Crush, J. and Chikanda, A. (2014) Forced Migration in Southern Africa. In E. Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, G. Loescher, K. Long and N. Sigona (Eds) The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies (pp. 554-570). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-965243-3.

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... The Southern African region has witnessed significant changes over the past five decades in terms of both the magnitude and spatial patterns of refugee movements (Crush & Chikanda, 2014). In the period 1960-1980, the struggle for independence against colonial powers, which took an armed dimension in several countries, led to significant involuntary population movement within the region (Akokpari, 1998;Azevedo, 2002;Mazur, 1989;Zinyama, 1990). ...
This paper refocuses attention on refugee movements into Zimbabwe, a subject which has largely been ignored in academic literature for the past two decades. The paper provides a detailed analysis of the geographical patterns of refugee flows into Zimbabwe against a backdrop of changing economic and political conditions in the country. Even though Zimbabwe’s refugee policy allows for the integration of refugees into towns and villages, the government prefers to have refugees settle in camps where they can receive support from the UNHCR and other humanitarian groups. Ultimately, the goal of the Zimbabwe’s refugee protection programme is repatriation. Keywords: Refugees; Zimbabwe; displacement, encampment; repatriation
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Of the five chapters, the first three chapters consider issues that are foundational to the efficient working of any immigration regime: citizenship, identification and registration law. The final two chapters focus more centrally on immigration and refugee law. However, it is argued that harmonization of practices and standards in the first two areas would not only improve and simplify management but would also facilitate the process of harmonizing immigration, migration and refugee law within SADC.
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South Africa's migration policing policy has not changed substantially since the demise of apartheid. Tactics used by the police in recent operations are dramatically similar to apartheid policing practices. While some amendments to the legislative regime have aimed to protect human rights, the structures introduced have failed to make any impact. The discretion allowed to police has contributed to the institutional and symbolic entrenchment of the lack of legal status for undocumented migrants. At the level of implementation, the police and the army have played major roles in migration policing with no more than administrative oversight from the Department of Home Affairs. The policing strategy pursued has been one of border control backed up with intrusive and extensive internal military-style policing. Corruption is an institutional feature of both the arrest and detention of undocumented migrants. Numerous human rights abuses occur in the arrest and detention of undocumented migrants as well as of refugees. Despite the embarrassing attention of domestic and foreign human rights organizations exposing certain instances of abuse, the principal features of this policing strategy have remained intact and human rights abuses have continued through to the present.
This report provides an overview of the provision of social protection to refugees and asylum seekers from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). This includes analyzing the legal framework and levels of implementation, as well as proposing policy directions on the national and regional levels. After giving an overview of the region's historical and legal context, the report focuses on the case studies of Botswana and South Africa to illustrate the wide variation of social protection framework and practices in the region.
Was the "mfecane" a figment of historians' imagination as Julian Cobbing contends? How large a responsibility do Shaka and the Zulu people bear for the social turbulence in South-central and South-east Africa in the early decades of the 19th century? These are some of the issues explored in this collection, which is designed as a response to the radical critique of Dr Cobbing and other scholars. The "mfecane", suggests Cobbing, must be seen as a myth lying at the root of a set of interlinked assumptions and distortions that have seriously twisted our understanding of the main historical processes of late 18th- and early 19th-century Southern Africa. Contributors to this collection assess the implications of this critique for scholars from a range of disciplines, notably history, anthropology, archaeology, history of art and African languages. But the book is not only about the debate over Cobbing's work; it is also an indicator of the state of current scholarship in Southern Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries and, because it raises questions about the nature of sources and, indeed, about the nature of historical debate itself, it is also about historiography. This book should provide a useful guide for students starting out in this field, as well as a resource for established scholars seeking their way through the textual intricacies of varied editions and secondary texts that become the primary sources for historiographical debate.
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