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The correlates of poverty in Nigeria and policy implications

Authors:
  • Formerly African Development Bank Group, Abidjan

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Apart from presenting the poverty profile, this paper examines the correlates of poverty with multivariate models that predict the probability of being poor using data from the Nigerian National Consumer Survey (NCS) of 2003/2004. The probability of a household being poor was examined for the nation as a whole, as well as male-headed and female-headed households and for urban/rural geographical areas. In particular, the variables that are positively and significantly correlated with the probability of being poor nationally are: household size, lack of education, residence in the North Central zone, being single, and being a Moslem. The variables that are negatively and significantly correlated with the probability of being poor are: age of the household head, quadratic of household size, residence in an urban area, post-secondary (tertiary) education attainment, being a Christian, and residence in the south south, southeast, southwest, and northeast zones of the country. Based on the results, we recommend a number of policy interventions (including a broad poverty reduction framework) necessary to reduce poverty in Nigeria and similar African countries.
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... While the high rate of poverty appears to cast doubts on the effect of previous anti-poverty measures, it could be camouflaged by the fact that potential dimensions are omitted. This is because previous studies, such as Ibrahim et al., Omonona, Nsikakabasi and Obasi, and Anyawu [4,[8][9][10] in Nigeria have employed largely income-consumption-based approach, which does not account for other necessary well-being variables, like health and living conditions of the people. Hence, monetarybased antipoverty policies were proffered. ...
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... In process outcome practical work, learners learn to: use standard laboratory instruments, set up and use standard apparatus, carry out standard procedures, plan investigations, process data, use data to support conclusions, and communicate the results. This implies that participation in practical work is based on apprenticeship (Anyanwu, 2013), and may take the form of demonstrations (Pekmenz et al., 2005). Practical work is widely accepted as an important component in the teaching and learning of science concepts (Toplis & Allen, 2012). ...
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... The positioning of the inquiry substantially deviates from recent inclusive development literature that has focused on, among others, nexuses with poverty (Anyanwu, 2013a(Anyanwu, , 2014a; linkages between poverty, inequality and growth (Fosu, 2010abc, 2011gender inequality ( (Baliamoune-Lutz, 2007;Baliamoune-Lutz, & McGillivray, 2009;Elu & Loubert, 2013;Anyanwu, 2013bAnyanwu, , 2014b; recent advances in finance for sustainable and inclusive development (Asongu & De Moor, 2015); inclusive growth measurements (Anand et al., 2013;Mlachila et al., 2017) and inclusive development from globalization-driven debts and investment (2013a). ...
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Bruno Domingos/ReutersAn apartment building in front of the Rocinha shanty town in Rio de Janeiro. The city of Rio de Janeiro is infamous for the fact that one can look out from a precarious shack on a hill in a miserable favela and see practically into the window of a luxury high-rise condominium. Parts of Brazil look like southern California. Parts of it look like Haiti. Many countries display great wealth side by side with great poverty. But until recently, Brazil was the most unequal country in the world. Today, however, Brazil's level of economic inequality is dropping at a faster rate than that of almost any other country. Between 2003 and 2009, the income of poor Brazilians has grown seven times as much as the income of rich Brazilians. Poverty has fallen during that time from 22 percent of the population to 7 percent. Contrast this with the United States, where from 1980 to 2005, more than four-fifths of the increase in Americans' income went to the top 1 percent of earners. (see this great series in Slate by Timothy Noah on American inequality) Productivity among low and middle-income American workers increased, but their incomes did not. If current trends continue, the United States may soon be more unequal than Brazil.