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Cortinarius hesleri from eastern North America and related species from Europe and western North America

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The following four species of Cortinarius are presented: Cortinarius californicus and Cortinarius hesleri from North America and Cortinarius cinnabarinus and Cortinarius coccineus from Europe. Cortinarius cinnabarinus and C. coccineus form a clade with C. bulliardii, whereas C. californicus and C. hesleri form a clade with C. colymbadinus. An epitype is selected for C. cinnabarinus, and Cortinarius hesleri is described as a new species from eastern North America.
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... Moreover, Cortinarius colus is a species found in pine forests while C. bulliardii is normally associated with Corylus, Quercus and Fagus. Other closely related species to C. bulliardii are C. cinnabarinus Fr. and C. coccineus Reumaux, which are mostly found in mixed forests of hardwoods in Europe [23]. These two species are regarded as the orange-to-orange red species of subgenus Telamonia [23]. ...
... Other closely related species to C. bulliardii are C. cinnabarinus Fr. and C. coccineus Reumaux, which are mostly found in mixed forests of hardwoods in Europe [23]. These two species are regarded as the orange-to-orange red species of subgenus Telamonia [23]. Cortinarius cinnabarinus has a cinnabar red to brownish red whole fruiting body, brownish red flesh, and smaller spores, while C. bulliardii is recognized by saturated red brown cap, cinnabar red base of its stipe, grayish brown flesh and larger spores [17]. ...
... Cortinarius cinnabarinus has a cinnabar red to brownish red whole fruiting body, brownish red flesh, and smaller spores, while C. bulliardii is recognized by saturated red brown cap, cinnabar red base of its stipe, grayish brown flesh and larger spores [17]. Cortinarius coccineus also differs from C. bulliardii by its dull reddish to dark brown or blackish lamellae, strongly orange red stipe, and smaller spores [23,24]. ...
... This approach and level of grouping mainly corresponds to the concepts previously used to delimit the sections in the genus Cortinarius in the era of molecular data (e.g. Ammirati et al. 2013Ammirati et al. , 2017Dima et al. 2014;Liimatainen et al. 2015Liimatainen et al. , 2017Liimatainen et al. , 2020Niskanen et al. 2009Niskanen et al. , 2011Niskanen et al. , 2013San Fabian et al. 2018;Soop et al. 2019). ...
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So far approximately 144,000 species of fungi have been named but sequences of the majority of them do not exist in the public databases. Therefore, the quality and coverage of public barcode databases is a bottleneck that hinders the study of fungi. Cortinarius is the largest genus of Agaricales with thousands of species worldwide. The most diverse subgenus in Cortinarius is Telamonia and its species have been considered one of the most taxonomically challenging in the Agaricales. Its high diversity combined with convergent, similar appearing taxa have earned it a reputation of being an impossible group to study. In this study a total of 746 specimens, including 482 type specimens representing 184 species were sequenced. Also, a significant number of old types were successfully sequenced, 105 type specimens were over 50 years old and 18 type specimens over 100 years old. Altogether, 20 epi-or neotypes are proposed for recently commonly used older names. Our study doubles the number of reliable DNA-barcodes of species of C. subgenus Telamonia in the public sequence databases. This is also the first extensive phylogenetic study of the subgenus. A majority of the sections and species are shown in a phylogenetic context for the first time. Our study shows that nomenclatural problems, even in difficult groups like C. subgenus Telamonia, can be solved and consequently identification of species based on ITS barcodes becomes an easy task even for non-experts of the genus.
... On the other hand, it is evident from the cited works, as well as from other studies (Peintner et al. 2004, Garnica et al. 2005, Stensrud et al. 2014, Soop 2016, Soop et al. 2018, that the genus contains many lineages that are shared between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as others that appear to be endemic to either. They are often also widely distributed within their hemispheres; for example, a substantial number of clades are shared between North America and Europe (Garnica et al. 2011, Harrower et al. 2011, Niskanen et al. 2012, Ammirati et al. 2013. One notes, however, that so far little has been done on the Cortinarius taxonomy in north-eastern Asia and in Africa, leaving an important gap in our knowledge of the genus (cf. ...
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A section-based taxonomy of Cortinarius, covering large parts of the temperate North and South Hemispheres, is presented. Thirty-seven previously described sections are reviewed, while another forty-two sections are proposed as new or as new combinations. Twenty additional clades are recovered but not formally described. Furthermore, six new or combined species names are introduced, and one species is neotypified. The structure is supported by morphological characters and molecular evidence, based on two (nrITS and nrLSU) and four (nrITS, nrLSU, rpb1 and rpb2) loci datasets and analysed by Maximum Likelihood methods (PhyML, RAxML). Altogether 789 Cortinarius samples were included in the study.
... BLAST (Altschul et al., 1997) was used to select the most closely related ITS rDNA sequences from INSD public databases. Sequences came mainly from Peintner et al. (2003), Kytövuori et al. (2005), Niskanen et al. (2006Niskanen et al. ( , 2013, Ammirati et al. (2013), Dima et al. (2014), andBrandrud et al. (2015). Sequences first were aligned in MEGA 5.0 software (Tamura et al., 2011) with its Clustal W application and then corrected manually. ...
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Cortinarius conicoumbonatus is described as new to science based on the material collected from spruce-beech forests of Maçka, Trabzon, Turkey. The new species belongs to subgenus Telamonia section Hinnulei. A full description, in situ and micro morphological illustrations, a phylogenetic tree and a short discussion are provided.
... Furthermore we found another species level clade clustered in the section Cinnabarini, identified also as C. bulliardii from Italy (Osmundson et al. 2013), and we used the temporary name "C. bulliardii II" for this. Until the typification of the name C. bulliardii is completed, we followed the widely accepted concept of the species based on Brandrud et al. (1990), and Ammirati et al. (2013). Our phylogenetic analysis showed that our concept of C. bulliardii is divergent both from "C. bulliardii II" as well as "C. ...
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A new species of Cortinarius, C. longistipitatus, in subgenus Telamonia sect. Cinnabarini, is described and illustrated based on collections from northern Pakistan. The dark brown to blackish brown coloration of the pileus, the extraordinary long, equal to bulbous stipe, the red universal veil remnants on the stipe base and its occurrence in conifer forests make it a remarkably distinct species in the field. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene was amplified. The evolutionary relationship of the species was inferred by means of Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis which revealed that C. longistipitatus is distinct from other Cortinarius species.
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Cortinarius dibaphus, an uncommon to rare species in Europe where it is known mainly from Abies alba forest, is reported as a new from Turkey based on morphology and nrITS sequence analyses. It was found in the forest under Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, which is a new host. Comprehensive description of the morphological characters, macro and microphotographs of this species are provided, and comparisons with phenologically similar and phylogenetically related species are discussed.
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Antecedentes y Objetivos: El género Cortinarius está constituido por hongos ectomicorrícicos caracterizados por un velo parcial a modo de “cortina” aracnoide, esporada, color marrón óxido a marrón anaranjado ocráceo y basidiosporas rugosas, arrugadas o verrugosas y sin poro apical. Cortinarius hesleri se ubica en el subgénero Telamonia; se reconoce principalmente por sus basidiomas de colores que abarcan desde los tonos rojos a los anaranjados. Se encuentra distribuida en Norteamérica en Canadá y los Estados Unidos de América. Los inventarios fúngicos facilitan el reconocimiento de especies para una determinada área geográfica. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a C. hesleri como primer registro para México. Métodos: Se recolectaron especímenes en los bosques de Quercus del municipio Victoria en el estado de Tamaulipas, México. Se elaboró una descripción macro y micromorfólogica de la especie, se tomaron fotografías macroscópicas in situ y fotografías e ilustraciones de las estructuras microscópicas, para su posterior análisis e identificación taxonómica mediante la literatura especializada correspondiente. Los ejemplares estudiados se depositaron en el herbario micológico José Castillo Tovar del Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad Victoria. Resultados clave: Los especímenes estudiados cumplen con las características de la descripción original de la especie, así mismo con las del hábitat al que está asociado y en el cual se distribuye. Cortinarius hesleri es descrita por primera vez para México. Se caracteriza por sus basidiomas de color anaranjado, esporas ornamentadas y elipsoides de (7-)8-10(-12) × (5-)5.5-7 µm y por su asociación con especies vegetales del bosque mixto de Quercus-Pinus. Conclusiones: Cortinarius hesleri se encuentra distribuido ampliamente desde la parte norte y este de Estados Unidos de América, alcanzando su distribución más meridional actualmente conocida en el estado de Tamaulipas en México. Por su potencial asociación ectomicorrícica con especies forestales de los géneros Quercus, Pinus y Carya, C. hesleri pudiera encontrarse distribuido junto a estas especies de plantas en otros sitios del noreste y la parte oriental hacia el sur de México.
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Cortinarius is probably the largest genus among macromycetes, with an estimated number of species being more than 3,000. The taxonomy is problematical with even experts having difficulty in identifying to species level or group. Most of the literature also provides a level of detail that beginners find excessive and confusing. «Guida introduttiva al genere Cortinarius in Europa» is aimed at those interested in these fungi, whether as a keen mycologist or from casual interest. It will enable them to identify the species described, using dichotomous keys, detailed descriptions and accompanying illustrations. The excellent artwork is by the talented Italian mushroom illustrator Riccardo Mazza. The treatment follows traditional lines but incorporates the results of recent phylogenetic studies, cross referenced to an extensive bibliography.
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Cortinarius is an important ectomycorrhizal genus that forms a symbiotic relationship with certain trees, shrubs and herbs. Recently, we began studying Cortinarius in China and here we describe three new species of Cortinarius subg. Telamonia based on morphological and ecological characteristics, together with phylogenetic analyses. Cortinarius laccariphyllus sp. nov. (section Colymbadini) is associated with broadleaf trees, with strongly hygrophanous basidiomata, special Laccaria -like lamellae and white and extremely sparse universal veil. Cortinarius neotorvus sp. nov. (section Telamonia) is associated with broadleaf trees and is easily confused with C. torvus , but can be distinguished by the colour of the fresh basidiomes and the stipe usually somewhat tapering towards the base. Cortinarius subfuscoperonatus sp. nov. (section Fuscoperonati) is associated with coniferous trees, with subglobose to broadly ellipsoid spores and is closely related to C. fuscoperonatus . A key to the new species and similar species in sections Colymbadini , Telamonia and Fuscoperonati is provided.
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