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IMPACT OF PRODUCT PACKAGING ON CONSUMER’S BUYING BEHAVIOR

Authors:
  • Indus University Karachi Pakistan

Abstract

The objective of this study is to determine role of packaging on consumer’s buying behavior. The purpose of this research is to examine the essential factors, which are driving the success of a brand. This research also identified the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. This is the primary research and data has been collected through questionnaire and for analysis purpose SPSS software has been used. In this study samples of 150 respondents has been collected and tested the reliability of the model. According to the finding of the research study, it has been observed that the packaging is the most important factor. It is further concluded that the packaging elements like its Colour, Packaging material, Design of Wrapper and innovation are more important factors when consumers making any buying decision. Finally it has also been concluded that the Packaging is one of the most important and powerful factor, which influences consumer’s purchase decision.
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European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN: 1450-216X / 1450-202X
Vol. 122 (2): 125-134, April 2014
DOI: http://www.europeanjournalofscientificresearch.com/issues/EJSR_122_2.html
IMPACT OF PRODUCT PACKAGING ON CONSUMER’S BUYING BEHAVIOR
AHMED RIZWAN RAHEEM1, PARMAR VISHNU2 AND AMIN MUHAMMAD AHMED3
E"mail:(rizwanraheemahmed@gmail.com
Tel: +92-300-8293560 & +92-321-8400465
"
1,3Department of Business Administration & Commerce, INDUS UNIVERSITY, Karachi, PAKISTAN
2,Institute of Business Administration, SINDH UNIVERSITY, Jamshoro, PAKISTAN
Abstract: The objective of this study is to determine role of packaging on consumer’s buying behavior. The
purpose of this research is to examine the essential factors, which are driving the success of a brand. This
research also identified the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. This is the primary
research and data has been collected through questionnaire and for analysis purpose SPSS software has been
used. In this study samples of 150 respondents has been collected and tested the reliability of the model.
According to the finding of the research study, it has been observed that the packaging is the most important
factor. It is further concluded that the packaging elements like its Colour, Packaging material, Design of
Wrapper and innovation are more important factors when consumers making any buying decision. Finally it has
also been concluded that the Packaging is one of the most important and powerful factor, which influences
consumer’s purchase decision.
Key Words: Packaging, Buying behavior, Purchase decision, independent & dependent variables
INTRODUCTION
Now, packaging has become itself a sales promotion tool for the organizations. The consumer’s buying
behavior also stimulated by the packaging quality, color, wrapper, and other characteristics of packaging.
Packaging is a whole package that becomes an ultimate selling proposition, which stimulates impulse buying
behavior. Packaging increases sales and market share and reduces market and promotional costs. According to
Rundh (2005) package appeals consumer’s attentiveness towards a certain brand, increases its image, and
stimulates consumer’s perceptions about product. Furthermore, packaging conveys distinctive value to products
(Underwood, 2003; Silayoi, & Speece, 2007), packaging works as an instrument for differentiation, and helps
consumers to decide the product from wide range of parallel products, packaging also stimulates customer’s
buying behavior (Wells, Farley & Armstrong, 2007).
Previous researches show that there is no agreement on overall classification of packaging material and
package elements. There is also disagreement regarding the methods of package impact on consumer’s buying
behavior decision. Several researchers attempt to examine all potential elements of packaging and their effect on
consumer’s buying decision (Butkeviciene, Stravinskiene, & Rutelione, 2008), however others focus on distinct
elements of packaging and their influence on consumer purchasing behavior (Ampuero & Vila, 2006; Madden,
Hewett, & Roth, M, 2000; Underwood, Klein, & Burke, 2001; Bloch, 1995). Furthermore, some researchers
explore the impact of packaging and its features on consumer’s whole purchase decision (Underwood, Klein, &
Burke, 2001), whereas, some others on each step of consumer’s decision making process (Butkeviciene,
Stravinskiene, & Rutelione, 2008).
Brand image and advertisement have strong positive influence and significant relationship with
Consumer’s buying behavior. People perceive the brand image with positive attitude. Study depicted that
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teenagers in Gujranwala are more conscious about their social status so they prefer branded products and
advertisement affects on their Consumer Buying Behaviour positively (Malik, Ghafoor, Iqbal, Ali, Hunbal,
Noman, and Ahmed, 2013).
The purpose of this research is constructed on hypothetical analysis of packaging components and their
influence on consumer’s buying behavior decision. This empirical study uncovers the features, which are having
the eventual influence on consumer’s choice, when multiple and different choices are available.
Objectives of the Study
To Find Out the effect of packaging on the buying behavior decision.
To check the effect of packaging elements on the buying behavior.
To measure the relative impact of each packaging element on the consumer.
To identify the elements, which should be highlighted while design the packaging.
Research Question
To identify the role of packaging on consumer buying behavior decision
PREVIOUS RESEARCH
Packaging acts multidimensional functions. It offers knowledge about the product and organization, a
technique to communicate with consumers and safeguard to the quality of product (Silayoi & Speece, 2007).
According to Rita Kuvykaite1 (2009) the study reveals the self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle
having the ultimate effect on consumer choice. Increase in impulse buying behavior labeling is also
communicating to the customer.
Saeed, Lodhi, Mukhtar, Hussain, Mahmood and Ahmad (2013), integrate the brand image, brand
attachment and environmental effects and their impact on consumer purchase decision. Results elaborates that
brand image don’t have a positive relation with purchase decision, brand attachment has a moderate positive
relation with purchase decision and environmental effects but don’t have a positive relation with purchase
decision (Ahmed & Kazim, 2011).
The consumers purchase more quantity of the products, after looking a well-labeled product. Therefore
labeling influences the consumer buying behavior, but there are some other factors also, which influence the
consumer buying behavior (Saeed, Lodhi, Rauf, Rana, Mahmood & Ahmed, 2013).
In recent times, people are becoming more concerned towards green purchasing because of a grown
consciousness for environmental protection. Green purchasing is essentially the act of buying environmental
friendly products. The research model in this study examines the consequences of predictor variables
(environmental concern, organizational green image and environmental knowledge) upon criterion variable
(green purchase intention) with the moderating effect of perceived product price and quality (Underwood, 2003;
Rettie & Brewer, 2000; Barber, Almanza, & Donovan, 2006). Adelina & Morgan (2007) conclude that
Packaging could be treated as one of the most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications; Packaging
has an important impact on consumers buying behavior. The impact of packaging and its elements can impact
the consumer’s purchase decision (Ahmed et.al, 2014)
According to Karbasivar & Yarahmadi (2011), more apparel impulse buying and promotional
approaches (cash discount) usage between sample, as well as in-store form display (window display) has
important role to encourage consumers to buying impulse. They can gift complementary products to encourage
consumer to buying impulse. Also sealers can increase apparel impulse buying with decorating their stores in
modern style and use attractive lights and colours. The result of the study proves that there is a pivotal
relationship between window display, credit card, promotional activities (discount, free product) and consumer
impulse buying behaviour (Alice, 2006).
According to Erzsebet & Zoltan (2007) both the qualitative and quantitative research showed that
respondents adopted similar risk reduction strategies in their purchase of baby care products. This research
investigated consumer perceptions and buying behavior of baby care products. The results of the primary
research showed that consumers’ needs satisfied with the product in terms of reliability and performance and
packaging.
According to Butkeviciene, Stravinskiene and A. Rutelione (2008), impulse buying is indeed a relevant
factor in CE retailing, thus justifying the use of sales packaging. However, optimization is still important. From
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an economical and environmental perspective it is very costly to apply sales packaging (with additional material
use and transport volume) to products that do not need them, or to apply them in an ineffective way.
Saeed, Lodhi, Mukhtar, Hussain, Mahmood and Ahmad (2011), integrate the brand image, brand
attachment and environmental effects and their impact on consumer purchase decision. Results elaborates that
brand image don’t have a positive relation with purchase decision, brand attachment has a moderate positive
relation with purchase decision and environmental effects but don’t have a positive relation with purchase
decision (Ahmed, Arif & Meenai, 2012).
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework between independent and dependent variables can be expressed as follows:
Independent Variable
Packaging color
Color plays an important role in a potential customer’s decision-making process, certain
colors set different moods and can help to draw attention.
Packaging Material
Any material used especially to protect something- packing, wadding. Consumer can change
its decision regarding Packaging material. High quality Packaging attract consumer then low quality
Packaging. So packaging material has strong impact on buying behavior.
Design of wrapper
The overall design also plays a vital role in attracting the consumer. Mostly the children of 10-
18 years are so sensitive to the design of wrapper. The companies try their best to create attractive
design of packaging.
Innovation
Innovative packaging may actually add value to the product if it meets a consumer need such
as portion control, recyclability, tamper-proofing, child-proofing, easy-open, easy-store, easy-carry,
Independent'Variable'
Packaging(Color(
Packaging(Material(
Design(of(Wrapper(
Innovation(
Dependent'Variable'
Consumer’s"Buying"Behavior"
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and non breakability.
Dependent Variable
Consumer Buying Behavior
Tools of Data Collection
In order to find data on role of packaging on consumer buying behavior, we will collect data on four
variables: The first benefit to use questionnaire technique is that result.
Sampling Technique & Sample
The population of my study will be students and educational institutions of Karachi in which the
sample size of 150 students will be taken for conducting the study by using simple random sampling in order to
generalize the finding in the particular sector.
Measures
There were at least 13 questions in the survey obtaining data for one variable and some questions were
directly obtaining with no complications. Measure for each variable is defined below:
Each variable was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5-points itemized rating type
scale ranging from (1) strongly disagrees to (5) strongly agree.
Methodology for Analysis of Data
To make analysis of data it will use SPSS software in which we will make analysis in to two parts
where part one will lead descriptive statistics that will be use to describe and summarize data and include
measures of central tendency (average) and dispersion (the spread of data or how close each other is to the
measure of central tendency).
Descriptive analysis
It is used first techniques for generating result is descriptive statistics. It shows minimum, maximum,
and mean values of data.
Correlation
The Pearson's correlation is used to find a correlation between at least two continuous variables. The
value for a Pearson's can fall between 0.00 (no correlation) and 1.00 (perfect correlation). Other factors such as
group size will determine if the correlation is significant. Generally, correlations above 0.80 are considered
pretty high.
DATA ANALYSIS & FINDINGS
Descriptive Analysis
The results of descriptive analysis show as follows:
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Table: 1
Descriptive Statistics (Buying Behavior)
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Buying Behavior Valid N
(list-wise)
1
5
3.74
0.931
In the above table 1 the minimum values, maximum values, mean values and the values of standard
deviation of dependent Variable have been shown. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of
the values of a variable. Number of observations of each variable is 150. Standard deviation and the extreme
values (minimum in comparison to Maximum value) give the idea about the dispersion of the values of a
variable from its mean value. The Minimum value is 1 while Maximum value is 5. The Mean value is 3.74
with standard deviation of 0.931.
Table: 2
Descriptive Statistics (Packaging Color)
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Packing Color
Valid N (list-wise)
1
5
3.65
0.944
In the above table 2 the minimum values is 1, maximum values 5, and mean values 3.65 while the
values of standard deviation is 0.944. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of
a variable. Number of observations of each variable is 150.
Table: 3
Descriptive Statistics (Quality Packing)
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Quality Packing Valid N
(list-wise)
1
5
3.75
0.925
The above table 3 the minimum value of 1 and maximum value of 5. The values can be deviated by
0.925, which means that the mean value can varied by +0.925 or - 0.925. The mean value is 3.75.
Table: 4
Descriptive Statistics (Wrapper Design)
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Wrapper Design
Valid N (list-wise)
1
5
3.69
0.897
In the above table 4 the minimum values is 1, maximum values 5, and mean value is 3.69 whereas, the
values of standard deviation is 0.897. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of
a variable
Table: 5
Descriptive Statistics (Packing Innovation)
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Packing Innovation Valid
N (list-wise)
1
5
3.65
0.965
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In the above table 5 the minimum values is 1, maximum values 5, and mean value is 3.65 whereas, the
values of standard deviation is 0.965. Mean value provides the idea about the central tendency of the values of a
variable.
Pearson Correlation
Hypothesis: 1
H1: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing color
Table: 6
Correlation b/w Buying Behavior & Packing Color
N
Buying Behavior
Packing Color
Buying Behavior
Pearson Correlation
1
0.589
Sig. (2-tailed) N
150
0.000149
Packing Color
Pearson Correlation
0.589
1
Sig. (2-tailed) N
0.000149
150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Table 6 represents the table of correlations. Where two variables buying behavior and Packing color
are positively correlated (r= 0.589, p = 0.000149). There is moderate relation between these two variables,
which is significant. So Hypothesis is accepted. So we can say that the attractive packaging color can attract
consumer. Consumer likes the colored packaging. It also implies that using attractive colors in packaging we
can grab customer attention.
Hypothesis: 2
H2: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Quality of Packing.
Table: 7
Correlations b/w Buying Behavior & Quality Packing
N
Buying Behavior
Quality Packing
Buying Behavior
Pearson Correlation
1
0.539
Sig. (2-tailed) N
150
0.000145
Quality Packing
Pearson Correlation
0.539
1
Sig. (2-tailed) N
0.000145
150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Table 7 represents the table of correlations. Where two variables buying behavior and Quality of Packing are
positively correlated (r= 0.539, p = 0.000145). There is moderate relation between these two variables, which is
significant, So, H2 cannot reject. The result is clears that the consumer also evaluates the products on the behalf
of its packaging quality. Customer proffers the better quality of package.
Hypothesis: 3
H3: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Wrapper Design.
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Table: 8
Correlations b/w Buying Behavior & Wrapper Design
N
Buying Behavior
Wrapper Design
Buying Behavior
Pearson Correlation
1
0.421
Sig. (2-tailed) N
150
0.000149
Wrapper Design
Pearson Correlation
0.421
1
Sig. (2-tailed) N
0.000149
150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 8 represents the table of correlations. Where two variables buying behavior and Wrapper Design are
positively correlated (r= 0.421, p = 0.000149). There is moderate relation between these two variables, which is
significant. Therefore, Hypothesis: H3 is accepted.
Hypothesis: 4
H4: there is relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing Innovation.
Table: 9
Correlations b/w Buying Behavior & Packing Innovation
N
Buying Behavior
Packing Innovation
Buying Behavior
Pearson Correlation
1
0.554
Sig. (2-tailed) N
150
0.000145
Packing Innovation
Pearson Correlation
0.554
1
Sig. (2-tailed) N
0.000145
150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-ailed).
Table 9 represents the table of correlations between two variables buying behavior and Innovation,
which is positively correlated (r= 0.554, p = 0.000145). There is moderate relation between these two variables,
which is significant. So, there is a significant relationship between Buying Behavior and Packing Innovation.
"
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion
Results of research study regarding the role of packaging on consumer’s buying behavior stipulated following
conclusions:
Packaging could be treated as one of the most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications,
necessitating more detail analysis of its elements and an impact of those elements on consumer’s
buying behavior.
Appropriate and vivid picture or packaging color, which delivers them a happy feeling, or an easy
handle/open/dose/dispose, package shape. All these elements contribute each important effort to catch
consumer’s attention and interest. Besides each element’s single function, we think that a good
combination of these elements may lead the product more eye-catching and attractive.
Analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice reveals the impact of
packaging and its elements on consumer’s purchase decision. For this purpose main package’s
elements has been identified: graphic, color, size, form, and material of packaging are considered,
wrapper design, innovation while product information, producer, country-of-origin and brand are
considered as important ones. Moreover, the impact of package elements on consumers purchase
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decisions has been evaluated, and it is concluded that it depends on the consumer’s involvement level,
time pressure or individual characteristics of consumers.
It has been Empirically tested the proposed research model, package elements, which are having the
ultimate effect on consumer choice; in a case of different products from group of convenience goods
were available.
It has also revealed that elements of packaging are the most important for consumer’s purchase
decision. For a major part of consumers’ attraction was a size of package and material are the main
visual elements, whereas, product information is also the main verbal elements when purchasing milk
and washing-powder.
Results analyzing the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions, depending on
level of involvement correspond with those of theoretical studies and that visual elements of package
have relatively stronger influence on consumer’s purchasing behavior when they are in the level of
“low involvement”, in contrary to those who are in the level of “high involvement”.
Packaging has a better reach than advertising does, and can set a brand apart from its competitors. It
promotes and reinforces the purchase decision not only at the point of purchase, but also every time the
product is used. Packaging in different serving sizes can extend a product into new target markets or
help to overcome cost barriers. Packaging can even drive the brand choice (especially in the context of
children’s products).
This Research has found that different packaging cues impact and` how a product is perceived. Often
the packaging is perceived to be part of the product and it can be difficult for consumers to separate the
two (the concept of gestalt). Aspects such as packaging color, typography, illustrations and graphics
can influence how a product is perceived.
According to this research, it is concluded that most consumers like the product quality after they
purchased their desired packaged product. Based on those facts, we cannot say there is a 100% equal
relationship between good package and good product quality, but there is a positive thinking and trend
about well-designed package shows high product quality.
As a matter of fact, people are becoming more and more demanding; packaging has been gradually
shown its important role in a way to serve consumers by providing information and delivering
functions. With its different functionality to ease and to communicate with consumers, there is no
doubt about increasingly important role of packaging as a strategic tool to attract consumers’ attention
and their perception on the product quality.
New product manufacturers mostly use the labels in their products. Basically they describe that when
made it, where it was made, how it was made, what it contains, how to use it etc. Furthermore, they
believe that labels to use the products properly guide the consumers. The information given in the label
and its value have to be highlighted while promoting the product in the market. It must also be more
useful technique
Recommendation
It is highly recommended to the marketing and business units that they should pay proper attention for
good packaging. If they accept or introduce the poor packaging then it could be one of the causes of
product failure in the market. It is necessary to set the packaging standard and to implement strategy
accordingly for better protection and promotion of a product.
Researcher believes that culture difference does have an impact on companies’ initiatives to design the
product package, for instance, during our research; the choices of packaging colors are quite different
between the West and Far East. Thus, it is recommended that it is important for international
companies to take a consideration of culture differences when they design the product package in
different parts of the World.
It is finally recommended that the marketers of the industry should not consider the packaging is the
solely factor for the success of any product, therefore, they should also take up other important factors
of the marketing while they are launching new products or revitalize old products.
It is also recommended to other researchers when they take up packaging then they should also
consider other factors and dimensions of marketing as well.
"
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"
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Science, Education and Innovations in the context of modern problems - SEI IMCRA - International Meetings and Conferences Research Association ISSN 2790-0169 / E-ISSN 2790-0177 October, 2021, Baku, ISSUE IV, VOL.IV
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This paper envisages with the analysis of Buying Behaviour originated from packaging and its associated factors. During the regress pandemic situations, the buyers have reacted in different ways. This research is an effort to measures such preferences which have been placed significantly in the minds of buyers with notable distinction upon online shopping mode. We have approached more than 700 consumers, but somehow only 387 responded adequately. We collected their data and asked about their demographics and preferences for specific dimensions through the questionnaire. We have applied various univariate and multivariate statistical techniques and found a significant relationship between packaging and buying behaviour. The present study focuses upon the buying behaviour of consumers derived from packaging and related variables. It is expected that the study will unquestionably add significant knowledge in the areas of consumer behaviour with extraordinary contrast to packaging and intermediary processes.
Article
It is difficult for Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to establish themselves in the market because of their relatively low brand awareness compared with well-known major corporates. Accordingly, Korean government operates a government-run television home shopping channel that only sells products of SMEs, serving as a shopping platform that guarantees brands from SMEs and connects them with consumers. This study introduces a public home shopping platform in South Korea and investigates the shopping experience of its consumers to provide implications to practitioners and researchers who prepare for a similar business model. To collect data on user experience, a subjective survey was conducted based on the critical incident technique. The survey response was analyzed with the Dirichlet-multinomial regression topic modeling to see how the shopping experience of public home shopping customers varies depending on customer loyalty.
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Brand image and advertisement play a crucial role to boost up any business performance as brand image is an implied tool which can positively change people's buying behaviors and advertisement is behaving as a driving force for any business as it's an effective source to convey your message and stay in customer's mind. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of brand image and advertisement on consumer buying behavior in the general public at Gujranwala city. Questionnaire survey was used to collect the data by using non probability convenient sampling technique. A sample of 200 questionnaires was used in which 175 responses were collected within the period of one month. Findings show that brand image and advertisement have strong positive influence and significant relationship with Consumer buying behavior. People perceive the brand image with positive attitude. Study depicted that teenagers in Gujranwala are more conscious about their social status so they prefer branded products and advertisement affects their Consumer Buying Behavior positively. In the last of article limitations of research, implications and suggestions for further research also included.
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The reason to conduct this research is to integrate the brand image, brand attachment and environmental effects and their impact on consumer purchase decision. Does environmental effects has some function while making purchase decision or people don't bother to think about this all. Either consumers want to be loyal and attach themselves with brands or they don't want to attach with one brand? Results elaborates that brand image don't have a positive relation with purchase decision, brand attachment has a moderate positive relation with purchase decision and environmental effects don't have a positive relation with purchase decision.
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This research comprises on the strategy and implementation mechanism to develop new product / methodology for ‘Copy Testing’. This report gives the overview about business and research objectives, research methodologies, summary of finding and recommendations based on the research findings. For any Company either operating in manufacturing or services sector, bringing innovation in existing products and services and developing new product and services is essential for sustainable growth. This new product development (NDP) initiative report in different phases: 1) First Phase – Business Potential and Expected Revenue growth in Oasis Revenue. Very encouraging picture has emerged. It is estimated that with proper model and branded solution of copy testing and its active marketing, Oasis can increase it revenue from copy testing from existing PKR 1.2 million annually to about PKR 6 million in a year time and increasing to PKR 15 million in 2 years time. 2) Second Phase – Devising an appropriate Copy Testing Model and Pre-Testing it in order to validate the results coming from this study. On the basis of literature review and past experience of working on copy testing researches on ad-hoc basis (without having any model) we proposed and devise a copy testing model accounting for both Persuasion school of thought and Recall school of thought however it would be more skewed towards persuasion school of thought. We worked out Smart Performance Index (SPI), which is the average of 3 key elements (namely Memorability, Likeability and Persuasion) of copy evaluation. The proposed model captures program embedded clutter recall and the three arrived measure of ad testing of a new ad are/will be compared with the Norms (derived from copy test researches done so far).
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The objective of this study is to determine role of packaging and labeling on Pakistaniconsumer’s Purchase decisions. The purpose of this research is to examine the essential factors, which are driving the success of a brand and how these factors motivate the consumers while he/she involves in purchase decisions for any particular brands of FMCGs goods. This research also identified the relationship between the dependent and independent variables who are main contributors in this whole purchase and motivation behavior. This is the primary research and data has been collected through questionnaire and for analysis purpose SPSS software has been used. In this study samples of 100 respondents has been collected and tested the reliability of the model. According to the finding of the research study, it has been observed that the packaging and Labeling are the most important factors. It is further concluded that the packaging elements like its Color, Packaging material, Design of Wrapper and innovation are more important factors while consumers making any buying decision. Finally it has also been concluded that the Packaging is one of the most important and powerful factor, which influences consumer’s purchase decision.
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The study was conducted to determine which elements of product packaging are the most significant and how they impact consumer buying behavior .Due to increasing self-service and changing consumer lifestyles, the internet in packaging as a tool of sales promotion and stimulator of impulsive buying behavior is growing increasingly. So packaging performs an important role in marketing and encouraging or even sometimes discouraging the consumer from buying a product, especially at the point of sale or at the time when a consumer is choosing from among different brands of similar products type. This could be treated as one of the most important factor influencing a consumer’s purchase decision. This study was conducted keeping in view the importance of product packaging and the great impact it can make on the purchase decision, after studying different aspects and components of packaging. It was found that the colors of packaging is the most important and significant feature at 1%, followed by a picture or image of the purchasing which is significant at 10%.
Article
Full-text available
This report contains the strategy and implementation mechanism to develop new product / methodology for „Copy Testing‟. This report gives the overview about business and research objectives, research methodologies, summary of finding and recommendations based on the research findings. For any Company either operating in manufacturing or services sector, bringing innovation in existing products and services and developing new product and services is essential for sustainable growth. We segregated this NPD initiative report in different phases:  First Phase – Business Potential and Expected Revenue growth in Oasis Revenue. Very encouraging picture has emerged. It is estimated that with proper model and branded solution of copy testing and its active marketing, Oasis can increase it revenue from copy testing from existing PKR 1.2 million annually to about PKR 6 million in a year time and increasing to PKR 15 million in 2 years time.  Second Phase – Devising an appropriate Copy Testing Model and Pre-Testing it in order to validate the results coming from this study. On the basis of literature review and past experience of working on copy testing researches on ad-hoc basis (without having any model) we proposed and devise a copy testing model accounting for both Persuasion school of thought and Recall school of thought however it would be more skewed towards persuasion school of thought. We worked out Smart Performance Index (SPI), which is the average of 3 key elements (namely Memorability, Likeability and Persuasion) of copy evaluation. The proposed model captures program embedded clutter recall and the three arrived measure of ad testing of a new ad are/will be compared with the Norms (derived from copy test researches done so far).
Article
The physical form or design of a product is an unquestioned determinant of its marketplace success. A good design attracts consumers to a product, communicates to them, and adds value to the product by increasing the quality of the usage experiences associated with it. Nevertheless, the topic of product design is rarely, if ever, encountered in marketing journals. To bring needed attention to the subject of product design and enable researchers to better investigate design issues, the author introduces a conceptual model and several propositions that describe how the form of a product relates to consumers’ psychological and behavioral responses. After presenting this model, the author describes numerous strategic implications and research directions.
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Building on existing frameworks (customer-based brand equity, consumer-brand relationships, product symbolism/self concept), this paper forwards packaging as a product-related attribute critical to the creation and communication of brand identity. Packaging is posited to influence brand and self-identity via a dual resource base (mediated and lived experience); a conceptual positioning variant from the traditional single symbolic resource base (mediated experience) provided by advertising. This conceptual distinction is examined and data from an exploratory qualitative study are provided to illustrate the powerful role of packaging in communicating brand meaning and strengthening the consumer-brand relationship, especially for low involvement consumer nondurable products.
Article
The goal of this research is to examine the effect of four external cues (window display, credit card, promotional activities (cash discount, free product)) on consumer impulse buying behavior. A conceptual model adapted from Churchill and Peter (1998) is proposed and verified by empirical data. The sample size was small (n=275) and data collection took place in Abadan, Iran. We defined four hypotheses and Statistical Packages for Social Sciences' (SPSS) and LISREL software is used for the data analysis. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) used to see the correlations between consumer's impulse buying behavior and each of four external cues. The instrument used for this study was in survey format. Data collected in July 2010. The result of the present study proves that there is a pivotal relationship between window display, credit card, promotional activities (discount, free product) and consumer impulse buying behavior.
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Color is an integral part of products, services, packaging, logos, and other collateral and can be an effective means of creating and sustaining brand and corporate images in customers' minds. Through an eight-country study, the authors explore consumers' preferences for different colors and color combinations. The results show cross-cultural patterns of both similarity and dissimilarity in color preferences and color meaning associations. When subjects are asked to match colors for a product logo, some color combinations suggest a consistency in meaning, whereas other combinations suggest colors whose meanings are complementary. The authors discuss implications for managing color to create and sustain brand and corporate images across international markets.