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Abstract

The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

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... While emissions from vehicles contribute the maximum to PM 2.5 in Guwahati (35%), Thiruvananthapuram (60%), Jaipur (38%), and Pune (35%), industrial emissions dominate the PM 2.5 sources in Nagpur (83%), Ahmedabad (63%), Kolkata (54%), Amritsar (32%), and Hyderabad (28%), while road dust is the major PM 2.5 contributor in Jodhpur (42%). Guttikunda et al. (2014) observed that one of the major sources of PM 10 is road dust, and it can account for up to 30-40% of the PM 10 pollution in most cities. Figure 1 also shows the sources of PM 10 in 11 cities of India based on data from UrbanEmissions.info. It can be seen that the major contribution to PM 10 is road dust and construction activities. ...
... In Ahmedabad, the major sources of PM 10 are road dust (45%) and industrial emissions (39%). In Delhi, the road dust and construction activities contribute 45% of the PM 10 , followed by 17% from burning of waste (agricultural and domestic waste) and 14% from vehicular emissions (Guttikunda et al., 2014). ...
... Vol.: (0123456789) by vehicles (Guttikunda et al., 2014), so then we can expect some decrease in the concentration of PM 10 during the lockdown just due to reduction in vehicular emissions neglecting effects of dilution, oxidation, and other seasonal/meteorological impacts. Further, the restriction on vehicular transport has an additional impact on road dust resuspension in addition to reduced tail-pipe emissions. ...
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Most of the published articles which document changes in atmospheric compositions during the various lockdown and unlock phases of COVID-19 pandemic have made a direct comparison to a reference point (which may be 1 year apart) for attribution of the COVID-mediated lockdown impact on atmospheric composition. In the present study, we offer a better attribution of the lockdown impacts by also considering the effect of meteorology and seasonality. We decrease the temporal distance between the impacted and reference points by considering the difference of adjacent periods first and then comparing the impacted point to the mean of several reference points in the previous years. Additionally, we conduct a multi-station analysis to get a holistic effect of the different climatic and emission regimes. In several places in eastern and coastal India, the seasonally induced changes already pointed to a decrease in PM concentrations based on the previous year data; hence, the actual decrease due to lockdown would be much less than that observed just on the basis of difference of concentrations between subsequent periods. In contrast, northern Indian stations would normally show an increase in PM concentration at the time of the year when lockdown was effected; hence, actual lockdown-induced change would be in surplus of the observed change. The impact of wind-borne transport of pollutants to the study sites dominates over the dilution effects. Box model simulations point to a VOC-sensitive composition.
... Also, increased emissions from industries to satisfy human needs; and vehicular emissions and emissions from power plants have led to deterioration in air quality (Choochuay et al. 2020a, b;Raffee et al. 2018). According to research reports, the increased concentration of fine dust in ambient air due to aforementioned factors is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide (Kim et al. 2016).Furthermore, premature deaths in India continued as a result of exposure to particulate matter and ozone pollution outdoors (Guttikunda et al. 2014). Therefore, this work aims to present the development of air pollution by fine dust in selected cities; New Delhi, Beijing, and Addis Ababa. ...
... Furthermore, severe air pollution episodes were observed in New Delhi during 1-7 November 2016 (Kanawade et al. 2020). In New Delhi, local sources contribute to more than 70% of total PM 2.5 , but the nonlocal sources are still important (over 30%) especially in winter (Guo et al. 2019).Expected growth in many sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) increases the health impacts for most cities (Garg 2011;Guttikunda et al. 2014).These increased level of particulate pollution could suggest that global burden of disease report estimated around 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India (Guttikunda et al. 2014). Similarly, long-term effects of ambient air pollution associated with deficit lung function, asthma, heart attack, cardiovascular mortality and premature mortality have received much attention (Rajak and Chattopadhyay 2019). ...
... Furthermore, severe air pollution episodes were observed in New Delhi during 1-7 November 2016 (Kanawade et al. 2020). In New Delhi, local sources contribute to more than 70% of total PM 2.5 , but the nonlocal sources are still important (over 30%) especially in winter (Guo et al. 2019).Expected growth in many sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) increases the health impacts for most cities (Garg 2011;Guttikunda et al. 2014).These increased level of particulate pollution could suggest that global burden of disease report estimated around 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India (Guttikunda et al. 2014). Similarly, long-term effects of ambient air pollution associated with deficit lung function, asthma, heart attack, cardiovascular mortality and premature mortality have received much attention (Rajak and Chattopadhyay 2019). ...
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Air pollution has serious consequences for human health and the environment in general. Currently, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) concentrations are a set of air pollution issues made up of the most common traditional pollutants. This study was designed to examine the potential impact of PM 2.5 on human health in the cities of Addis Ababa, Beijing, and New Delhi from August 2016 to May 2021. Data was collected from the AirNow.gov website and data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Performed in Excel 2016. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the mean air quality index and the concentration of PM 2.5. The Origin Pro 9 software was used to draw curves. The AQI analysis during the study period found that 37.6%, 26.5%, and 2.8% of the population in the cities of New Delhi, Beijing, and Addis Ababa have unhealthy levels of concern, respectively. In addition, the average annual concentrations of PM 2.5 were 107.1 µg/m 3 , 51.5 µg/m 3 and 23.6 µg/ m 3 in the cities of New Delhi, Beijing, and Addis Ababa. Comparison of the frequency distribution between expected and actual value using the Q-Q plot showed that in the selected cities the expected values was overestimated compared to the actual values. Furthermore, the findings of this study revealed that PM 2.5 pollution decreased in the cities analyzed in the order of New Delhi, Beijing, and Addis Ababa. Therefore, the authors suggest mitigation of air pollution in the cities under study and community awareness activities to build an effective air quality management plan in the study areas.
... 7 Recently, however, there have been studies reporting estimated global and local emissions of air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste. 7,8,[10][11][12][13] The emissions of PM 10 , CO and non-methane organic compound (NMOC) from open domestic waste burning in China have been reported to be equivalent to 22%, 10% and 9% of China's total reported anthropogenic PM 10 , CO and NMOC emissions. 10 Similarly, one study targeting India and Nepal showed that garbage burning emissions could increase PM 2.5 concentrations by nearly 30%. ...
... Those aged 18 to 29 were the most common with 46.7%, and those over 50 were 6.6%. Respondents' average educational attainment was 11 (±3.97) years and was divided by lower secondary (0-8 years), secondary (9-10), higher secondary (11)(12) and tertiary school (! 13). The average monthly household income for the interviewees was 41,801 (±25,523.6) ...
... This is a very brief breakdown of a number of air pollutant sources into four categories; however, it contains prevalent air pollutant sources including road dust and open waste burning in developing countries. 11,12,17 The main roads in Pokhara are paved but sidewalks around the main roads or the small roads behind the main roads are largely unpaved causing road dust to be piled on open shops and restaurants or inside home. In Nepal, indoor air conditioning systems are seldom equipped in homes and small-scale commercial and industrial establishments, so the windows or doors are often open. ...
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A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Pokhara, Nepal between February 3 and 12, 2018 to determine whether air pollution-related perceptions led to a reduction in open burning of waste. Of the 394 people interviewed, 58.3% expressed their concerns about health risks due to air quality. Multiple logistic regression identified that perceived health risk (AOR, 5.70; 95% CI, 3.44–9.45) was a significant predictor of refraining from actions that increase air pollution. While 90.6% of people used trash lorry to dispose domestic waste, 40.6% treated domestic waste by open burning. Unexpectedly, a high level of perceived health risks (AOR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.02–2.91), a high rated contribution of open waste burning to air pollution (AOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.78), and frequent refraining from actions that increase air pollution (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08–2.94) were significant predictors of frequent open waste burning. The results implied urgent need for improvement in waste collection efficiency and raising awareness of health risks of open waste burning.
... On the contrary, the average AQI value of Chennai demonstrated an unusual increase of 35.38% and 16.92% from 65 (satisfactory) of pre-lockdown to 88 and 76 (satisfactory) in the lockdown-4 and unlock phase (Figs. 1 and 5). This unusual trend in Chennai might be correlated with the sudden increase in the concentrations of PM 10 and O 3 during the later phase of the lockdown and unlock. In Hyderabad too, the decreasing trends in the average AQI value were slightly changed to 96 (satisfactory) in lockdown-4 (3.22% increment) only but again recovered to 45 (good) during the unlock as compared to the average AQI value of 93 (satisfactory) in the In the East Indian cities, the average AQI values demonstrated almost similar trends to the North Indian region, and decreased by 42-60.9% ...
... Following the results obtained for all the studied cities throughout India, it is evident that the significant The air quality in most of the Indian cities generally surpasses the NAAQS because of the poor and inconsistent management and policies of the central and state governments, diverse anthropogenic activities, and uncontrolled pollution sources. Studies reported constant higher concentrations of PM 2.5 , PM 10, and NO 2 over several Indian cities [10]. The differences in air quality improvement ratio in different cities across six Indian regions during lockdown might result due to various reasons including population density, traffic density, local emission patterns, industrial and power plant emissions, meteorology, and cross-states transport of pollutants. ...
... In spite of the increase in vehicular movements and industrial operations during unlock (Table 1); the concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 10 decreased significantly than the pre-lockdown which might be due to rainfall [20]. The rainfall from the South-West monsoon in the unlock period across the Indian cities has significantly washed off PM 2.5 and PM 10 . There was a negative correlation between PM 2.5 and the amount of rainfall that demonstrated the function of the washing process [21]. ...
Article
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Air pollution is a serious concern with the developing economics in India and gets more severe when it has major cities ranked among the top 30 polluted cities worldwide. To find a solution, different programs and/or policies have been launched for air quality management country-wide. Unfortunately, no such plan could effectively solve the purpose rather than an unexpected COVID-19 pandemic situation in India. Our study focused on the air pollution status and air quality index (AQI) in 42 cities (that includes 6 metros) representing North, South, East, West, Central, and North-East region of India during the pre-lockdown, four lockdowns and unlock phases. The results depict most of the pollutants except ozone (O3) were significantly reduced in the lockdown-1, and marginally increased in subsequent lockdown phases. Regarding the average AQI, its value was highest in North Indian cities (227), followed by East India (172), Central India (141), North-East India (130), West India (124), and South India (83) during the pre-lockdown. Due to COVID-19 induced lockdown, North Indian cities observed the highest dip in average AQI (108), followed by Central India (113), East India (82), West India (73), South India (55), and North-East India (49) in the lockdown and unlock phases. Thus, the study gave a conspicuous vision on mitigation of air pollution under this pandemic; and, if strategic centralized policies are sensibly implemented and by involving the participation of people of India, then there is a feasibility of air pollution issue management.
... As per the recent World Health Organization air quality guidelines, the safer level of ambient PM2.5 is 15 µg m -3 for daily average exposure and 5 µg m -3 for annual average exposure (WHO, 2021). Several studies have provided evidence for both acute and chronic health effects of PM2.5 (Kampa and Castanas, 2008;Cohen et al., 2005;Wong et al., 2008;Laumbach and Kipen, 2012;Guttikunda et al., 2014;Vos et al., 2017). In the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2016 urban air quality assessment report, 13 out of the top 20 most polluted cities are located in India (Guttikunda et al., 2014;WHO, 2016). ...
... Several studies have provided evidence for both acute and chronic health effects of PM2.5 (Kampa and Castanas, 2008;Cohen et al., 2005;Wong et al., 2008;Laumbach and Kipen, 2012;Guttikunda et al., 2014;Vos et al., 2017). In the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2016 urban air quality assessment report, 13 out of the top 20 most polluted cities are located in India (Guttikunda et al., 2014;WHO, 2016). In 2010, the mean concentrations of ambient (PM) over 180 Indian cities were about six times higher than the WHO standard (Greenstone and Pande, 2014). ...
... Regarding research on transport infrastructure and environmental pollution, many scholars have demonstrated that transport infrastructure has significant negative impacts on the environment in terms of air pollution [6], traffic pollution [14], and carbon emissions [15,16]. One study also found an inverted "U"-shaped relationship between traffic density and urban smog in large and medium-sized cities, and direct emissions were an important channel through which traffic density affected smog formation [17]. ...
... It has also been found that the improvement of transport infrastructure triggers the inter-regional movement of elements, which has an impact on environmental pollution [5]. Although many researchers have found that the construction of transport infrastructure has a significant negative impact on environmental pollution (air pollution, carbon emissions, traffic pollution, etc.) [6,[14][15][16], there have been fewer studies on the impact of regional industrial pollution. The improvement in transport infrastructure has accelerated China's industrialization, and industrialization has driven rapid economic growth, but this has been accompanied by serious industrial pollution [38]. ...
Article
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To achieve high-quality development, transport infrastructure will play a crucial role in China’s economic growth, but its damage to the ecological environment has not been paid enough attention. This study was based on panel data for 30 Chinese provinces for the period of 2004–2017. A comprehensive index system for high-quality development based on the new development concept was developed. This high-quality development index used the entropy weight method and integrated transport infrastructure, high-quality development, and industrial pollution into a comprehensive framework, and systematically examined the effects of transport infrastructure and high-quality development on industrial pollution emissions. It was found that transport infrastructure significantly contributed to industrial pollution emissions, and there was a regional heterogeneity and time lag, with high-quality development and industrial pollution having an inverted “U”-shaped relationship. Further analysis showed that transport infrastructure significantly affected high-quality development and industrial pollution through industrial agglomeration, reduced the inhibitory effect on high-quality development by promoting industrial agglomeration, and reduced industrial pollution emissions by promoting industrial agglomeration.
... Life cycle emission model [195], 2014 Air quality monitoring in Indian cities, health impact, clean energy. ...
... The toxic gas resulting from air pollution has forced certain governments to take necessary action to review the situation seriously and think of a new technology that provides emission-free transportation. In a 2014 assessment, the World Health Organization (WHO) named New Delhi as one of the top ten world cities with the worst air pollution [195]. The paper [6] reviews several stages in EV lifespan and recommends suitable policies to lower emissions in transportation, along with the case study of the national capital New Delhi. ...
Article
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The automobile sector is a promising avenue for enhancing energy security, economic opportunity, and air quality in India. Before penetrating a large number of electric vehicles (EV) into the power grid, a thorough investigation and assessment of significant parameters are required, as additional nonlinear and EV loads are linked to the decentralized market. Many automobile companies have already invested in electric vehicle research; hence, a detailed analysis on range anxiety and grid connectivity concerns are the important factors affecting the future of the electric vehicle industry. In this paper, the initial review is about the decentralized market in India and sustainable aspects of electric mobility based on the Indian context, as it is a developing nation with an enormous resource and scope for EV markets. With recent literature from the last three years, the substantial constraints observed in benefits and challenges are reviewed. The financial stability aspects and the incentives to overcome the barriers to EV adoption are briefly discussed. From the review, it has come to the limelight that infrastructure availability, technology, load demand, and consumer behaviour are all major obstacles in the electric vehicle ecosystem. For the overall design and study of the vehicle to grid (V2G) infrastructure, this paper also provides insight into the representation of electric vehicles in different energy-efficient models and their categorization while connecting to the grid. The methodology adopted for energy-efficient models includes lifecycle emissions, economy, smart charging, real-time optimization, aggregated EV resource modelling, and a support vector machine (SVM)-based method. This paper gives a positive impact on EV fleet integration and electric mobility in general, as it critically reviews the influential parameters and challenges. This classification depends on crucial parameters that are at the frontline of EV grid integration research. This review is a solution to enhance grid stability in regard to new EV models. With the advanced electric motors development and renewed battery technology models, longer-distance automobiles are now available on the market. This paper investigates the constraints of EV grid integration and analyzes different EV models to ease the grid stability for a decentralized market.
... There is an acute need to increase the monitoring programs across all cities and publicly disseminate the information. While the monitoring stations can be established, legislations amended, and standards improved, these efforts will be wasted if the regular dissemination of the information is not practiced to raise awareness for pollution control (Guttikunda et al., 2014). Governments should spread sufficient information, educate people, and involve professionals in these issues to successfully control the problem's emergence (Manisalidis et al., 2020). ...
... It is also a multidimensional notion that no single socioeconomic variable (education, occupation, assets, income), considered alone, can capture (Laurent et al., 2007), which can be achieved by launching an awareness program. Two challenges that have emerged for better air quality in Indian cities are the need to secure greater public awareness of the problems and commitment to action at civic, commercial, and political levels and to ensure that action to tackle air pollution is seen in the context of wider social and economic development policies (Guttikunda et al., 2014). In another study (Wu et al., 2020) reported that health care investment could help the countries for sustainable development in Bangladesh and India. ...
Article
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The economic loss attributable to air pollution and associated disease burden is increasing in polluted megacities all over the globe; Indian megacities are no exception. India has launched the System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) framework to provide air pollution health advisories well in advance through various outreach activities. We hereby estimate the economic benefit of SAFAR outreach attributed to prevention by intervention through an early warning based on a probabilistic scenario adopted in this work for the top two megacities of India, namely, Delhi and Pune, for the period 2011-2012 to 2019-2020 and 2014-2015 to 2019-2020 respectively. This study considers the cost-saving in pulmonary (Asthma, COPD, etc.) and other related diseases linked to air pollution. Results show that the annual average total cost of all diseases in Pune and Delhi is INR 9,480 million and INR 76,940 million respectively. We found that the total annual treatment cost of Allergic rhinitis OPD treatment cost was the highest (INR 14,490 Million) followed by asthma (INR 10,010 Million), and COPD (INR 5,140 Million) in Delhi during the year 2012. In Pune, annual treatment costs of Allergic Rhinitis, COPD and Asthma were INR 3,590, 890 and 710 Million respectively during the year 2015. SAFAR framework can make average annual savings of ≃INR 10,960 million in Delhi and ≃INR 1,000 million in Pune in the health sector, even if only 5% of the total affected sick population takes advantage of its services. Looking at the huge economic benefits, it is envisaged that the SAFAR framework model may be replicated in many more cities along with other mitigation measures rigorously.
... Of more local and immediate concern is air quality in India, especially within cities that are amongst the most polluted in the world [2,6,8]. Poor air quality is adversely affecting human health and therefore strategies have been proposed, and are being implemented, to reduce emissions of CO, NO X , sulfur compounds and particulates [9][10][11]. These previous strategies propose cleaner burning engines, cleaner burning fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and promotion of public transport. ...
Article
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By considering the weight penalty of batteries on payload and total vehicle weight, this paper shows that almost all forms of land-based transport may be served by battery electric vehicles (BEV) with acceptable cost and driving range. Only long-distance road freight is unsuitable for battery electrification. The paper models the future Indian electricity grid supplied entirely by low-carbon forms of generation to quantify the additional solar PV power required to supply energy for transport. Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis for use as a fuel for road freight provides an inter-seasonal energy store that accommodates variations in renewable energy supply. The advantages and disadvantages are considered of midday electric vehicle charging vs. overnight charging considering the temporal variations in supply of renewable energy and demand for transport services. There appears to be little to choose between these two options in terms of total system costs. The result is an energy scenario for decarbonized surface transport in India, based on renewable energy, that is possible, realistically achievable, and affordable in a time frame of year 2050.
... However, the net warming effects of aerosol reduction may offset the cooling effects of greenhouse gas emission restrictions, which will exert a serious burden on the global or regional eco-environment under a warming climate (Najafi et al., 2015). On the other hand, there is serious air pollution in India, which faces a risk of worsening pollution due to the great and positive aerosol variation (Guttikunda et al., 2014). Furthermore, the results of this study clearly show that the variation is affected by initial aerosol, air temperature and surface temperature in North America and western Europe ( Figure 3B,D, and E, suggesting the combined influences of aerosol-climate FIGURE 4 | Statistics of aerosol variation and characteristics in different climate zones. ...
Article
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The aerosol at the previous time (initial aerosol) and climate conditions control the next step annual variation of global air pollution through the complex aerosol-climate interaction. However, the individual influences remain unclear, leaving a great gap for understanding the mechanism of air pollution evolution and supporting the environment management. We estimate the annual variation using statistical methods and satellite observations at global scale from 2001 to 2016 Results show that significant variation of annual aerosol occurs over 13.6% of land areas, in which a perturbation of aerosol may cause 0.58 ± 0.45 times change in the next phase. Initial aerosol and climate influences contribute 48.4–51.6% of the total variation, respectively. Specifically, the influences of precipitation, air temperature and surface temperature represent 0.1, 18.3 and 33.2% of the total variation. Physically, the observed variation is strongly correlated with fine mode aerosols, radiative scattering and warm/hot summers in temperate and cold zones. The environmental management therefore should implement cause-oriented strategies for emission control or climatic adaption.
... The increased use of Pb-emitting raw materials and vehicles in past 15y suppressed the positive effect on the phasing-out of leaded petroleum. Göckede et al., 2010;Guttikunda et al., 2014;Slørdal et al., 2007;Vallius et al., 2003;Viana et al., 2006; Road transport yearbook, 2016 ...
Article
This study presents a simulation-based inversion model to estimate the quantitative contribution of Pb from differentsource materials to aerosols using a set of environmental proxies (²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁷Pb and ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁶Pb). The proposed modeluses location-specificdataset (²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁷Pbaerosol and ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁶Pbaerosol) and a model parameter (a priori)that includesPb isotopic composition of source materials and their fractional contribution to aerosol. Variability of Pb sources oftencausesa large spread ina priorivalues,resulting in erroneous interpretation. The proposed inversion model provides a means to obtain error-optimized and statistically best-fit values for the model parameter(a posteriori) therebyimproving our understanding of source apportionment.As an example, the inverse model was appliedin eastern India, where it estimated that Pb-ores, coal, and unleaded petroleum produced up to 46%, 39%, and 36% of atmospheric Pb, respectively. Counter to general belief, the model revealedthat a greater proportion of petroleum-derived Pbin the atmospherewas supplied bybituminous road (mechanical abrasion of road material) ratherthan direct usage ofpetrol and dieselas fuel. Increasing vehicle density and their activities on Indian roads (from 22 to 44 km⁻¹between the years 2005–2017) intensified Pb emissions from road materials to the atmosphere.The inversion model additionally exposedthe enormity of Pb contamination in the Indian atmosphere, where the sources such as vehicular emissions, road dust, and industrial emissions(petroleum and Pb-ores)contributed up to 65% of atmosphericPb.Together, model-derived results (ca. 90% anthropogenic Pb in aerosol), increased use of Pb-emitting raw materials and road vehicles, and the temporal distribution of Pb in aerosolsconfirm unrestrained Pb emissions continueinIndia despite the phasing-out of leaded petroleum.
... Therefore, the concern of vehicle pollution is not confined to mega-cities anymore. There are many studies which evaluate the status of vehicular pollution and control strategies in Indian mega-cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata 22,24 . Vehicular pollutions are becoming a major environmental issue in all size of Indian cities 9,10,48 . ...
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Roadway transport sector is one of the major contributors of atmospheric pollution. The study aims to understand the real time roadway pollution in megacities and medium sized Indian cities; therefore, the present study estimated on-road emission factors (EFs) and compared them with two other regulatory models for Delhi and Guwahati. Both the cities are different in traffic flow management strategies, traffic composition and vehicular density per 1000 population. Emission rate was found higher in Guwahati (17% to 38%) due to frequent stops-and-go patterns of driving profile and poor traffic flow management per vehicle as compared to Delhi, but overall roadway pollution load is higher in Delhi due to higher vehicular density. The real-time on-road EFs were compared with modelled EFs, estimated with two regulatory models International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model and COPERT-IV. The modelled EFs magnitude is lower than the real-time EFs. Pollutants HC, CO and CO2 were about 17% to 30% and 33% to 55% fewer from IVE and COPERT-IV respectively whereas NOx emissions are over predicted by both the models (COPERT-IV:-54% to-95% and IVE:-26% to-35%). Results demonstrate that efficient traffic flow management plays important role in reducing roadway pollution, which is major share of environmental pollution, but uncontrolled vehicular growth quickly offsets the benefit of emission control policies. Therefore, there is need for establishing equilibrium between emission control and vehicle growth rate in control policies for optimum benefits from policies for each city.
... This knowledge of air pollution and thier sources with potential interventions to curb air pollution may help to reduce the air pollution problem in long run. Several studies have been conducted to assess the contribution of various sources in air pollution and the most commanly identified sources are vehicles, manufacturing and electricity generation industries, construction activities, road dust, waste and agriculture burning, combustion of oil, coal and biomass in the households, and marine/sea salt (Guttikunda et al. 2014). A study was conducted by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in the year 2010 to understand the causes of urban air pollution and the results showed that there are other sources along with road transport that lead to air quality problems in the cities ( Figure 2).The Source Apportionment for Delhi from major sources to PM 10 pollution is given in Table 2. Population growth, rapid urbanization, industrialization and increasing economic activities have also contributed to an increase in the level of air pollution in the metropolitan cities, tier II cities, towns and villages. ...
Research
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Air pollution problem has become a major concern globally! High concentration of air pollutants are putting millions of people’s health at risk. India is one of the countries that is severely affected by air pollution. As many as 22 out of 30 most polluted cities in the world are located in India. Its adverse impact on population is pervasive; on human health, environment, economy and social well-being. Indian government has taken several initiatives to combat air pollution. Many other stakeholders such as NGO’s, international organisations etc. have joined to address this challenging situation. However, inspite of so many action plans and programs, the situation has not improved and has shown alarming trends. The discussion paper, draws attention to the issues that influence air pollution and highlights the various initiatives of the government and other actors. It underscores some of the important initiatives taken by different countries to combat air pollution. What are the measures we need to take to strengthen our fight against air pollution? What can be the lessons learnt from different countries that can be revisited in this context? What are the long-term pathways that the country has to take? The paper concludes with policy suggestions and recommendations.
... Downs' Law (Downs 1962) states that although road infrastructure improvements can initially improve traffic flow and reduce travel time, they also indirectly induce and transfer traffic demand, which will only generate more traffic volume. Therefore, increasing road supply will ultimately only worsen traffic congestion and further aggravate pollution (OECD and ECMT 2007;Guttikunda et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Achieving the “dual carbon” goal requires focusing on the issue of urban transportation carbon emissions. This study derives the mechanism of transportation infrastructure on urban carbon emissions and uses panel data from 284 cities in China from 2004 to 2017 as a basis for empirical analysis through the two-stage least squares method (2SLS). The results of the study show that the improvement of transportation infrastructure has a significant negative effect on the level of urban carbon emissions, and it is greater than the positive spillover of the increase in the number of motor vehicles on urban carbon emissions. Further, research has shown that improvement of transportation infrastructure has no significant impact on the purchase of motor vehicles; therefore, the transportation infrastructure will not affect the “induced traffic” through the purchase of motor vehicles, thereby further affecting the level of urban carbon emissions. The enlightenment of this article include the following: In urban planning and construction, attention should be paid to reducing urban carbon emissions by improving the construction of transportation infrastructure to help China achieve its carbon peak and carbon neutral goals at an early date.
... There are 22 Indian cities on the global list of the 30 most polluted cities. Apart from urban sources of air pollution, the burning of agricultural stubble in nearby rural areas also contributes to the burden of air pollution in Indian cities. In addition, in India all indicators of air pollution greatly exceed WHO standards [7], and concentrations are increasing [8]. Furthermore, African PM emissions often originate from old diesel-powered vehicles, and poor household waste management, and households burning biomass are the predominant contributors to outdoor air pollution [9]. ...
Article
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Cognitive function is a crucial determinant of human capital. The Lancet Commission (2020) has recognized air pollution as a risk factor for dementia. However, the scientific evidence on the impact of air pollution on cognitive outcomes across the life course and across different income settings, with varying levels of air pollution, needs further exploration. A systematic review was conducted, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines to assess the association between air pollution and cognitive outcomes across the life course with a plan to analyze findings as per the income status of the study population. The PubMed search included keywords related to cognition and to pollution (in their titles) to identify studies on human participants published in English until 10 July 2020. The search yielded 84 relevant studies that described associations between exposure to air pollutants and an increased risk of lower cognitive function among children and adolescents, cognitive impairment and decline among adults, and dementia among older adults with supportive evidence of neuroimaging and inflammatory biomarkers. No study from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)was identified despite high levels of air pollutants and high rates of dementia. To conclude, air pollution may impair cognitive function across the life-course, but a paucity of studies from reLMICs is a major lacuna in research.
... In India, air pollution is a cause of serious health problems.. Currently, India comprises 640 districts, of which 27% exceeded the annual standard value of 40 μg/m 3 in 1998 and 45% and 63% exceed the same in 2010 and 2016 of PM 2.5 . 99.5% of them exceed the WHO guideline of 10 μg/m3 in 2016 (Guttikunda et al. 2014;Guttikunda et al. 2019). For the ten most polluted cities in the world published by the World Health Organization, nine are from India (Yuda 2019). ...
Article
Abstract: India has the worst pollution status amongst all the polluted countries in the world, wherein several cities face severe environmental problems due to the rampant increase in pollution. For research investigation two cities, Gaya and Tirupati were selected to estimate the air pollution SO2 trends by three different modelling techniques: M5P and artificial neural network (ANN) and bagged artificial neural network (BANN). Both cities are cultural centres and important pilgrimage destinations in India. Data were collected with 340 observations for Gaya and 1477 observations for Tirupati between 2017 and 2020 from Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and used to generate the SO2 models. During the study, results of three models show that BANN is the best model for Gaya with coefficient correlation (CC) 0.8563, mean absolute error (MAE) 1.7575, root mean square error (RMSE) 2.9023, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) 0.7243, Willmott index (WI) 0.9154 and normalized root mean square error (SI) 0.2457 having a testing stage with input combinations, particulate matter (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS), wind direction (WD), solar radiation (SR), vertical wind speed (VWS) and absolute temperature (AT), and for Tirupati, also BANN is the best model with CC 0.8634, MAE 1.9088, RMSE 2.5891, NSE 0.7421, WI 0.9233 and SI 0.3409 having a testing stage with input combinations, PM2.5, NO, NO2, NOx, CO, O3, RH, WS, WD, SR, VWS, AT and SO2. The most influential parameters are WD and NO2 for Gaya and NO2 and O3 for Tirupati. Graphical results also confirm that BANN-based model is best performing for both cities Gaya and Tirupati.
... However, the impact of tourism traffic on the soil environment and vegetation diversity around the roads cannot be ignored [19]. Additionally, the transportation investments will also indirectly affect the expenditure of environmental protection projects, which affects the effectiveness of environmental protection [80]. (4) Distance to Residential Areas (DRA): An indicator used to describe the distance from the residential areas. ...
Article
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The healthy development of the ecosystem and tourism in destinations plays an essential role in sustainable development. Taking Shennongjia as an example, we analyzed the spatial–temporal variation in the ecosystem services value (ESV) and investigated the impacts of tourism on ESV and their spatial heterogeneity using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) and boosting regression tree (BRT) models. The results showed that (1) the types of ecosystem services (ESs) were dominated by climate regulation and biodiversity. The ESV increased from 3.358 billion yuan to 8.910 billion yuan from 2005 to 2018 and showed significant spatial divergence, maintaining a long-term distribution pattern of high in the center and low at the border. (2) The GWR and BRT results showed that the Distance to Scenic Spots (DSS) and the Distance to Residential Areas (DRA) are important factors influencing ESV, with the Distance to Hotels (DH) and the Distance to Roads (DR) having a relatively weak influence on ESV. (3) The influencing factors presented positive and negative effects, and the degree of influence has spatial heterogeneity. The DRA and DH inhibited the increase in ESV in nearby areas, while DR was the driving factor for increasing ESV. The assessment results of DSS vary according to the models.
... The results show that spatiotemporal distributions of PM 2.5 air pollution deeply depend on development level over the B&R region. Developing countries, such as India, China, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, have experienced heavy PM 2.5 pollution due to combustion-induced emissions from multiple sources, including household solid fuel use [28], coal-fired power plants, agricultural and open burning, as well as industrial and transportation-related sources [29][30][31]. During the study period, the PM 2.5 concentration and exposure in China showed a significantly decrease, and these effects are due to the Chinese government's long-term control policies, such as reducing emissions, use of cleaner energy, and industrial structure upgrading [32,33]. ...
Article
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Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause respiratory and heart diseases, which have a great negative impact on human health. While, as a fast-developing region, the Belt and Road (B&R) has suffered serious air pollution, more detailed information has not been revealed. This study aims to investigate the evolutionary relationships between PM2.5 air pollution and its population-weighted exposure level (PWEL) over the B&R based on satellite-derived PM2.5 concentration and to identify the key regions for exposure control in the future. For this, the study focused on the B&R region, covering 51 countries, ranging from developed to least developed levels, extensively evaluated the different development levels of PM2.5 concentrations during 2000–2020 by spatial-temporal trend analysis and bivariate spatial correlation, then identified the key regions with high risk under different levels of Air Quality Guidelines (AQG). Results show that the overall PM2.5 and PWEL of PM2.5 concentration remained stable. Developing countries presented with the heaviest PM2.5 pollution and highest value of PWEL of PM2.5 concentration, while least developed countries presented with the fastest increase of both PM2.5 and PWEL of PM2.5 concentration. Areas with a high level and rapid increase PWEL of PM2.5 concentration were mainly located in the developing countries of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan, the developed country of Saudi Arabia, and least developed countries of Yemen and Myanmar. The key regions at high risk were mainly on the Indian Peninsula, Arabian Peninsula, coastal area of the Persian Gulf, northwestern China, and North China Plain. The findings of this research would be beneficial to identify the spatial distributions of PM2.5 concentration exposure and offer suggestions for formulating policies for the prevention and control PM2.5 air pollution at regional scale by the governments.
... CNG is a suitable alternative to gasoline in the interest of abatement of emission and reducing fuel consumption. A few literature can also be found on economic feasibility and carbon cost associated with these fuels [21][22][23][24][25]. ...
Conference Paper
The application of alternative fuels in automobile engines is gaining more popularity among the scientific community than ever. Most of the research emphasis is on the performance and combustion aspect of the engine. The environmental and economic evaluation of these fuels is also equally important for sustainability, which is relatively unexplored and needs to be evaluated. The present work compares the environmental and economic aspects of a spark ignition (SI) engine fueled with gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG). To study the environmental impact, regulated and unregulated emissions coming out from the engine exhaust were compared. For economic assessment, annual fuel consumption and associated fuel cost were compared under similar engine operating conditions. The economic cost associated with the environmental impact was calculated based on carbon dioxide emissions and compared using carbon pricing. Experiments on an SI engine were performed at various engine loads to achieve a range of operating conditions to evaluate fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. Results show that a CNG fueled engine has 12.7% lower brake specific fuel consumption than the gasoline engine, which leads to 56% lower fuel cost. It is due to the cumulative effect of higher calorific value and the lower fuel price of CNG compared to gasoline. Additionally, average environment emission and associated cost due to carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduced by 29% using CNG over gasoline. This study shows that CNG can lead to lesser fuel consumption and its associated fuel and environment cost compared to gasoline.
... Other significant sources are heavy oil combustion, vehicular emission, coal combustion, and brick kilns, industrial (mainly leather tannery) emissions, and solid waste burning emissions at this site during wintertime (Choudhary et al., 2018;Rai et al., 2016;Singh et al., 2018;Rajeev et al., 2021;Singh et al., 2022). A previous survey from Allahabad city has reported that ~54% of households utilize two-wheelers and 11% utilize four-wheelers and 26% of households are dependent on bio-fuels, whereas, at Kanpur, the percentages are ~11%, 3% and 42%, respectively (Guttikunda et al., 2014). The combinations of mixed sources from primary emissions and secondary formation of light-absorbing WSOC can perturb these correlations (Srinivas et al., 2016). ...
Article
PM2.5 (particulate matter having aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) samples were collected during wintertime from two polluted urban sites (Allahabad and Kanpur) in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to comprehend the sources and atmospheric transformations of light-absorbing water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA). The aqueous extract of each filter was atomized and analyzed in a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and WSOA concentrations at Kanpur were ∼1.2 and ∼1.5 times higher than that at Allahabad. The fractions of WSOC and secondary organic carbon (SOC) to total organic carbon (OC) were also significantly higher ∼53% and 38%, respectively at Kanpur compared to Allahabad. This indicates a higher abundance of oxidized WSOA at Kanpur. The absorption coefficient (babs-365) of light-absorbing WSOA measured at 365 nm was 46.5 ± 15.5 Mm−1 and 73.2 ± 21.6 Mm−1 in Allahabad and Kanpur, respectively, indicating the dominance of more light-absorbing fractions in WSOC at Kanpur. The absorption properties such as mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) and imaginary component of refractive index (kabs-365) at 365 nm at Kanpur were also comparatively higher than Allahabad. The absorption forcing efficiency (Abs SFE; indicates warming effect) of WSOA at Kanpur was ∼1.4 times higher than Allahabad. Enhancement in light absorption capacity was observed with the increase in f44/f43 (fraction of m/z 44 (f44) to 43 (f43) in organic mass spectra) and O/C (oxygen to carbon) ratio of WSOA at Kanpur while no such trend was observed for the Allahabad site. Moreover, the correlation between carbon fractions and light absorption properties suggested the influence of low-volatile organic compounds (OC3 + OC4 fraction obtained from thermal/optical carbon analyzer) in increasing the light absorption capacity of WSOA in Kanpur.
... Mostly, they have reported that biomass burning contributes greatly to PM 2.5 mass, while traffic contributes heavily to PM 10 mass in Delhi. Residential energy use contributes 50 % of the PM 2.5 mass concentration, and the construction sectors are also considered an important source of particle mass (Guttikunda et al., 2014;Butt et al., 2016;Conibear et al., 2018). Furthermore, it is particularly important to understand the absolute contribution and sources of different sizes of particles within PM 2.5 . ...
Article
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Delhi is one of the world's most polluted cities, with very high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. However, little is known about the factors controlling the characteristics of wide-range particle number size distributions. Here, new measurements are reported from three field campaigns conducted in winter and pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons at the Indian Institute of Technology campus in the south of the city. Particle number size distributions were measured simultaneously, using a scanning mobility particle sizer and a GRIMM optical particle monitor, covering 15 nm to >10 µm diameter. The merged, wide-range size distributions were categorized into the following five size ranges: nucleation (15–20 nm), Aitken (20–100 nm), accumulation (100 nm–1 µm), large fine (1–2.5 µm), and coarse (2.5–10 µm) particles. The ultrafine fraction (15–100 nm) accounts for about 52 % of all particles by number (PN10 is the total particle number from 15 nm to 10 µm) but just 1 % by PM10 volume (PV10 is the total particle volume from 15 nm to 10 µm). The measured size distributions are markedly coarser than most from other parts of the world but are consistent with earlier cascade impactor data from Delhi. Our results suggest substantial aerosol processing by coagulation, condensation, and water uptake in the heavily polluted atmosphere, which takes place mostly at nighttime and in the morning hours. Total number concentrations are highest in winter, but the mode of the distribution is largest in the post-monsoon (autumn) season. The accumulation mode particles dominate the particle volume in autumn and winter, while the coarse mode dominates in summer. Polar plots show a huge variation between both size fractions in the same season and between seasons for the same size fraction. The diurnal pattern of particle numbers is strongly reflective of a road traffic influence upon concentrations, especially in autumn and winter, although other sources, such as cooking and domestic heating, may influence the evening peak. There is a clear influence of diesel traffic at nighttime, when it is permitted to enter the city, and also indications in the size distribution data of a mode
... Approximately 30-40% of PM mass in Delhi is contributed by dust (Tripathi et al. 2019). Increased vehicular density, biomass burning, construction activities, and road dust have raised the atmospheric dust concentration beyond the WHO permissible limits in urban centers (Guttikunda et al. 2014). Dust is mainly a mixture of suspended solid particles of natural and anthropogenic origin. ...
Article
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Plants are now widely recognized for their potential role in improving the air quality by dispersion and deposition of atmospheric dust particles. However, suspended dust particles negatively affect plant growth and physiological development. The present study aims to assess the amount of dust accumulation on the leaf surface and to evaluate the effect of foliar dust on leaf gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic pigment, and metabolite content of five roadside herbaceous plant species (Amaranthus viridis, Achyranthes aspera, Acalypha indica, Parthenium hysterophorus, Trianthema portulacastrum). Two sites (site I and site II) were selected that differed in their surrounding anthropogenic activities and dust pollution levels. Results showed that the average amount of dust accumulated on the leaf surface was significantly greater in plants grown at the polluted site. Among the five species examined, the highest amount of foliar dust load was observed for A. aspera (0.49 mg cm⁻²). Dust accumulation caused substantial changes in plant physiology as indicated by the significant decline in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductivity, and transpiration rate in plants grown at the polluted site. Moreover, an increase in antioxidant activity, total ascorbate, and metabolite content, responsible for maintaining plant defense, was higher in plants at polluted site. Biochemical response of the individual plants studied was variable, which suggests that different plants adopted different mechanisms to cope with the stress induced by dust particles.
... considered one of the utmost essential factors of transportation projects. Collected eld data, modern software tools, and digital measurements by sensors are used in analyzing the current range of air quality in several states and conclude the origin of pollution and method of contamination are intertwined (Sarath K. Guttikunda et al. 2014). Comparing all other segments, emission from the transport sector is the supreme perilous and farthest connected in the systematic, judicial, economic, and institutional framework of the 112 openly available clean air action plans submitted under NCAP and executed a wide-ranging Programme for the prevention, control, and reduction of pollution (Tanushree Ganguly et al. 2020). ...
Preprint
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The level of air pollution increased in urban areas due to local atmospheric conditions and dispersion of various air pollutants. In this study, the air quality index was carried out in four places in the urban zone and investigated the seasonal variation of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 over one year (2021) by considering the meteorological parameters in Coimbatore. Furthermore, fluidyn-PANACHE, a CFD tool, has been used to simulate the dispersion pattern of gaseous pollutants in the selected locations. To track the model, the concentration details of gaseous pollutants were collected and pollutant dispersion under numerous atmospheric conditions (Humidity, Temperature, Pressure) was identified using fluidyn-PANACHE software. From the collected air samples and dispersion pattern, SO 2 and O 3 show higher concentrations in summer. Particulate matter and NO 2 show higher concentrations in winter due to seasonal variations in energy use and atmospheric constancy. Pearson correlation coefficients indicate most pollutants are correlated in Coimbatore except Ozone. Compared to the AQI category given by CPCB, the selected four locations are in the moderate category. However, increased PM 10 levels were observed at all the selected zones in winter due to the process of inversion and environmental conditions.
... The most widely reported causes of air emissions are cars, processing and industry, building operations, road dust and combustion by solid biomass. [3] The transport environment of India is experiencing significant changes. This is influenced by a number of national and sub-national policies on transport output, transportation technology and fuels. ...
Research
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Electric cars are a modern form of transport that has no climate, noise emissions and environmentally sustainable means of transport. India is the biggest market for electric vehicles and government aims to become a nation for electric vehicles by 2030 is an optimistic initiative, and this study is conducted to evaluate people's acceptability of electric vehicles and their effect on the automotive industry. In this study we tried to find the views of citizens and their knowledge of the electric car, to resolve certain electric vehicle limitations and will embrace them wholeheartedly. FAME scheme to increase the adoption of electric vehicles by masses was initiated by the government of India. The modelling assessment spans the duration from 2010 to 2050 and analyses potential demand for the EV in Indian under three scenario: i) a 'test' scenario, which involves the continuity of the current EV policies as illustrated by India's Expected Nationally Defined Contribution (INDC); The study of scenarios determines penetration of Evs and its co-benefits and co-costs. The joint advantages are local air quality, domestic energy protection and CO2 emissions in India whilst the co-cost (risk) of procurement of battery and battery reprocessing and disposal raw materials.
... In India, the major anthropogenic sources of VOCs include emissions from residential combustion (∼41%), transportation (37%), and industrial combustion (13%) (Li et al., 2014). The Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) experiences elevated loadings of gaseous and particulate pollutants from local and regional sources (Dey et al., 2012;Guttikunda et al., 2014;Kaskaoutis et al., 2014;Sen et al., 2017;Srivastava et al., 2014). In the winter season, the ambient pollution is aggravated by stagnant meteorological conditions resulting in smog formation and visibility reduction across the IGP (Ojha et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Simultaneous measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using two PTR-TOF-MS instruments were conducted at urban and suburban sites of New Delhi during the winter of 2018. The time series of VOC mixing ratios show substantial variations mainly influenced by local emissions and meteorological conditions. Mixing ratios of methanol (∼28 ppbv), acetaldehyde (7.7 ppbv), acetone (10.6 ppbv), isoprene (2.8 ppbv) and monoterpenes (0.84 ppbv) at the suburban site were higher than those at the urban site, while levels of aromatic VOCs were almost similar. The strong nighttime correlations of isoprene and monoterpenes with CO and benzene at the urban site indicate their predominant anthropogenic origin. Higher emission ratios of ∆VOCs/∆CO and ∆VOCs/∆benzene than those reported for vehicular exhaust suggest the contributions of other sources. In addition to vehicular emissions, episodes of biomass burning, industrial plumes and aged air strongly influenced the levels of VOCs at the suburban site. Despite the predominant primary anthropogenic emissions, the higher daytime enhancements of OVOCs/CO ratios indicate additional contributions of OVOCs from secondary/biogenic sources. The secondary formation of OVOCs in moderately aged air masses was noticeable at the suburban site. Using the source-tracer-ratio method, the estimated biogenic contributions of isoprene (71%) and acetone (65%) during daytime at the suburban site were significantly higher than those for the urban site. The photochemical box model simulations suggest that daytime ozone formation was under the VOC-limited regime. The present study highlights the impact of different emission sources, photochemical processes and meteorological conditions on the composition and concentration of VOCs in the Delhi region.
... To address co-beneficial local PM2.5 reduction, we quantify local PM2.5 emissions arising from the same community-wide infrastructure use activities in the GHG footprinting approach. Since PM2.5 pollution in cities is typically dominated by local/proximal sources [53,54], we focused on in-boundary (Scope 1) PM2.5 emission sources using a well-established city-level emission inventory approach used in India [55] and by the US-EPA [56]. This PM2.5 inventory approach was appropriate to answer our question on local PM2.5 emission reduction and in-and trans-boundary GHG mitigation co-benefits from city-scale infrastructure strategies of interest to cities. ...
Article
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A differentiated urban metabolism methodology is developed to quantify inequality and inform social equity in urban infrastructure strategies aimed at mitigating local in-boundary PM2.5 and co-beneficially reducing transboundary greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The method differentiates community-wide local PM2.5 and transboundary GHG emission contributions by households of different income strata, alongside commercial and industrial activities. Applied in three Indian cities (Delhi, Coimbatore, and Rajkot) through development of new data sets, method yields key insights that across all three cities, top-20% highest-income households dominated motorized transportation, electricity, and construction activities, while poorest-20% homes dominated biomass and kerosene use, resulting in the top-20% households contributing more than three times GHGs as the bottom-20% homes. Further, after including commercial and industrial users, top-20% households contributed as much or more in-boundary PM2.5 emissions than all commercial OR all industrial emitters(e.g., Delhi's top-20% homes contributed 21% of in-boundary PM2.5 similar to industries at 21%. These results enabled co-benefit analysis of various infrastructure transition strategies on the horizon, finding only three could yield both significant GHG and PM2.5 reductions(>2%-each): (1)Modest 10% efficiency improvements among top-20% households, industry and commercial sectors, requiring a focus on wealthiest homes; (2)Phasing out all biomass and kerosene use within cities (impacting poorest); (3)Replacing gas and diesel vehicles with renewable electric vehicles. The differentiated PM2.5 and GHG emissions data-informed social equity in the design of the three co-beneficial infrastructure transitions by: a)-prioritizing free/subsidized clean cooking fuels to poorest homes; b)-increasing electricity block rates and behavioral nudging for wealthiest homes; and, c)-prioritizing electrification of mass transit and promoting electric two-wheelers ahead of providing subsidies for electric cars, where the free-rider phenomenon can occur, which benefits wealthiest homes. The methodology is broadly translatable to cities worldwide, while the policy insights are relevant to rapidly urbanizing Asia and Africa to advance clean, low-carbon urban infrastructure transitions.
... The land areas contributing to transported air masses are mainly parts of central India (Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan) along with inland cities of Maharashtra state. The transported air masses thus may be loaded with industrial, vehicular and natural aerosols over the region due to various industries and high traffic over the areas (Guttikunda et al. 2014). The back trajectories are mostly north-easterly during winter, with a small portion from the Arabian Sea. ...
Article
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The present study analyses daily and seasonal variation of PM 2.5 at three stations of megacity Mumbai-Sion, Bandra and U.S. embassy, which are around three km apart from each other with different local conditions, for 2015-2018. The daily average mean concentration for Sion, Bandra and U.S. embassy are 141.95 μg/m 3 , 105.18 μg/m 3 and 53.37 μg/m 3. The highest seasonal average concentration is observed in winter at Sion with a value of 175.45 µg/m 3 , which is around three times of the limit for daily mean given by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (i.e., 60 µg/m 3). The study classifies Sea breeze day (SBD) and non-sea breeze days (NSBD) to understand the associated variation of PM 2.5. The increase in PM 2.5 concentrations is found to be in agreement with many diseases and vehicular registrations over Mumbai. The study also used back trajectory and concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis to understand the source regions of transported pollution.
... 66,67 Recent research studies 4,9,12,68,69 and research commentaries 64,70−72 have identified the urgent need to implement Traditional approaches to mitigate emissions (e.g., switch fuels for household cooking, install controls, etc.) have had success but have been largely incomplete throughout the country. 73 Here, we assessed the impacts of two, circular strategies that reuse industrial waste-heat: (1) a novel, multisector approach with DHSs and (2) the application of ORCs to convert wasteheat to electricity. These approaches, which have been proposed as intermediate interventions to reduce air pollutant and carbon emissions, offer modest nationwide air quality, CO 2 emission reduction, and human health benefits but less than those of previously assessed, ambitious regulatory achievement of cleaner fuel sources and cleaner technologies that offer larger environmental, health, and economic benefits. ...
Article
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India is home to 1.3 billion people who are exposed to some of the highest levels of ambient air pollution in the world. In addition, India is one of the fastest-growing carbon-emitting countries. Here, we assess how two strategies to reuse waste-heat from coal-fired power plants and other large sources would impact PM2.5-air quality, human health, and CO2 emissions in 2015 and a future year, 2050, using varying levels of policy adoption (current regulations, proposed single-sector policies, and ambitious single-sector strategies). We find that power plant and industrial waste-heat reuse as input to district heating systems (DHSs), a novel, multisector strategy to reduce local biomass burning for heating emissions, can offset 71.3-85.2% of residential heating demand in communities near a power plant (9.3-12.4% of the nationwide heating demand) with the highest benefits observed during winter months in areas with collocated industrial activity and higher residential heating demands (e.g., New Delhi). Utilizing waste-heat to generate electricity via organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) can generate an additional 22 (11% of total coal-fired generating capacity), 41 (8%), 32 (13%), and 6 (5%) GW of electricity capacity in the 2015, 2050-current regulations, 2050-single-sector, and 2050-ambitious-single-sector scenarios, respectively. Emission estimates utilizing these strategies were input to the GEOS-Chem model, and population-weighted, simulated PM2.5 showed small improvements in the DHS (0.2-0.4%) and ORC (0.3-3.4%) scenarios, where the minimal DHS PM2.5-benefit is attributed to the small contribution of biomass burning for heating to nationwide PM2.5 emissions (much of the biomass burning activity is for cooking). The PM2.5 reductions lead to ∼130-36,000 mortalities per year avoided among the scenarios, with the largest health benefits observed in the ORC scenarios. Nationwide CO2 emissions reduced <0.04% by DHSs but showed larger reductions using ORCs (1.9-7.4%). Coal fly-ash as material exchange in cement and brick production was assessed, and capacity exists to completely reutilize unused fly-ash toward cement and brick production in each of the scenarios.
Article
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Modern human civilization has suffered from the disastrous impact of COVID-19, but it teaches us the lesson that the environment can restore its stability without human activity. The government of India (GOI) has launched many strategies to prevent the situation of COVID-19, including a lockdown that has a great impact on the environment. The present study focuses on the analysis of PM2.5 concentration levels in pre-locking, lockdown, and unlocking phases across ten major 10 cities of Maharashtra (MH) that were the COVID hotspot of India during the COVID-19 outbreak; Phase-wise and year-wise (2018-2020) hotspot analysis, box diagram and line graph methods were used to assess spatial variation in PM2.5 across MH cities. Our study showed that The PM2.5 concentration level was severe at pre lockdown stage (January- March) and it decrease dramatically at the lockdown stage, later it also increase in its previous position at the unlocking stages i.e. PM2.5 decreased dramatically (59%) during the lockdown period compared to the pre-lockdown period due to the shutdown of outdoor activities. It returns to its previous position due to the unlocking situation and increases (70%) compared to the lockdown period which illustrated the ups and downs of PM2.5 and ensures the position of different cities in the AQI categories at different times. In the pre-lockdown phase maximum PM2.5 concentration was in NAV (358) and MUM (338), PUN (335), NAS (325) subsequently whereas at the last of the lockdown phase it becomes CHN (82), NAG (76), and SOL (45) subsequently. Hence, the restoration of the environment during the lockdown phase was temporary rather than permanent. Therefore, our findings propose that several effective policies of government such as relocation of polluting industries, short-term lockdown, odd-even vehicle number, installation of air purifiers, and government strict initiatives are needed in making a sustainable environment. Keywords: PM2.5; Sustainable; Hotspot; lockdown; COVID-19
Chapter
It is a well-known fact that infrastructural projects have long-run impacts on the income and employment of the countries. Besides, it is also the fact that these projects badly impact the environment in terms of pollution through emissions of different greenhouse gases and particulate matters. Further, if the projects get delayed due to some reasons there arises the additional emissions burden upon the environment. Under the backdrop, the present study aims to examine whether cost overruns in different infrastructural projects have any sort of co-movements with the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is the prime pollutant in infrastructural projects, in case of India for the period 1995–2018. Employing Engle-Granger cointegration test technique, the study finds a significant persistent relationship between the cost overrun of delayed central sector projects and nitrous oxide in India. The study also finds negative but insignificant coefficient of the error correction term in the ECM. Finally, the Granger causality test demonstrates that cost overrun has had no effect on or influences environmental degradation in India due to N2O emissions in the short term. The government of the country should apply good governance tools to control the problems of cost overruns.KeywordsInfrastructureCentral projectsCost overrunNitrous oxideCointegrationCausalityIndia
Article
During material loading to the ship or unloading from the ship, fugitive emissions takes place which leads to major air pollution at the port and nearby area and leads to health problems of the people in the area. Majorities of the studies on dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere are carried out for the point and non point emissions at high level (more than 10 m from sea level). This paper presents the detailed simulation studies on effect of various operational and meteorological variables on dispersion of particulates released due to fugitive emissions during bauxite cargo handling operation at the port. During the said operations, the fugitive emissions of bauxite take place near sea surface (2 to 5 m above sea surface) as compared to releases from stack or chimney. In this work investigation was aimed at to understand key elements that influences the diffusion of the particulates emitted due to fugitive emissions during the said operation at the port. Identification of key elements that influences the diffusion of the particulates enables the authorities to take appropriate preventive measures in order to reduce the emissions at the source. The key elements considered for this study were wind velocity, ambient temperature and moisture, water content of bauxite, the distance between the crane and barge. The AERMOD software was used to carry out the simulation studies. The results revealed that wind velocity and bauxite water content are key elements which affect the dispersion significantly. At low altitude (0.5 m to 5 m from sea level) in atmosphere, change in ambient temperature and moisture does not affect the dispersion of particles. Variation in drop altitude from 0.5 m to 3 m does have significant effect on particle dispersion near the source (within 50 m); however, it does not affect the dispersion away from the source.
Article
Environmental issues have gauged the attention of marketers and researchers all around the world. Automobile industry has a major environmental impact due to fuel consumption and emissions. A threadbare understanding of the automobile buyer is necessary to better connect with consumers with changing lifestyles, attitudes, and personalities, basically to cater to their sensibilities and psyche, gradually accommodating contemporary environmental viewpoints. Marketers have religiously focused upon studying the car buying behavior and its links with lifestyles. The present study aims to offer a preview of the relationship between lifestyles and ecological behavior among urban car consumers in an emerging economy like India. The findings of the study suggest factors like need for achievement, need for uniqueness, price consciousness, and need for status affect the ecological behavior of the Indian car buyers.
Chapter
Urban air pollution is already a massive health problem, the extent of which has only recently been identified. Cities produce the majority of air pollution that affects our health. With new research identifying that there is no safe level of air pollution, trends in rapid urbanisation worldwide suggest that the overwhelming majority of the world’s population is breathing air that does not meet international guidelines. However, city dwellers’ health is not just affected by air pollution. The problem is compounded by climate extremes exacerbated by both urban heat and global climate change. Combined, these factors have significant detrimental and interconnected synergistic impacts on the health of a city and its inhabitants. This chapter examines how urbanisation can modify the meteorological conditions in a city, and as a consequence, the long-term local climate. In addition, this chapter examines how these regional and global impacts on climate can impact, and be impacted by, air pollution. Although cities make a significant contribution to emissions of both ambient and greenhouse gas air pollutants, they are also pivotal in providing solutions. This interaction between ambient air pollution, urban climate and climate change in our cities is discussed with regard to the seminal role that our cities could take to help, rather than harm, inhabitants’ health and well-being through supportive and forward thinking integrated urban design that will contribute to healthier cities.
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Low-cost sensors (LCS) are becoming popular for air quality monitoring (AQM). They promise high spatial and temporal resolutions at low-cost. In addition, citizen science applications such as personal exposure monitoring can be implemented effortlessly. However, the reliability of the data is questionable due to various error sources involved in the LCS measurement. Furthermore, sensor performance drift over time is another issue. Hence, the adoption of LCS by regulatory agencies is still evolving. Several studies have been conducted to improve the performance of low-cost sensors. This article summarizes the existing studies on the state-of-the-art of LCS for AQM. We conceptualize a step by step procedure to establish a sustainable AQM setup with LCS that can produce reliable data. The selection of sensors, calibration and evaluation, hardware setup, evaluation metrics and inferences, and end user-specific applications are various stages in the LCS-based AQM setup we propose. We present a critical analysis at every step of the AQM setup to obtain reliable data from the low-cost measurement. Finally, we conclude this study with future scope to improve the availability of air quality data.
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The policy intersection of climate vulnerabilities, exposure to toxic levels of particulate matter (PM) pollution and associated morbidity and disease burden costs of acute respiratory illnesses merits escalated global attention. Adverse impacts of climate change and air pollution have long been known to be inequitably concentrated with devastating consequences for those with least access to climate resiliency, clean air and public health. This chapter focuses on identifying measures that focus on Non‐Nation‐State actions that are aimed towards integrated action on curbing SLCPs and PM pollution. Global policy silos on clean energy, clean air and climate change impede the future development trajectory of sustainable cities. In countries like India, where a heavy reliance of polluting solid biomass and toxic levels of PM pollution in major cities combine with climate vulnerabilities for millions, linked action on air pollution, climate change and clean energy access for the poor is absolutely vital.
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We analyze the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and meteorology in winter in the Indo‐Gangetic Plain (IGP). We find that the concentration of PM2.5 exhibits similar increase with decreasing surface wind speed in 15 out of 18 cities considered. Using this observed relationship, we estimate that the reduction of surface wind speed with increasing CO2 simulated by models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 will result in higher average wintertime PM2.5 concentrations (1% per degree K of global warming) and more frequent high‐pollution events. This observation‐based estimate is qualitatively consistent with the simulated response of black carbon to global warming inferred from the AerChemMIP ssp370SST and ssp370pdSST experiments. We hypothesize that a reduction in the frequency and intensity of western disturbances with increasing CO2 may contribute to the reduction in the surface wind in the IGP.
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The number concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and submicron aerosols (CN), along with their chemical composition and optical properties, have been studied during October 2008, October-November 2009 and November 2010 from an urban (Kanpur) site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). The concentrations of CCN and CN and their optical properties vary with primary emission and secondary aerosol formation. The CCN (at 0.38% super-saturation) and CN concentrations varied from ∼3900 to 15,000 cm-3 and ∼23,000 to 99,000 cm-3, respectively. The diurnal variability of CCN and CN show peak concentrations during early morning hours (6:00-9:00 AM) and nighttime (7:00-10:00 PM), attributable to variability in source strength of carbonaceous aerosols and secondary aerosol formation. The CCN and CN concentrations are ∼50% higher during nighttime with simultaneous increase in organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and NO3- mass concentrations. However, CCN/CN ratios are similar during day and nighttime suggesting their co-variability with primary and secondary aerosol formation. The CCN/CN ratios are relatively lower (range: 0.11-0.33) than global average value and those over urban areas (with similar chemical composition in China and around the world) suggesting suppressed activation and hygroscopic growth in highly polluted environment of the IGP. The average mass absorption efficiency of EC during daytime (11.7 ± 2.5 m2 g-1) is about factor of two higher than that during nighttime (5.7 ± 1.3 m2 g-1). These results have implications to study morphological features, mixing state and microphysical properties of aerosols under high acidic environment over northern India.
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In the Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) done as part of the Global Burden of Disease project (GBD-2010), the global and regional burdens of household air pollution (HAP) due to the use of solid cookfuels, were estimated along with 60+ other risk factors. This article describes how the HAP CRA was framed; how global HAP exposures were modeled; how diseases were judged to have sufficient evidence for inclusion; and how meta-analyses and exposure-response modeling were done to estimate relative risks. We explore relationships with the other air pollution risk factors: ambient air pollution, smoking, and secondhand smoke. We conclude with sensitivity analyses to illustrate some of the major uncertainties and recommendations for future work. We estimate that in 2010 HAP was responsible for 3.9 million premature deaths and 4.8% of lost healthy life years (DALYs), ranking it highest among environmental risk factors examined and one of the major risk factors of any type globally.
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PM10 concentration was monitored at a receptor site in the Brahmaputra Valley during a unique, local, episodic festive biomass burning called meji burning. Mean mass concentration of PM10 during monitoring was found to be 149 ± 45 μg m− 3 with maximum and minimum concentrations of 293 μg m− 3 and 93 μg m− 3 respectively. Elemental analysis by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDX) revealed high carbonaceous and Br content in PM10 samples. Particulate carbon showed high significant correlation with PM10 and dominance in samples taken during night time. Back trajectory analysis supported long range transport of carbonaceous aerosol from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the region under study. Prevailing meteorology – thermal inversion and low mixing heights – was found to have a strong influence on PM10 levels in the post festive burning period. Enrichment factors of several elements ranged above thousand which indicated a strong influence of anthropogenic activities and input of aged particulates driven from long distance. Incremental effect of meji burning, which we coined as Meji Burning Induced Enrichments (MBIEs), was calculated. MBIE values supported incremental effects explicitly.
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In 2010, the XIX Commonwealth Games (CWG-2010) were held in India for the first time at Delhi and involved 71 commonwealth nations and dependencies with more than 6000 athletes participating in 272 events. This was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in India and strict emission controls were imposed during the games in order to ensure improved air quality for the participating athletes as a significant portion of the population in Delhi is regularly exposed to elevated levels of pollution. The air quality control measures ranged from vehicular and traffic controls to relocation of factories and reduction of power plant emissions. In order to understand the effects of these policy induced control measures, a network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across different areas in Delhi under the Government of India's System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. Simultaneous measurements of aerosols, reactive trace gases (e.g. NOx, O3, CO) and meteorological parameters were made before, during and after CWG-2010. Contrary to expectations, the emission controls implemented were not sufficient to reduce the pollutants, instead in some cases, causing an increase. The measured pollutants regularly exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality limits over the games period. The reasons for this increase are attributed to an underestimation of the required control measures, which resulted in inadequate planning. The results indicate that any future air quality control measures need to be well planned and strictly imposed in order to improve the air quality in Delhi, which affects a large population and is deteriorating rapidly. Thus, the presence of systematic high resolution data and realistic emission inventories through networks such as SAFAR will be directly useful for the future.
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Nearly 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid fuel combustion to meet basic household energy needs. Resulting exposure to air pollution is estimated to cause 4.5% of the global burden of disease. Large variability and a lack of resources for research and development have resulted in highly uncertain exposure estimates. The objective of this paper is to identify research priorities for exposure assessment that will more accurately and precisely define exposure-response relationships of household air pollution necessary to inform future cleaner-burning cookstove dissemination programs. As part of a May 2011 international workshop, an expert group characterized the state of the science and developed recommendations for exposure assessment of household air pollution. The following priority research areas were identified to explain variability and reduce uncertainty of household air pollution exposure measurements: improved characterization of spatial and temporal variability for studies examining both short- and long-term health effects; development and validation of measurement technology and approaches to conduct complex exposure assessments in resource-limited settings with a large range of pollutant concentrations; and development and validation of biomarkers for estimating dose. Addressing these priority research areas, which will inherently require an increased allocation of resources for cookstove research, will lead to better characterization of exposure-response relationships. Although the type and extent of exposure assessment will necessarily depend on the goal and design of the cookstove study, without improved understanding of exposure-response relationships, the level of air pollution reduction necessary to meet the health targets of cookstove interventions will remain uncertain.
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India is used as a case study in reviewing the application of receptor models for source apportionment. India has high concentrations of airborne particulate matter, and the application of effective abatement measures is a high priority, and demands confidence in the results of source apportionment studies. The many studies conducted are reviewed, and reveal a very wide range of conclusions, even for the same city. To some degree these divergences may be the result of using different sampling locations and/or seasons, but to a large extent differences probably arise from methodological weaknesses. The assignment of factors from multivariate receptor models to specific source categories is in many cases highly questionable as factors often include combinations of chemical constituents that are of low plausibility. This ambiguity in terms of presence of tracer elements may be the result of genuine collinearity of diverse sources, or more probably arises from methodological problems. Few studies have used either organic molecular markers or chemical mass balance (CMB) models, and there is a shortage of data on locally-derived emission source profiles, although recent work has begun to remedy this weakness. The conclusions include a number of recommendations for use in design of future studies.
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India has recently launched the National Biomass Cookstoves Initiative (NCI) to develop next-generation cleaner biomass cookstoves and deploy them to all Indian households that currently use traditional cookstoves. The initiative has set itself the lofty aim of providing energy service comparable to clean sources such as LPG but using the same solid biomass fuels commonly used today. Such a clean energy option for the estimated 160 million Indian households now cooking with inefficient and polluting biomass and coal cookstoves could yield enormous gains in health and welfare for the weakest and most vulnerable sections of society. At the same time, cleaner household cooking energy through substitution by advanced-combustion biomass stoves (or other options such as clean fuels) can nearly eliminate the several important products of incomplete combustion that come from today's practices and are important outdoor and greenhouse pollutants. Using national surveys, published literature and assessments, and measurements of cookstove performance solely from India, we find that about 570,000 premature deaths in poor women and children and over 4% of India's estimated greenhouse emissions could be avoided if such an initiative were in place today. These avoided emissions currently would be worth more than US$1 billion on the international carbon market. In addition, about one-third of India's black carbon emissions can be reduced along with a range of other health- and climate-active pollutants that affect regional air quality and climate. Although current advanced biomass stoves show substantial emissions reductions over traditional stoves, there is still additional improvement needed to reach LPG-like emission levels. We recognize that the technology development and deployment challenges to meet NCI goals of this scale are formidable and a forthcoming companion paper focuses on what program design elements might best be able to overcome these challenges.
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Environmental and occupational risk factors contribute to nearly 40% of the national burden of disease in India, with air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment ranking amongst leading risk factors. It is now recognized that the health burden from air pollution exposures that primarily occur in the rural indoors, from pollutants released during the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in households, may rival or even exceed the burden attributable to urban outdoor exposures. Few environmental epidemiological efforts have been devoted to this setting, however. We provide an overview of important available information on exposures and health effects related to household solid fuel use in India, with a view to inform health research priorities for household air pollution and facilitate being able to address air pollution within an integrated rural-urban framework in the future.
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Epidemiologic and health impact studies of fine particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) are limited by the lack of monitoring data, especially in developing countries. Satellite observations offer valuable global information about PM2.5 concentrations.Objective: In this study, we developed a technique for estimating surface PM2.5 concentrations from satellite observations. We mapped global ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite instruments and coincident aerosol vertical profiles from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We determined that global estimates of long-term average (1 January 2001 to 31 December 2006) PM2.5 concentrations at approximately 10 km x 10 km resolution indicate a global population-weighted geometric mean PM2.5 concentration of 20 microg/m3. The World Health Organization Air Quality PM2.5 Interim Target-1 (35 microg/m3 annual average) is exceeded over central and eastern Asia for 38% and for 50% of the population, respectively. Annual mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 80 microg/m3 over eastern China. Our evaluation of the satellite-derived estimate with ground-based in situ measurements indicates significant spatial agreement with North American measurements (r = 0.77; slope = 1.07; n = 1057) and with noncoincident measurements elsewhere (r = 0.83; slope = 0.86; n = 244). The 1 SD of uncertainty in the satellite-derived PM2.5 is 25%, which is inferred from the AOD retrieval and from aerosol vertical profile errors and sampling. The global population-weighted mean uncertainty is 6.7 microg/m3. Satellite-derived total-column AOD, when combined with a chemical transport model, provides estimates of global long-term average PM2.5 concentrations.
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Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates that might confound the association between air pollution and mortality. Effect estimates were determined for each city and then for the cities combined using a random effects method. In individual cities, associations were detected between most of the pollutants [nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)), and ozone] and most health outcomes under study (i.e., all natural-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality). The city-combined effects of the four pollutants tended to be equal or greater than those identified in studies conducted in Western industrial nations. In addition, residents of Asian cities are likely to have higher exposures to air pollution than those in Western industrial nations because they spend more time outdoors and less time in air conditioning. Although the social and environmental conditions may be quite different, it is reasonable to apply estimates derived from previous health effect of air pollution studies in the West to Asia.
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Sponsored by the Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Engineering Committee of the Environmental Council of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of ASCE Sustainable Solid Waste Management describes basic principles and recent advances for handling solid waste in an environmentally sustainable way. Solid waste poses problems of quantity-the sheer amount is increasing around the world-but also of environmental impact, especially with the introduction of materials harmful to ecosystems. This volume uses a global lens to examine all aspects of the solid waste, including waste minimization, waste as a resource, appropriate disposal, and efficient systems fostered by effective public policy. Written by leading experts, the 22 chapters analyze the critical issues to be considered during the various stages of a waste management program. Topics include: public policies focusing on reducing waste at its source, recycling, and minimizing disposal amounts; technologies for treating and recycling solid waste; safe, efficient treatment and disposal of hazardous and other special wastes; development and maintenance of engineered landfills and landfill mining; and legal frameworks and the use of life-cycle assessment as a tool for the waste management industry. Municipal engineers, environmental managers, researchers, students, policy makers, and planners will find this book to be an essential guide to social and technological issues related to sustainable solid waste management.
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The average level of ownership of cars in India, currently 13 per 1,000 population, is expected to grow exponentially. Estimating the average level of ownership in 2025 at 35 per 1,000, this article points out that the growing number of cars has serious implications for energy security, air pollution, road safety, and equitable allocation of road space, and argues that there is an urgent need for India to learn from the experiences of cities that have decoupled car ownership from economic growth, and reduce the rate of growth of car ownership in India.
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Atmospheric aerosols are important from a perspective of ambient air pollution and health to humans and other biological receptors as well as for potential effects on local weather and global climate. This review attempts to account for the different research efforts of individual research groups and regulatory agencies in India on the issue of atmospheric aerosols and their effects. The review refers to representative studies reporting the physical characterization (size), chemical composition (organic and inorganic), radiative forcing effects and health effects of aerosols. There are several reports on source apportionment studies identifying sources of aerosols and some focus on specific issues. The review also points out a significant need for more data with a greater spatial and temporal resolution for better understanding of the dynamics of atmospheric aerosols in the Indian context.
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Seven years after the National Urban Transport Policy was announced by the central government, the problems identified in it remain the same, or have worsened. Land use planning has not enabled the lower-income groups to live closer to work, road use is more dominated by private vehicles, and there is little money to improve facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists. This paper notes that though much of the basic data on urban transport in India is unreliable, there is enough to show that the challenge is to keep the share of non-personal transport at 70% as incomes increase in our cities. For this, walking and bicycling have to be made safer and public transport more attractive by making it readily available.
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Atmospheric heating caused by anthropogenically emitted carbonaceous aerosols contributes to one of the largest uncertainties in climate forcing over south Asia (SA). Past studies have identified the combustion of fossil fuels and residential biofuels as being the dominant emitter of light-absorbing black carbon aerosols over this region. Here, we measure emissions from open-air burning of funeral pyres, a deep-rooted and widely prevalent custom in SA, and find that large amounts (≈98% by mass) of light-absorbing organic carbon (OC) aerosols, optically defined as brown carbon (BrC), are emitted per kilogram of feedstock burned. The emitted OC contributes an average 40% to the smoke particulate matter absorption of the visible solar radiation. We calculate funeral pyres in SA contribute approximately 92 Gg of light-absorbing OC annually, which is equivalent to ≈10 and 23% of the carbonaceous aerosol mass from regional biofuels and fossil fuels, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of accounting for cultural burning practices as aerosol sources in emission inventories and BrC aerosols in climate models, as well as the development of mitigation strategies.
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In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010–11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30–40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.
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The simultaneous measurements of brown carbon (BrC) and elemental carbon (EC) are made in ambient aerosols (PM2.5), collected from a site in north-east India during November’09-March’10, representing the atmospheric outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the Bay of Bengal (BoB). The absorption coefficient of BrC (babs), assessed from water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) at 365 nm, varies from 2 to 21 Mm-1 and exhibits significant linear relationship (P < 0.05) with WSOC concentration (3 – 29 μg m-3). The angstrom exponent (α: 8.3 ± 2.6, where babs ≈ λ-α.) is consistent with that reported for humic-like substances (HULIS) from biomass burning emissions (BBE). The impact of BBE is also discernible from mass ratios of nss-K+/EC (0.2 – 1.4) and OC/EC (3.4 – 11.5). The mass fraction of WSOC (10 – 23 %) in PM2.5 and mass absorption efficiency of BrC (σabs-BrC: 0.5 – 1.2 m2 g-1) bring to focus the significance of brown carbon in atmospheric radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
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Road transport in India plays a vital role in our growing economy. Given an aggressive vehicle sales outlook through 2030, in order to maintain a balance between the energy demand, growing on-road emissions, and overall air quality in the cities, there is a need to implement and enforce Bharat-5 standards (equivalent of Euro-V) nationwide by 2015. Any delay in its implementation or even staggered implementation of the standards will result in a delayed response for improving air quality in the Indian cities.
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In Delhi and its satellite cities, vehicle exhaust, industries, waste burning, and construction activities account for the bulk of the particulate (PM) pollution, which between 2008 and 2011, averaged 123±87 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 208±137 μg/m3 for PM10, both exceeding the national annual ambient standards of 40 μg/m3 and 60 μg/m3, respectively.Amulti-sectoral emissions inventory for 2010 was modeled using the ATMoS dispersion model and local meteorology to estimate health impacts in terms of premature mortality and morbidity effects. For the observed PM levels in the city, the health impacts analysis estimates 7,350–16,200 premature deaths and 6.0 million asthma attacks per year. For six residential and industrial zones, we also modeled the sector contributions to ambient PM2.5 ranging 16–34% for vehicle exhaust, 20–27% for diffused sources, 14–21% for industries, 3–16% diesel generator sets, and 4–17% brick kilns. Finally, we present some thoughts on technological, institutional, and behavioral interventions that might help the Government of Delhi to develop an action plan encompassing multiple sources and include interventions to reduce health impacts in the future years.
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A prerequisite to an air quality management plan for a city is some idea of the main sources of pollution and their contributions for a city. This paper presents the results of an application of the SIM-air modeling tool in six Indian cities – Pune, Chennai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, and Rajkot. Using existing and publicly available data, we put together a baseline of multi-pollutant emissions for each of the cities and then calculate concentrations, health impacts, and model alternative scenarios for 2020. The measured annual PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micron meter) concentrations in μg m−3 averaged 94.7 ± 45.4 in Pune, 73.1 ± 33.7 in Chennai, 118.8 ± 44.3 in Indore, 94.0 ± 20.4 in Ahmedabad, 89.4 ± 12.1 in Surat, and 105.0 ± 25.6 in Rajkot, all exceeding the annual standard of 60 μg m−3. The PM10 inventory in tons/year for the year 2010 of 38,400 in Pune, 50,200 in Chennai, 18,600 in Indore, 31,900 in Ahmedabad, 20,000 in Surat, and 14,000 in Rajkot, is further spatially segregated into 1 km grids and includes all known sources such as transport, road dust, residential, power plants, industries (including the brick kilns), waste burning, and diesel generator sets. We use the ATMoS chemical transport model to validate the emissions inventory and estimate an annual premature mortality due to particulate pollution of 15,200 for the year 2010 for the six cities. Of the estimated 21,400 premature deaths in the six cities in 2020, we estimate that implementation of the six interventions in the transport and brick kiln sectors, can potentially save 5870 lives (27%) annually and result in an annual reduction of 16.8 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities.
Article
In Delhi, between 2008 and 2011, at seven monitoring stations, the daily average of particulates with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) was 123 ± 87 μg m−3 and particulates with diameter <10 μm (PM10) was 208 ± 137 μg m−3. The bulk of the pollution is due to motorization, power generation, and construction activities. In this paper, we present a multi-pollutant emissions inventory for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, covering the main district and its satellite cities – Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, and Ghaziabad. For the base year 2010, we estimate emissions (to the nearest 000's) of 63,000 tons of PM2.5, 114,000 tons of PM10, 37,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, 376,000 tons of nitrogen oxides, 1.42 million tons of carbon monoxide, and 261,000 tons of volatile organic compounds. The inventory is further spatially disaggregated into 80 × 80 grids at 0.01° resolution for each of the contributing sectors, which include vehicle exhaust, road dust re-suspension, domestic cooking and heating, power plants, industries (including brick kilns), diesel generator sets and waste burning. The GIS based spatial inventory coupled with temporal resolution of 1 h, was utilized for chemical transport modeling using the ATMoS dispersion model. The modeled annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 122 ± 10 μg m−3 for South Delhi; 90 ± 20 μg m−3 for Gurgaon and Dwarka; 93 ± 26 μg m−3 for North-West Delhi; 93 ± 23 μg m−3 for North-East Delhi; 42 ± 10 μg m−3 for Greater Noida; 77 ± 11 μg m−3 for Faridabad industrial area. The results have been compared to measured ambient PM pollution to validate the emissions inventory.
Article
This study presents data on the size characterization concentration of PM10, PM5.0, PM2.5 and PM1.0. These particulate concentrations were monitored from October-07 to March-09 indoors and outdoors of five roadside and five urban homes using Grimm aerosol spectrometer in Agra, India. Annual average concentrations of coarse particles (PM10) indoor and outdoor were 247 μg m−3 and 255 μg m−3 at roadside houses and 181 μg m−3 and 195 μg m−3 at urban houses. PM5.0 concentrations at roadside houses were 211 μg m−3 and 230 μg m−3 and at urban houses were 145 μg m−3 and 159 μg m−3. For fine particles (PM2.5) the annual mean concentrations were 161 μg m−3 and 160 μg m−3 at roadside houses and 109 μg m−3 and 123 μg m−3 at urban houses. PM1.0 concentrations at roadside houses were 111 μg m−3 and 112 μg m−3 while at urban houses they were 99 μg m−3 and 104 μg m−3. Monthly and seasonal variations of coarse and fine particulate matter have been studied at both the monitoring sites. Significant seasonal variations of particulate pollutants were obtained using the daily average particulate concentrations along with the inter particulate ratios. Particulate indoor/outdoor ratios and concentrations were also linked with meteorological conditions and indoor activities using occupant’s diary entries. The concentration of all sizes of particulate matter was found to be highest in winter season due to increase human activities and more space heating in indoors and due to low windspeed and high humidity in outdoors in comparison with other seasons. There was a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor particulate at both the sites. Health problems in occupants of the houses with higher concentrations of the fine particulate matter were more prominent. Household activities like cooking on stoves, indoor smoking and outdoor vehicular traffic, and garbage burning were found to be the major sources of particulate emissions indoor as well as outdoors.
Article
The concentration of particulate matter (PM)10, PM5.0, PM2.5, PM1.0, PM0.50, and PM0.25 was measured along with heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb) collected from settling dust in the indoor–outdoor environment of roadside and residentially located schools of Agra City, from January 2008 to May 2009. PM indoor/outdoor ratios at the roadside and residentially located schools were also determined by the meteorological parameters like temperature, humidity, and wind speed and air exchange rate. Metal geoaccumulation index shows that the contamination of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Mn was in abundant quantity in residential and roadside soil dust of the schools. The enrichment factor was calculated using Ca as a reference to the trace metal species to identify the sources. Three factors in inside and three outside the classrooms of roadside and residentially located schools were identified. These factors reflected source soil dust, road dust, vehicle emissions, industrial emissions, metal processes, and incineration activities and their contributions were estimated using principal component analysis. Measurements of such exposure levels would be helpful in prevention of environmental risks to schoolchildren at a global level for better and healthy mind of children studying at schools.
Article
The health and climate impacts of available household cooking options in developing countries vary sharply. Here, we analyze and compare these impacts (health; climate) and the potential co-benefits from the use of fuel and stove combinations. Our results indicate that health and climate impacts span 2 orders of magnitude among the technologies considered. Indoor air pollution is heavily impacted by combustion performance and ventilation; climate impacts are influenced by combustion performance and fuel properties including biomass renewability. Emission components not included in current carbon trading schemes, such as black carbon particles and carbon monoxide, can contribute a large proportion of the total climate impact. Multiple ‘improved’ stove options analyzed in this paper yield roughly equivalent climate benefits but have different impacts on indoor air pollution. Improvements to biomass stoves can improve indoor air quality, which nonetheless remains significantly higher than for stoves that use liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. LPG- and kerosene-fueled stoves have unrivaled air quality benefits and their climate impacts are also lower than all but the cleanest stoves using renewable biomass.
Article
The global burden of disease due to air pollution is concentrated in the rapidly developing counties of Asia, but a recent meta-analysis found that relatively few studies on short-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been performed in these countries, including India. Local evidence on the effects of short-term exposures to air pollutants on mortality and cardio-respiratory morbidity in Asia would reduce the uncertainties in current impact estimations and facilitate effective public policy responses to a deteriorating air pollution situation in South Asia. Here, we report the results from one of the first of such studies in metropolitan Chennai, India, conducted as part of a co-ordinated multi-city time-series initiative in India aimed at estimating the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) on all-cause mortality. The studies in Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi and Ludhiana) were part of a larger multi-city effort in Asia, co-ordinated by The Health Effects Institute (Boston, MA, USA) under their program for Public health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA). An important study output included the development of methodological refinements to overcome the limitations of routinely collected data in terms of missing measurements, small footprints of air pollution monitors and incomplete address information on death records. We used data on ambient air quality and all-cause mortality collected over the period 2002–2004. Exposures and health outcomes were disaggregated at the level of individual city zones and subsequently used in quasi-Poisson generalized additive models with smooth functions of time, temperature and relative humidity. Our model estimated a 0.44% (95% confidence interval 0.17–0.71) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in daily average concentrations of PM10, which is comparable to estimates from other PAPA cities and previous studies in North America and Europe. The results from PAPA studies in India, while preliminary, serve to strengthen the local evidence base for air pollution-related health effects that is imminently needed for better air quality management, while adding valuable information from India to the global repository of evidence.
Article
Abstract Indian megacities are among the most polluted in the world. Air concentrations of a number of air pollutants are much higher than levels recommended by the World Health Organization. In this paper, we focus on Mumbai and Delhi to characterize salient issues in health risks from particulate air (PM10) pollution in Indian cities. We perform a synthesis of the literature for all elements of the causal chain of health risks-sources, exposure, and health effects-and provide estimates of source strengths, exposure levels, and health risks from air pollution in Indian cities. We also analyze the factors that lead to uncertainty in these quantities and provide an overall assessment of the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution in urban India.
Article
A key policy challenge in Indian megacities is to curb high concentrations of PM2.5 and mitigate associated adverse health impacts. Using the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model we carry out an integrated analysis of the air quality regulations across different sectors for the city of Delhi. Our findings show that PM2.5 concentrations for Delhi will not reach the recommended national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) even by 2030 under the current policies scenario. Adopting advanced control technologies reduces PM2.5 concentrations by about 60% and all-cause mortality by half in 2030. Climate change mitigation policies significantly reduce greenhouse gases, but have a modest impact on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Stringent policies to control the net flow of air pollution from trans-boundary sources will play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels in Delhi city. Achieving NAAQS requires a stringent policy portfolio that combines advanced control technologies with a switch to cleaner fuels and the control of trans-boundary pollution.