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Mindsets and employee engagement: Theoretical linkages and practical interventions

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... Indicator 4: Employee's Growth Mind-Set The growth mindset of employees is affected by the change in lifestyle choices, occupational comfort, quality of work and work commitment of employees (Zhang et al., 2021). The growth mind-set of employees stands out with the assumption that employees could greatly develop their abilities (Heslin, 2010). The growth mind-set of employees enhances the employee's zeal for development, alertness for the information and utilizing efforts (Heslin, 2010). ...
... The growth mind-set of employees stands out with the assumption that employees could greatly develop their abilities (Heslin, 2010). The growth mind-set of employees enhances the employee's zeal for development, alertness for the information and utilizing efforts (Heslin, 2010). The employee's growth-mind-set helps to predict the continuum of improvement and failure in employee's performance (Heslin et al, 2010;Keating & Heslin, 2015). ...
... The growth mind-set of employees enhances the employee's zeal for development, alertness for the information and utilizing efforts (Heslin, 2010). The employee's growth-mind-set helps to predict the continuum of improvement and failure in employee's performance (Heslin et al, 2010;Keating & Heslin, 2015). Individuals with broad An empirical study on Personal Factors of Employee Engagement in BPO Industry mind-set believes in the plasticity of their personal characteristics and traits (Canning et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose: The paper explores Personal Factors as one of the factors of Employee Engagement of the employees. Employee's Personal factors comprises the intrinsic motivation of employees. It implies that employees are satisfied on the job. Methodology: A survey of 350 employees was conducted across 5 NASSCOM listed BPO companies. The itemized scale used in study consisted of 5 items. To understand the relationship, chi-square analysis is performed. Findings: The results indicated that there is positive association between Personal factors and Demographic characteristics of employees. Research implications In this study, the researcher will attempt to bridge the gap between theory and practice in terms of Employee engagement. The dimensions related to the Personal factor identified will form the base for further investigation in BPO Industry. Practical implications: The study will also add to the body of knowledge on Employee engagement, allowing future researchers to investigate a more comprehensive view of Employee engagement. Social implications: The study will prove to be beneficial with a Industry plagued with retention and turnover issues. Originality/Value: The study is focused towards evaluating Personal factors in terms of Employee engagement. Therefore, act as a management fad towards fixing the issues related with employees in the Industries.
... Although it seems too simple, the notion of implicit theory has proven to be influential and has had considerable implications on human behaviour. Consistent evidence across studies revealed that increment theory is associated with adaptive outcomes, while entity theory is associated with maladaptive outcomes and in many different contexts: academic achievement (Komarraju & Nadler, 2013), professional learning and development, workplace learning (Meyer, 2012), work engagement (Heslin, 2010), managerial styles and many others (see book for a wide spectrum of implicit theory's influences). ...
... In the higher educational context, one may further argue that staff members should be responsive to change; it is not expected that administrations are interested in offering projects, initiatives, policies and new technologies for their staff which then face resistance and reluctance from the employees. The fact of the matter is that administrators at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are keen to provide an environment where employees' work is appreciated and respected; their opinion is involved in the decisions at higher levels; and where an optimal level of autonomy and discretion are offered (Heslin, 2010). Yet these efforts have not resulted in comprehensive understanding of the individual differences in the willingness to adopt changes . ...
... A considerable amount of literature has demonstrated the role of implicit theories in predicting individual differences in a variety of human behaviours. Some examples are an interest in professional learning and development (Thadani, Breland, & Dewar, 2010, workplace learning (Meyer, 2012), work engagement (Heslin, 2010), managerial styles , academic achievement (Komarraju & Nadler, 2013), self-handicapping in physical education (Ommundsen, 2001) and many others . ...
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Today, intense competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) is ongoing to achieve cutting-edge publications, attain research funding, possess scientific patents, keep abreast of emerging technologies and adapt quickly to everyday changes.Innovativeness has become the buzzword in HEIs, especially in those seeking prosperity and advancement. Innovativeness here refers to the individual’s disposition to accept changes, try new experiences, deal with ambiguity, take risks and embrace novel ideas. In the digital age, staff members experience nonstop changes in their workplace environments and have no option but to welcome such changes with open arms. Otherwise, they will most likely get a warm job farewell party. Despite the obvious significance of individual innovativeness, there remains a paucity of evidence on the antecedents and consequences of individual innovativeness in higher education.Two aims were established for this doctoral dissertation. For one, the dissertation sought to investigate the psychological and organisational factors contributing to individual innovativeness. For the other, the dissertation pursued the examination ofthe consequences of innovativeness and provided evidence on whether models studied in business and management fields are also valid for the higher education context. This article-based dissertation consists of four publications. Each one forms a part of the whole project. Study I, which was dedicated to organisational factors, explored how staff members perceive the cultures and growth atmospheres and the relationship between them in their departments/schools. It also examined whether differences exist in cultural perceptions based on staff members’ demographic variables. Study II, which was dedicated to psychological factors, examined the roles of implicit theory and goal orientation as predictors of innovativeness. Study IIIinvestigated the interaction between psychological factors (implicit theory and goal orientation) and organisational culture in predicting innovativeness. Study IV had a twofold objective. It inspected the staff members’ usage of technological devices, Office 365 (O365) Cloud services and social media. It also set out to prove the power of individual innovativeness in predicting technology usage. The research followed a cross-sectional correlational survey design. A total sample of 742 staff members working at Tampere University participated in the research. Two online self-reported questionnaires were administered during the 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 academic years. We analysed the data employing basic and advanced statistics, including structural equation modelling (SEM) and multilevel Bayesian path analysis.The findings suggested that one’s goal orientations are most relevant in interpreting his/her innovativeness or willingness to change. More specifically, individuals adopting mastery goal orientations (focusing on learning and improving one’s knowledge and skills) are more likely to be innovators, whereas individuals adopting performance-avoidance goal orientations (avoiding looking incompetent and incapable relative to others) are less likely to be innovators. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the dominant perceived culture at Tampere HEIs is Clan culture, which is characterised by coherent relationships among staff members and considerable attention p aid to their professional development and gratification.In addition, only the Clan and Adhocracy culture types were found to supportprofessional growth. Contrary to previous studies, this dissertation showed that departmental culture had neither a direct effect on innovativeness nor a moderation effect on the relationships between psychological factors and innovativeness. In terms of consequences, the results showed that technology wassatisfactorily used by the staff members, although their professional usage was less than their personal usage. Our findings also confirmed that innovativeness is a significant positive–albeit weak–predictor of staff members’ usage of devices, non-academic social media and institutional O 365 services. Finally, the dissertation showed that academics who were earlier adopters of academic social media and commercial services were later adopters of institutional O365 services.The findings have a number of important implications for theory and practice.Theoretically, this dissertation is one of the first attempts to integrate implicit theory and goal orientation, together with organisational culture, into one model predicting innovativeness. The model is also among the few that employ a multilevel modelling technique, which is more appropriate for this kind of data. It is worth noting that the results of the multilevel analysis emphasised the essential role of goal orientations, but not implicit theory, in predicting innovativeness. These results call researchers to revisit the mediation role of goal orientation between implicit theory and human attributes, taking into account the nested structure of their data. Moreover, this dissertation calls for a re-examination of the role of culture, taking the type of institution into account (academic vs business). Practically, the findings suggest several implications for HEI administrators and practitioners. First, the dissertation draws the attention of managers in that by allowing the staff flexibility, discretion and autonomy, this implicitly guarantees their professional growth. Second, administrators and supervisors should stimulate staff members’ orientations towards mastery goals and inhibit their orientations towards performance-avoidance go als. For example, feedback and appraisal should be self -referenced rather than other-referenced based. The criterion for performance judgment should focus on efforts rather than ability. Third, HEIs should take wise and fast decisions about technology adoption because late adoption implicitly means that staff members will resort to other commercial alternatives.
... Mindsets embody people's assumption that their traits are changeable or unchangeable. A fixed mindset means that a person believes that one's abilities are permanent and essential, while a growth mindset implies that abilities are changeable and evolving (Heslin, 2010;Dweck, 2006). The components of mindsets, in this sense, are the attitudes of the respondents towards the variability of intelligence and towards the variability of the essential nature of the man. ...
... The components of mindsets, in this sense, are the attitudes of the respondents towards the variability of intelligence and towards the variability of the essential nature of the man. In this paper we will focus on the impact of mindsets on business performance, where, according to Heslin (2010), the effects of it can be found in several areas: their desire for development, attitude towards work, psychological presence and interpretation of obstacles. People in a growth mindset do not see teachers/managers/other people as those who assess and evaluate them but see them as resources for their growth, learning, and development. ...
Conference Paper
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Empathy enhances leadership effectiveness. In times of the pandemic and increased commitment to fostering diversity and inclusion, it is considered an essential ingredient of leadership. The importance of empathy in leadership is especially emphasized in global organizations operating in a cross-cultural and multicultural environment. This study aims to develop a multi-level conceptual framework of the impact of empathy on leadership effectiveness in the field of business management. For this purpose, a systematic literature review based on Web of Science and Scopus databases has been conducted. The content analysis method was used to analyze and synthesize qualitative data. The research results show that empathy enhances leadership effectiveness through its extensive effects on the level of leader, followers, and organization. It contributes to raising self-awareness, developing listening and mentoring skills, and enhancing the relationships of the leader as an individual. On the followers’ level, empathy in leadership is associated with improving well-being, empowering, and providing role models in developing emotional intelligence. It enhances organizational effectiveness by inspiring diversity and inclusion, increasing employee engagement and retention, and creating a culture of responsibility, care, and innovation. These findings have practical implications for leadership and organizational development specialists, human resources managers, and business leaders. The interdisciplinary nature of the topic calls for the collaboration of researchers from the fields of business economics, psychology, and neuroscience to advance future research on empathy in leadership.
... Mindsets embody people's assumption that their traits are changeable or unchangeable. A fixed mindset means that a person believes that one's abilities are permanent and essential, while a growth mindset implies that abilities are changeable and evolving (Heslin, 2010;Dweck, 2006). The components of mindsets, in this sense, are the attitudes of the respondents towards the variability of intelligence and towards the variability of the essential nature of the man. ...
... The components of mindsets, in this sense, are the attitudes of the respondents towards the variability of intelligence and towards the variability of the essential nature of the man. In this paper we will focus on the impact of mindsets on business performance, where, according to Heslin (2010), the effects of it can be found in several areas: their desire for development, attitude towards work, psychological presence and interpretation of obstacles. People in a growth mindset do not see teachers/managers/other people as those who assess and evaluate them but see them as resources for their growth, learning, and development. ...
Conference Paper
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In this publication we set an objectively complicated task to analyse the opportunities of strategic decision-making during crisis by attempting to make a partial analysis of the ongoing crisis caused by the COVID 19 pandemic and the emerged military conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Crisis circumstances require societies to quickly rethink and develop adequate strategies and respectively to formulate strategic goals and plan processes. In many cases preliminary analysis and assessment are practically impossible /especially when it comes to natural disasters or crises/ and this requires a different operational order of problem solving, which includes formulating new unconventional goals and then implementing planning not objectified by a particular and accurate analysis. All this puts whole systems and societies to the test, and those who are empowered to manage the process – under high pressure from unforeseen circumstances and not always objective judgments. Which, in turn, creates a number of subsequent critical issues in the management process.
... Mindsets embody people's assumption that their traits are changeable or unchangeable. A fixed mindset means that a person believes that one's abilities are permanent and essential, while a growth mindset implies that abilities are changeable and evolving (Heslin, 2010;Dweck, 2006). The components of mindsets, in this sense, are the attitudes of the respondents towards the variability of intelligence and towards the variability of the essential nature of the man. ...
... The components of mindsets, in this sense, are the attitudes of the respondents towards the variability of intelligence and towards the variability of the essential nature of the man. In this paper we will focus on the impact of mindsets on business performance, where, according to Heslin (2010), the effects of it can be found in several areas: their desire for development, attitude towards work, psychological presence and interpretation of obstacles. People in a growth mindset do not see teachers/managers/other people as those who assess and evaluate them but see them as resources for their growth, learning, and development. ...
Conference Paper
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This article briefly analyses the works of Acad. Mihail Arnaudov. He is an author of insightful research of a number of classics of the Bulgarian and world literature. His determination and persistence with which he worked on his research are incredible and admirable. The long-lasting research activity of Acad. Mihail Arnaudov is “sealed” on the pages of books, periodicals, prints and thematically collected clippings from Bulgarian and foreign publications. With the help of his numerous research works covering the topic of Bulgarian National Revival, Acad. Mihail Arnaudov managed to realize his noble ambition – to create a scientific epic of the spiritual leaders of his people, or the “Unforgettable” as he called them himself, during one of the most difficult and most glorious periods in the Bulgarian history. And with even more passion he kept studying life and works of postliberation writers.
... Mindset also has an impact on employee engagement. It manifests itself in forms of higher zeal for development, increased exertion, mental presence and making sense of failures (Heslin, 2010) A deeper understanding of the concept of a growth mindset and the ability to apply it in one's life can be an advantage (Dweck 2016). It leads to higher levels of self-awareness of one's present state and can be helpful in deciding the way forward. ...
... Mindsets are very important for every employee to capture their resilience as well as their extent of personal resources in their work performance. Mindsets can influence employee's engagement in the way of psychological presence, zeal for development and interpretation of setbacks (Heslin, 2010). Employee mindsets are very crucial for striving success in their innovative task performance and also for organizational performance. ...
... On the other hand, an individual with a fixed mindset, namely entity theory, believe that one's basic qualities cannot be altered and are static (Dweck, 2009;Yeager and Dweck, 2012). Previous research demonstrated that growth mindset could contribute to the improvement of work engagement among employees in organizational environments (Heslin, 2010;Keating and Heslin, 2015) as well as teachers and students in school settings (Blackwell et al., 2007;Zeng et al., 2016Zeng et al., , 2019. This is because people who viewed intelligence as malleable quality, instead of static and fixed one, would have more positive beliefs about efforts, be more engaged in their work, and persist longer when faced setbacks and difficulties (Blackwell et al., 2007). ...
Article
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This study aimed to explore the cognitive and affective factors that predict the Psychological capital (PsyCap) of Chinese primary school teachers. The participants were 1,384 teachers from 34 primary schools in Chengdu city, in southwestern part of China. A resource model of PsyCap was proposed and tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The model was tested with two independent variables of growth mindset and well-being as predictors of PsyCap. Results showed that both cognitive construct (i.e., growth mindset) and affective construct (i.e., well-being) were positively and significantly related to the PsyCap. In addition, SEM results indicated a significant influence of both growth mindset and well-being on all the variables of PsyCap (i.e., Efficacy, Hope, Optimism, and Resilience). Explanations and implications were discussed for the findings, and some limitations were also discussed.
Conference Paper
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Teacher's well-being has shown close association with resilience, job commitment, teaching satisfaction, positive identities and relationship with others, effective teaching and teacher retention. Despite the increasing literature investigating teachers' well-being and its related constructs, a number of limitations can be observed. The focus of these studies are limited to: (1) negative constructs of well-being, (2) unidimensional or one-factor model of well-being, and (3) antecedents and consequences of well-being sample from high-income countries. There is a dearth of studies examining teacher's well-being in low middle income countries marked by poorly functioning educational delivery system, poor working conditions, lack of resources, low salaries, and poor management. Thus, the primary goal of this study is to examine teacher's well-being based on Seligman's PERMA model (positive emotions, engagement, relationship, meaning, and accomplishments) and how it mediates the direct influence and relationship of teachers' implicit beliefs of their ability and teachers' embeddedness to teaching profession. A sample of 547 public elementary and secondary school teachers answered a series of questionnaires that includes Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Organizational Virtuousness Scale, Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II, and Job Embeddedness Scale. Using mediational analysis, results showed that Engagement, Relationships, and Accomplishments are the most significant mediators between incremental belief of teaching ability and job embeddedness, while Accomplishment is the only significant mediator between Entity belief (Fixed) of teaching ability and teachers' job embeddedness. This implies that teachers who believe that their teaching abilities are changeable through effort and learning are more likely to be engaged in their work and activities, develop healthy relationships at workplace and form affiliation to the school and community, and develop a sense of competence significantly influencing the decision to stay and embed in the teaching profession. On the other hand, teachers who hold entity belief believe in unchangeable ability show persistence, determination, capability in doing daily school activities. The results are relevant particularly in the incorporation of programs and interventions focusing on developing novice and long-term professional teachers in developing their well-being and job embeddedness.
Article
Research has demonstrated the growing prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) across continents, industries and occupations as well as the associated negative outcomes (Glomb et al. 1999). Not surprisingly, job satisfaction is one of the job-related variables that is frequently investigated in the SH literature, with Lapierre et at (2005) meta-analytically establishing that SH significantly diminishes job satisfaction. Other studies have argued, however, that 'satisified' employees do not necessarily perform to the best of their abilities (Crossman & Abou-Zaki 2003) and that work engagement is a better construct to understand what makes employees 'go the extra mile' (Hallgerg & Schaufeli 2006; Buckingham & Coffman 1999). This study, conducted in Australia, adopted the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli et al. 2002a), as an empirical gauge of the construct 'work engagement' and the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (Fitzgerald et al. 1988) to measure SH. A strong negative relationship was established in addition to significant differences in the SH experiences of men and women.
Article
Traditionally, researchers have conceptualized implicit theories as individual differences-lay theories that vary between people. This article, however, investigates the consequences of organization-level implicit theories of intelligence. In five studies, the authors examine how an organization's fixed (entity) or malleable (incremental) theory of intelligence affects people's inferences about what is valued, their self- and social judgments, and their behavioral decisions. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors find that people systematically shift their self-presentations when motivated to join an entity or incremental organization. People present their "smarts" to the entity environment and their "motivation" to the incremental environment. In Studies 3a and 4, they show downstream consequences of these inferences for participants' self-concepts and their hiring decisions. In Study 3b, they demonstrate that the effects are not due to simple priming. The implications for understanding how environments shape cognition and behavior and, more generally, for implicit theories research are discussed.