Article

Physiological and Whitening Effects of Morus alba Extracts

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Abstract

Mulberry extracts can be incorporated into skin-whitening products. The compound attributed to lighten the skin is arbutin, a form of hydroquinone that inhibits melanin release by suppressing the tyrosinase enzyme. For the cosmetic applications, the physiological effects of mulberry (Morus alba) extracts were investigated. The water soluble fraction of mulberry contains higher amount of protein (16.28~4.47%) in contrast to fat (1.55~1.41%). In addition, the fraction abundantly contains succinic acid (972.4-275.8 mg/g) and phosphoric acid (1,628.4-121.9 mg/g) in different parts of mulberry. The free radical scavenging ability in water soluble fraction was found to display remarkable effects in comparison with methanol and ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate-soluble of root and leaf showed remarkable tyrosinase inhibition activity by IC 50 (). The anticancer activity of methanol fraction obtained from mulberry using human cancer cell lines showed growth inhibition effect (270.14 mg/ml in Calu-6 cells, 295.29 mg/ml in HCT-116, and 332.29 mg/ml in MCF-7 cells, respectively). Based on the results, Morus alba extracts include cosmetic ingredients with antioxidizing and whitening properties.

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... Selain itu paparan lain seperti obat dan bahan kimia dapat mempengaruhi. Hal ini menyebabkan kulit tampak lebih gelap dan kusam, sehingga mulai banyak penggunaan agen pemutih untuk mengatasi keluhan yang muncul (Gug, K, 2012). ...
... Pengembangan kemungkinan antioksidan alami dan kosmetik fungsional dengan mengukur efek antioksidan dan pemutihan diharapkan dari daun, cabang, kulit akar, dan buah-buahan mulberry (Gug, K, 2012).. Pada jurnal ini dibahas mekanisme ekstrak mulberi yang dapat berperan sebagai agen pemutih (Łochyńska, M., & Oleszak, G, 2011). ...
... Obat herbal ini telah digunakan sebagai aditif kosmetik sebagai antipenuaan dan pemutih kulit. Senyawa yang dikaitkan dengan mencerahkan kulit adalah arbutin, suatu bentuk alami hidrokuinon yang menghambat pelepasan melanin dengan menekan enzim tyrosinase (Gug, K, 2012). ...
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High oxidants in the body and exposure from the outside can have an impact on the skin. The skin can become darker and duller. This causes the use of bleaching agents to be increasingly used. Many whitening agents that are made from chemical raw materials are toxic so that breakthroughs in raw materials that are natural and safer are offered. The natural raw material that can act as a whitening agent is mulberry fruit. Mulberry extract is rich in phenol, arbutin, tannin, which works as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor in the formation of pigments in the skin.
... The analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 19.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). ...
... Cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, kaempferol, quercetin, kaempferol-3-(6'-coumaroyl)glucoside, 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl-acrylic acid, glucose ester of (E)-p-coumaric acid, and ellagic acid are known to inhibit the growth of human oral (CAL-27 and KB), colon (HT29 and HCT-116), and prostate (LNCaP and DU145) cancer cells (14). Korean raspberry and mulberry contain the antioxidant vitamins A, B, and C (19), flavonoids including quercetin 3-(6-malonylgluco-side), rutin, isoquercitin, cyanidin 3 rutinoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside (20), and phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids (21). These are known to have antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative biological properties (19,22). ...
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Reactive oxygen species are tumorigenic by their ability to increase cell proliferation, survival, and cellular migration. The purpose of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of 3 berry extracts (strawberry, Korean raspberry, and mulberry) in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells. Except for raspberry, the ethyl acetate or methylene chloride fractions of berries containing phenolic compounds exerted dose dependent free radical scavenging activities. In the raspberry fractions, the hexane fraction also exhibited potent antioxidant activity. The cytotoxic effects of berries extracts in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Surprisingly, co-treatment with n-butanol (BuOH) fractions of berries showed stronger cytotoxic effects compared to the other fractions. These findings suggest that potent anticancer molecules are found in the BuOH fractions of berries that have stronger cytotoxic activity than antioxidants.
... 또한 ascorbic acid, β-carotene, vitamin D와 Ca, Fe, Mg 등의 무기질과 유기산, kaempferol, morusin, rutin 등의 플라보노이드와 같은 다양한 기능성 성분을 함유하고 있다 (Gryn-Rynko et al., 2016). 이러한 뽕잎의 추출 물은 항산화 및 미백 활성이 있고 (Gug, 2012), 뽕잎 분말을 이용한 천 연 팩과 비누가 미백 및 모공 축소 효과를 가진다 (Song et al., 2012) (McKay & Blumberg, 2006). Menthol, menthone, isomenthone, menthofuran, neomenthol, limonene, cineole 등의 다양한 화합물과 (Saleem et al., 2019), rutin, catechin hydrate, quercetin, chlorogenic acid 등의 기능성성분을 함유 하고 있다 (Augšpole et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to determine the optimal mixing ratio of mulberry and peppermint leaves and evaluates their biological activities to identify whether the estimated ratio is suitable for use in inner beauty and cosmetic ingredients.Methods: Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, and tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities were measured to optimize the mixing ratio of mulberry and peppermint leaves.Results: The mixture of mulberry and peppermint leaves showed a total polyphenol content of up to 46.58 mg TAE/g, a total flavonoid content of up to 45.54 mg QE/g, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of up to 74.18% and 40.60%, respectively. Tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities were up to 67.46% and 35.01%, respectively. In the interest section, the maximum antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.49:0.75 (g:g). In the experimental section, the maximum antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.79:0.80 (g:g). Further, the maximum antioxidant and elastase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.11:0.75 (g:g).Conclusion: This study determined the superiority of the antioxidant activity, tyrosinase and elastase activity inhibition efficacies, and optimal mixing ratios of mulberry and peppermint leaves. Based on our findings, we believe that mulberry and peppermint leaves at an optimal mixing ratio will have considerable use as inner beauty and cosmetic ingredients.
... Moreover, also strawberry extracts inhibited the growth of human colon (HCT-116), lung (A549), stomach (SNU-638), and fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cancer cells [27 29]. In addition, previous studies have reported that dietary freeze-dried strawberries and Korean raspberries have the ability to inhibit N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced tumorigenesis in the rat [30,31]. Therefore, all these strong evidences support the findings of the current study which proves that strawberry is a strong anticancer agent which induces apoptosis of KB cells, so the cell viability percentage decreases (Fig. 1). ...
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