outcomes were consistently superior to the national comparison. The qualitative study (N = 38) examined the subjective experiences of a subsample of participants who transitioned to tertiary study and apprenticeship courses. These findings highlight the importance of cultivating students’ holistic development during the secondary school years. Implications for secondary schools are discussed.
Article
In this qualitative grounded theory study, 24 participants, referred to as third culture kids (or TCKs), ages 18–30 years, who had previously attended international Christian schools were interviewed to determine the dispositions they valued in their teachers. Incorporating principles of grounded theory, a series of rigorous steps were undertaken resulting in the construction of three primary findings TCKs valued in international Christian schoolteachers. These findings were then situated within an extensive literature review. The results provide insight into the “ideal” international Christian schoolteacher desired and valued by TCKs. These findings should be of great interest to anyone responsible for training, preparing or recruiting international Christian schoolteachers, and/or providing ongoing professional development to the teachers in such schools.
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This chapter addresses two central questions. What is known about developing expertise and the professional learning needs for expert teachers? How does teacher learning link to the issues and debates found in the mélange of professional teaching standards and accreditation? Teacher professionalism and teacher learning that exist across the world are contextualised within the broader international setting. Global perspectives and recent trends for professional learning practices and models are considered across the changing focus on continuing professional development (CPD) to teacher learning within professional growth plans. The chapter explores contextual examples from Australia, Canada, Finland, Shanghai and Singapore. The Summary and conclusion provide a synopsis in connecting concepts for understanding Enacted Personal Professional Learning (EPPL), prior to posing two guiding questions for A conversation with colleagues.
Article
Sosyal medya bireylere görüntü, video, yazılı metin, ses gibi içerikleri paylaşılabilme imkânı veren, ortak ilgi alanlarına sahip bireylerin birbirleriyle kolaylıkla etkileşime geçmesine olanak tanıyan internet tabanlı bir platformdur. İnternet kullanıcıları günlerinin önemli bir kısmını sosyal medyada geçirmektedir. Kullanım süresi arttıkça bağımlı davranışları gösterilmekte, sosyal medyayı kullanma konusunda özdenetimle davranabilmek zorlaşmaktadır. Her türlü içeriğin paylaşıldığı renkli sosyal ağ ortamları çocuk ve gençleri çoğunlukla olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Bu olumsuz etkiler pek çok farklı alanda hissedilmektedir. Gençler sosyal medya sunulan hayatlara ya da fenomenlerin paylaşımlarına göre bir dünya tasavvuru oluşturmakta, birçok çocuk/genç için fiziksel görünüş ve marka giyinmek gibi tutumlar bir takıntı hâline gelmektedir. Ayrıca gençlerin daha fazla argo ve küfürlü konuşmaya başladığı, gün geçtikçe kendilerini düzgün bir şekilde ifade edebilme yeteneklerinin zayıfladığı ve arkadaş ilişkilerinin sanallaştığı görülmektedir. Bununla birlikte sürekli akan görseller dikkat süresini azaltmakta, öğrenme süreçlerine engel olmaktadır. Sosyal medyanın dini ve ahlaki konularda da olumsuz etkileri bulunmaktadır. İnternet ve sosyal medya ibadet ve dinden uzaklaşma, zaman israfı, vakti boşa harcama gibi sonuçların ortaya çıkmasına etkide bulunmaktadır. Gençler sosyal medya ortamlarından daha fazla etkilenmekte, ahlaki alışkanlıkları ve davranışları değişmektedir. Tüm bu değişimler birer problem alanı olarak tanımlanabilmektedir. Sosyal medyanın çocuk ve gençlerin hayatlarındaki olumsuz etkilerinin azaltılmasına ve çözümüne yönelik çalışmalardan birinin de okullarda manevi danışmanlık eğitimi olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu manevi danışmanlık çalışmasında, ahlaki ve dini konular ile gündelik yaşam sorunları ele alınabilmektedir. Nitekim dünyanın farklı ülkelerindeki okullarda öğrencilere manevi danışmanlık hizmeti sunulmakta, Amerika, İngiltere, Singapur gibi bazı ülkelerde okullarda görev yapan öğretmenlere manevi danışmanlık eğitimi verilmekte ve öğrencilerine yardımcı olmaları sağlanmaktadır. Bu anlamda sosyal medya kullanımına yönelik manevi danışmanlık eğitiminin bu amacı gerçekleştirebileceği öngörülmektedir. Bu çalışmada, okul çağındaki çocuklar/gençler üzerinde sosyal medyanın etkileri ve okulda verilmesi planlanan manevi danışmanlık eğiminin gerekliliği konusunda öğretmenlerin ne düşündükleri ve bu eğitimin içeriğine dair önerilerinin neler olduğu sorularına cevap aranmaktadır. Okullarda manevi danışmanlık eğiminin yönelik ihtiyacı sahadan verilerle destekleme amacıyla ihtiyaç analizi çalışması olarak planlanan bu araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden çoklu durum çalışması deseni tercih edilmiştir. Manevi danışmanlık eğitimine olan ihtiyacı tespit etmek amacıyla maksimum çeşitlilik örneklem ilkelerine göre seçilmiş ortaöğretim kurumlarının farklı branşlarından en az beş yıllık deneyimi olan 18 öğretmenle görüşme yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmada sorunun çözümünün ancak disiplinler arası bir yaklaşımla ortaya konabileceği düşüncesiyle Din Kültürü ve Ahlak Bilgisi alanı dışındaki farklı branş öğretmenlerinin görüşleri de ele alınmıştır. Bu görüşmelerde öncelikle sosyal medyanın çocuklar ve gençler üzerindeki etkilerine yönelik öğretmen gözlemlerine yer verilmiştir. Öğrencilerin büyük çoğunluğunun sosyal medya kullandığı, sosyal medya bağımlısı olmasalar da sosyal medyanın yokluğuna katlanamadıkları gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca sosyal medyada karşılaşılan görsel ve ifadelerin sınıf ortamına taşındığı, okuma kültürünün hızlandırarak izleme kültürüne dönüştüğü, ifade gücünün düştüğü, argo ve küfür kullanımının yoğun bir şekilde arttığı, duyarsızlık, bencillik ve tatminsizlik gibi duygu durumlarında artış görüldüğü, sosyal medya ortamının ve sosyal medya fenomenlerinin her yönüyle model alındığı, çocuk ve gençlerin tutum, davranış ve görünüş tarzı açısından standartlaştıkları, sürekli tüketime yöneldikleri, gelecek hedeflerinin ve arkadaşlık ilişkilerinin değiştiği görülmektedir. Ayrıca din ve değerlere karşı saygısız, olumsuz, umursamaz ve eleştirel tavırlarda artış gözlenmektedir. Sosyal medyanın etkisiyle ortaya çıkan bu sonuçların okul çağındaki çocuk ve gençler üzerinde olumsuz yoğun etkileri bulunmaktadır. Bazı ülkelerde olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de çocuk ve gençlere yönelik manevi danışmanlık gibi bir çalışmaya ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Öğretmenler bu ihtiyacı yoğun bir şekilde hissetme ve konuya dair öneriler sunmaktadırlar. Öğrencilerin bireysel gelişimlerini destekleyecek, onları bilinçlendirecek ve yol gösterici olacak değer içerikli bir manevi danışmanlık içeriği önerilmektedir.
Book
Most secondary school teachers and some support staff will be expected to take on the role of form tutor or mentor along side their other work. What is surprising is how little time, status or attention is given to training and preparation for this pastoral aspect of education, in comparison to subject teaching. This book helps to redress the balance by providing a look at the structure and organisation of pastoral support as well as being full of practical ideas for tutors to use in tutor time. The chapters include: Establishing Routines; The Self Managing Tutor Group; How to Help and Support Individuals; Engaging Parents and Carers; and, Tutoring Over a Whole Year. There is also a Resource Section and CD-ROM which includes a PowerPoint for staff training, proformas for gathering information for parent's evenings and examples of practical activities such as, Jigsaw, Diamond Nine and Hot Seating, as well as useful books and organisations. One secondary academy head wrote, 'I really like it! It is very fresh, practical and full of wisdom. I like the whole section on parental engagement and all the games suggestions, really clear and so simple to pick up and use. And the calendar of the year with tutorial themes is great! But of most use to me and my school is the opening section on routines, expectations and setting the scene, fantastically useful reminders. Thank you so much, this will be my tutorial bible'
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Im Beitrag wird eine an zwei jeweils in Berlin und London gelegenen Grundschulen durchgeführte Studie zu Beziehungen zwischen Lehrer*innen und Schüler*innen skizziert. Diese Beziehungen wurden als Anerkennungsverhältnisse analysiert, wobei neben praxistheoretischen Überlegungen die Anerkennungstheorie Judith Butlers zentraler theoretischer Bezugspunkt war. Das ethnografische Erhebungsdesign umfasste Beobachtungen, Videographien, Gruppendiskussionen, Interviews, Dokumentenanalysen sowie Analysen von Feed-Back-Gesprächen. Auf dieser Basis wurden implizite und explizite Normen der Anerkennung, die die Beziehungen zwischen Lehrkräften und Schüler*innen an den beiden Schulen rahmten, unter Bezug auf die dokumentarische Methode rekonstruiert und vergleichend analysiert.
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Article
Care' has been the focus of much sociological and policy related research in the last decade. However, a review of this research literature reveals that the concept of `care' is not uniformly defined, nor is its epistemological status clear. This paper explores the problematic nature of the concept of care in sociological research. In the first section, concepts of care characteristic of 1980s research are deconstructed and compared. This demonstrates their variable and partial character. The second section contrasts the ways in which feminist writers Hilary Graham (1991) and Clare Ungerson (1990) have recently begun to recon- ceptualise care. It is argued that these authors are working along quite different conceptual paths, and that neither reconceptualisation transcends the problem of the partiality of preceding concepts of care. In section three, a unified concept of care is introduced and the question of the theoretical status of the category `care' is addressed.
Article
Peter Sharp, an Educational Psychologist, explains how Daniel Goleman’s best selling book focused his interest on the idea of emotional literacy; how he found that interest was shared by Southampton’s Education Services Chief Inspector and that, as a result of this, emotional literacy became one of the Authority’s priorities. The wide range of initiatives currently taking place in Southampton are described as the broad way in which the concerns of emotional literacy are interpreted. The Southampton approach has already created interest among other LEAs and there are plans to produce supportive materials. The paper concludes by suggesting the way in which schools might start work in this area.
Article
The term ‘pastor’ clearly has a religious origin and is thought of in connection with providing spiritual sustenance. Such provision must be seen in relation to some concept of authority since the pastor's job could otherwise not be done. It is likely that the connotation of a pastor in the religious sense has been carried over to the schools, especially when it is considered that schools are traditionally structures of authority. What is necessary is to insist upon the conceptual link between ‘pastoral care’ and ‘authority’ explicitly, so as to judge the final appropriateness of ‘pastoral care’ in schools.
Article
A ‘social pedagogy’ approach is increasingly being adopted by professional agencies in the United Kingdom involved in dealing with the welfare, care and education of children. This paper argues that, in the context of schools, social pedagogy can be characterised as taking an integrated view of the needs of the whole child in terms of five key dimensions: care and welfare; inclusion; socialisation; academic support; and social education. Whether or not these changes in professional practice lead to the widespread employment of a professional called a ‘social pedagogue’ remains to be seen. However, integrated working practices have already had an impact on how teachers are expected to deal with the needs of pupils identified as giving a cause for concern.
Article
Welfare states are highly innovative when it comes to dealing with care. The range of policies in place across nations is striking as is the degree to which making provision for care cuts across long-standing principles of social provision. This article focuses on care as a policy good, identifying care as an inherently social activity and linking it with different manifestations in and anticipated outcomes of public policy. Care is developed here as one of the key activities connecting state and society. Making provision for care, it is argued, affects a whole series of societal settlements. A consideration of a number of such settlements helps to identify factors which must be taken into account when we assay the relationship between public policy, care and society. The following are primary considerations: choices around receiving care, the choice to give care, gender equity, the legitimising of care, the welfare mix, public as against private expenditure, the demand for and supply of paid and unpaid labour. Having considered some of the main variations which are to be found in European welfare states' handling of care, the article goes on to conjecture about possible outcomes of a range of policy responses on the basis of the above considerations. All provisions have particular strengths and weaknesses but ‘quality’, understood in a broad sense, is elusive to any single measure.
Article
This paper discusses particular recent developments which have significant implications for the place and priority given to different aspects or forms of affective education in the school curriculum in England and Wales. The author explores key questions. The first is: To what extent do recent developments in citizenship education constitute a significant break with tradition? Are we presented with ‘old wine in new bottles’, or ‘Is this a new vintage?’ The second is: How might the ‘re-discovery’ of citizenship education as a curriculum priority at the level of national government be explained and in what ways is it problematic?
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Leading a pastoral team
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Caring about learning The affective dimension: European perspectives
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A caring society? Care and the dilemmas of human service in the 21st century
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