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Whitening and Anti-wrinkle Effects of Apple Extracts

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Abstract

The in-vitro whitening and anti-wrinkle effect of ethanol extracts from apple flesh and peel were investigated. The EtOAc fractions from the ethanol extracts of apple flesh and peel showed in-vitro antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner on ABTS radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, and had the highest total phenolic contents (84.25 and 318.25 mg GAE/g). In addition, the EtOAc fractions generally showed strong UV absorption within the UV-B range. In the cellular system, the melanin synthesis of the B16/F10 melanoma cells was decreased by the EtOAc fractions of apple peel in a concentration-dependent manner. The EtOAc fractions of apple peel also showed a great elastase inhibition of 46.40% at 100 /mL, thus showing good in-vitro anti-wrinkle characteristics. These results suggest that the EtOAc fractions from the ethanol extract of apple peel can be used as whitening and anti-wrinkle agents as well as antioxidant resources.
... Phytochemicals include quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin, cyanidin-3-galactoside, coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, and phloridzin (Boyer and Liu 2004;Jang et al. 2017). Phytochemicals have been reported to be enriched not only in the pulp but also in the peel and seeds (Jeong et al. 2011;Byun 2013). Over the years, there has been a shift in the plantation area due to climate change and the development of various cultivars of apple, and hence, only a few studies on active ingredients and functionality depending on plantation area and/or cultivar are available. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the possible use of phenolic compounds extracted from the new Korean apple cultivar Arisoo in cosmetics and food additives by examining its functional properties. We extracted and analyzed total phenolic content of Arisoo and Fuji apples to study their antioxidant, anti-wrinkle, and anti-diabetic properties. Water- and ethanol-extracted phenolic compound yields were 1.84 and 2.14 mg/g fresh weight, respectively. In the antioxidant test, 100 μg/mL of water- and ethanol-extracted phenolic compounds (WEP and EEP), respectively, showed (1) scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical by 91.86% and 87.44%; (2) antioxidant protection factors of 2.80 and 1.79; and (3) the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, as tested by a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay. Anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities were tested to assess the anti-wrinkle activity of the extracts. WEP and EEP inhibited 12.46% and 51.56% of the elastase activity and 36.93% and 91.74% of the collagenase activity, respectively. The inhibitory activities of WEP and EEP on yeast α-glucosidase were tested to assess their anti-diabetic activities. WEP and EEP from Arisoo apples inhibited 83.92% and 100.0% of the α-glucosidase activity, whereas those from Fuji apples inhibited 63.33% and 92.84%, respectively, suggesting that Arisoo extracts have better anti-diabetic activity. Taken together, the extracts from Arisoo apples exhibited better antioxidant, anti-wrinkle, and anti-diabetic activities than did the extracts of Fuji apples.
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