ArticlePDF Available

A Modified-AHP Method of Productivity Analysis for Deployment of Innovative Construction Tools on Construction Site

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Productivity analysis is the most important and significant method for evaluating management and engineering performance during whole project stage. However, it is very difficult in developing qualitative index to construction industry comparing to other industries. Therefore, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is one of the methods for overcoming these limitations by checking consistency index using duality comparison. In this study, it is scraped up an application plan and selection for innovative tools by analyzing survey results on tool users and site managers with respect to using Modified-AHP performance measurement method.
Content may be subject to copyright.
KICEM Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
Online ISSN 2233-9582
45
www.jcepm.org
http://dx.doi.org/10.6106/JCEPM.2014.4.1.045
1 School of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, 440-746, Korea, swkwon@skku.edu
2 R&D Center on Construction Robot & Automation, Samsung C&T Corporation, Seoul, 135-769, Korea, kyle@samsung.com
3 Samsung M-PJT, Samsung C&T Corporation, Suwon, 443-803, Korea, ahn0305@samsung.com
4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, 305-719, Korea, jackdaniel@hanbat.ac.kr
(*Corresponding Author)
A Modified-AHP Method of Productivity Analysis for
Deployment of Innovative Construction Tools on
Construction Site
Soonwook Kwon1, Gaeyoung Lee2, Dooyong Ahn3 and Hee-Sung Park4
Received October 24, 2013 / Revised November 21, 2013 / Accepted December 5, 2013
Productivity analysis is the most important and significant method for evaluating management and engineering performance
during whole project stage. However, it is very difficult in developing qualitative index to construction industry comparing to other
industries. Therefore, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is one of the methods for overcoming these limitations by checking
consistency index using duality comparison. In this study, it is scraped up an application plan and selection for innovative tools by
analyzing survey results on tool users and site managers with respect to using Modified-AHP performance measurement method.
Keywords: Innovative tool, Productivity, AHP, Construction site operation
I. INTRODUCTION
Productivity is used as a tool to measure real
production activities in all industrial areas (Won, 2008).
Productivity is defined as the ratio of input to output
when products are manufactured for a certain period of
time using a production system (Kim, 1994).
The construction industry is labor-intensive, its work
performed largely outside, as a large number of
businesses in an area engages in a project together. As a
result, the industry has many factors that make it hard to
evaluate its productivity. Application of the concept of
productivity to the industry is not so simple; therefore,
labor productivity is commonly used.
Factors that influence construction productivity are
broadly divided into the internal influence factors that
may be controlled within a production system and the
external influence factors with the opposite concept.
Enhancement in productivity is mainly achieved by
improving the internal influence factors (Park, 1992).
Internal influence factors are divided into hard factors
(product, technology, materials, energy, plant, and
equipment) and soft factors (construction controls, work
methods, people, organization, systems, and management
style) (Jung, 2005). Productivity is enhanced through the
removal or improvement of inappropriate internal
influence factors (Figure 1) (Yoon, 2010).
High productivity in advanced countries’ construction
sites was judged to result from the efficient application of
advanced construction tools to unit work. Here,
innovative construction tools mean high-performance
work tools, small equipment, or safety goods that have
not been applied to sites in Korea but that are in common
use in advanced countries.
FIGURE I
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRY
Accordingly, this study introduced innovative
construction tools for productivity enhancement through
improvement in internal influence factors (Gilbreth,
1917). This study also collected and analyzed the
opinions of managers and workers at construction sites,
using a questionnaire aimed at developing a measure to
select and utilize innovative construction tools.
II. METHODOLOGY
A comprehensive evaluation of advanced construction
tools was made, with a structure that combined managers’
macroscopic insights and managers’ microscopic opinions.
The questionnaire had two parts, calculating the managers’
weight and evaluating workers’ degree of satisfaction.
The analysis hierarchy process (AHP), one of the
multi-criteria decision making methods, was used for this
purpose (Niebel, 1980).
A Modified-AHP Method of Productivity Analysis for Deployment of Innovative Construction tools on Construction Site
46 KICEM Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
AHP, a technique presented by Thomas. L. Satty, is
used as a decision support system. The system is widely
used in multi-criteria decision making that includes both
quantitative and qualitative elements; this method has
enabled comprehensive evaluation and integration of
quantitative and qualitative elements (Table I) (Lee, 2011).
AHP classifies decision making elements into goal,
criteria, and alternatives, and it structuralizes and
systemizes such elements. In particular, one of the most
significant characteristics of AHP is to apply hierarchy to
a complicated problem and divide its factors into major
factors and sub-factors, making a pairwise comparison of
these factors, deriving their weights, and prioritizing them.
TABLE I
PAIRWISE COMPARISON
A1
A2
A3
A4
A1
1
A1/A2
A1/A3
A1/A4
A2
A2/A1
1
A2/A3
A2/A4
A3
A3/A1
A3/A2
1
A3/A4
A4
A4/A1
A4/A2
A4/A3
1
A5
A5/A1
A5/A2
A5/A3
A5/A4
Under this pairwise comparison, the value from a
comparison between the same two items is 1.0, and a
reverse comparison results in a reciprocal number. Further,
decision making is made by verifying the consistency of
the calculated weights. Thanks to such advantages, AHP
is one of the most widely used techniques among existing
decision making methods.
This study modified and applied the use of AHP. On
the questionnaire, the calculation of the managers
weights aimed at analyzing managers’ judgments
regarding the introduction of advanced construction tools
was classified as Level 1, and a pairwise comparison of
these judgments was made (Jo, 2001). The questionnaire
that aimed at analyzing the evaluation values of workers
who use advanced construction tools was classified as
Level 2 (Figure II).
FIGURE II
EVALUATION STRUCTURE CHART
The goals of the two different questionnaires were to
introduce and apply innovative construction tools based
on the positions of both managers and workers. To this
end, a pairwise comparison of the managers’ weights was
made; the sum of all elements should become 1.0. A
survey of workers’ evaluation values was made using a
seven-point scale questionnaire, and the values were
derived using the arithmetic-geometric mean. An
equation through which the generalization of the
managers’ weights and the workers’ evaluation values
may be made was applied, and scores were derived for
comprehensive evaluation, thereby heightening the
accuracy and reliability of the Modified-AHP.
III. PRODUCTIVITY EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE TOOLS
The areas in which innovative construction tools are
practically used encompass diverse areas such as
construction, electricity, facility, and safety areas (Ahn,
2008). In order to collect opinions of managers and
workers on the introduction and application of innovative
construction tools, an evaluation was made by conducting
a survey on innovative construction tools and the jobs
they do. The innovative construction tools evaluated in
this study’s questionnaires were as follows (Table II).
TABLE II
INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION TOOLS
Tools
Feature
Rated Electrical
Insulated Tools
Tools for wiring work
Wheel Dolly
Heavy weight cargo lifting
and fixation
PVC Bender
PVC pipe bending
Bx/Flex Conduit
cutter
Cable cutting
Cable Striper
High pressure cable cover
removal
Torque Tester &
Calibrator
Torque wrench test
Dump Cart
Carrying construction
scraps and wastes out of a
site
Wet / Dry Vacuum
Site cleaning
Fume Extractor
Removal of fumes during
welding
Torque Wrench
Bolt tightening
Brady Boy Safety
Barricade
For installation on protect
areas
boundary
Self-Retracting Fall
Limiters
For prevention of falls
during work
Beam Anchor &
Beam Trolley
Movable equipment for
prevention of falls
Anchorage
Connectors
Lifesaving loop installed on
a concrete structure
Soonwook Kwon, Gaeyoung Lee, Dooyong Ahn and Hee-Sung Park
47
Vol.4, No.1 / Mar 2014
Feature
Reinforced
Barricade Tape
For control of access to and
warning against a
dangerous area
Portable Eye
Shower
For an emergency measure
against foreign materials in
the eyes
IV. MODIFIED-AHP SURVEY METHOD
The Modified-AHP questionnaire had two parts, one
for calculation of the weights that the managers
considered important when they decided to introduce
innovative construction tools and the other for evaluation
of the workers’ degree of satisfaction relative to the
existing tools (Jo, 1997).
In other words, during the stage of calculating the
managers’ weights, the geometric mean based on pairwise
comparison was calculated, and during the stage of
examining workers’ degree of satisfaction with innovative
construction tools, a seven-point scale was applied and
the arithmetic-geometric mean was calculated in order to
heighten the accuracy and reliability of the analysis
(Figure IV).
FIGURE III
THE FORM OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MANAGERS
FIGURE IV
THE FORM OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR WORKERS
TABLE III
SCALES OF RELATIVE IMPORTANCE
Scale
Definition
Description
1
Equally
important
Two compared elements have equal
importance
3
Slightly
important
An element is slightly more important
than the other element
5
Important
An element is more important than the
other
7
Very
important
An element is considerably more
important than the other element
2.4.6
Middle values
of the above
scales
Degree of importance is middle
between the above scales
recipro
cal
1, 1/2, …1/7
When the value of an element α
against β is n, one of the above scales,
an element β’s importance against the
element α is 1/n.
FIGURE V
ANALYSIS RESULT OF THE COLLECTED QUESTIONNAIRES
RESPONDENTS
A Modified-AHP Method of Productivity Analysis for Deployment of Innovative Construction tools on Construction Site
48 KICEM Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
The survey on the introduction and application of
innovative construction tools was conducted between
September and November, 2011, by visiting construction
sites where the tools had been introduced.
In total, 33 questionnaires were collected from 13
managers (39%) and 20 workers (61%). The safety area
accounted for the largest number of respondents at 16
(48%), followed by the facility area at 5 (15%), the
electricity area at 5 (15%), and other areas at 7 (21%).
Other areas included construction, paint, and interior
design areas. The analysis result of the respondents to the
33 collected questionnaires is as follows (Figure V). In
this study, it is figured out the effect elements for
analyzing results for adoption of innovative construction
tools by interviewing of experts. The elements which are
convergence, safety, workability, productivity, quality are
considered weights which are derived by using analytical
hierarchical process (AHP) (Table IV).
TABLE IV
MANAGERS WEIGHTS FOR EACH INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION TOOL
Tools
Conve
nience
Safety
Worka
bility
Produc
tivity
Quality
Rated
Electrical
Insulated
Tools
0.074
0.537
0.110
0.066
0.213
PVC Bender
0.053
0.348
0.166
0.137
0.296
Bx/Flex
Conduit
Cutter
0.092
0.415
0.094
0.160
0.239
Cable Striper
0.099
0.287
0.094
0.074
0.446
Torque Tester
& Calibrator
0.138
0.284
0.094
0.085
0.399
Wet/Dry
Vacuum
0.335
0.157
0.224
0.101
0.183
Fume
Extractor
0.262
0.282
0.146
0.159
0.150
Torque
Wrench
0.084
0.422
0.139
0.088
0.267
Brady Boy
Safety
Barricade
0.147
0.420
0.109
0.108
0.216
Flammable
Liquid
Container
0.129
0.433
0.152
0.136
0.150
Reinforced
Barricade
Tape
0.214
0.214
0.220
0.163
0.189
Wheel Dolly
0.262
0.292
0.234
0.104
0.109
Dump Cart
0.215
0.221
0.254
0.258
0.053
Anchorage
Connectors
0.138
0.515
0.218
0.045
0.084
Self-
Retracting
Fall
Limiters
0.218
0.273
0.202
0.180
0.127
Beam Anchor
& Beam
Trolley
0.194
0.270
0.189
0.204
0.144
Portable Eye
Shower
0.426
0.230
0.145
0.075
0.125
Workers’ evaluation values for each innovative
construction tool, derived using a seven-scale
questionnaire and arithmetic-geometric mean, are as
follows (Table V).
TABLE V
WORKERS EVALUATION VALUES OF EACH INNOVATIVE
CONSTRUCTION TOOL
Tools
Conve
nience
Safety
Worka
bility
Produc
tivity
Quality
Rated
Electrical
Insulated
Tools
4.6
6.2
4.8
4.4
5.2
PVC Bender
2.0
6.0
3.7
4.4
5.0
Bx/Flex
Conduit
Cutter
6.0
6.0
5.5
4.1
5.3
Cable Striper
6.0
6.0
3.3
4.6
4.1
Torque
Tester &
Calibrator
4.3
5.5
3.6
4.3
4.3
Wet/Dry
Vacuum
4.1
4.3
5.5
4.4
4.2
Fume
Extractor
4.6
4.1
5.1
4.4
4.2
Torque
Wrench
5.0
5.0
4.2
4.4
4.2
Brady Boy
Safety
Barricade
4.3
2.8
3.8
2.1
3.7
Flammable
Liquid
Container
4.3
5.8
3.5
2.9
3.2
Reinforced
Barricade
Tape
5.9
4.7
5.4
5.0
5.2
Wheel Dolly
5.3
3.7
4.8
3.3
3.8
Dump Cart
5.2
6.0
5.6
5.3
4.9
Anchorage
Connectors
5.7
6.5
4.7
4.0
3.5
Self-
Retracting
Fall
Limiters
4.5
6.0
4.5
4.7
4.0
Beam
Anchor &
Beam Trolley
4.0
5.5
4.5
5.1
6.0
Portable Eye
Shower
6.0
4.0
4.5
4.0
4.3
V. ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE TOOLS
A comprehensive evaluation of innovative construction
tools was made, with a structure of combining managers’
macroscopic insights and managers’ microscopic opinions.
Prior to the generalization of these two levels, the
managers’ weights and workers’ evaluation values for
innovative construction tools derived earlier were
substituted into the equation below to derive the
Modified-AHP scores.
Soonwook Kwon, Gaeyoung Lee, Dooyong Ahn and Hee-Sung Park
49
Vol.4, No.1 / Mar 2014
Where,
Y ≤ 7.0
α = Manager’s weight for convenience
β = Manager’s weight for safety
γ = Manager’s weight for workability
δ = Manager’s weight for productivity
ε = Manager’s weight for quality
= Workers’ evaluation value for convenience
 = Workers’ evaluation value for safety
 = Workers’ evaluation value for workability
 = Workers’ evaluation value for productivity
 = Workers’ evaluation value for quality
The sum of the managers’ weights is 1.0 and that of
workers’ evaluation values is 7.0, which translates into Y
being 7.0. In order to derive sub-elements of workers’
evaluation values for each tool, an arithmetic-geometric
mean was used.
The Modified-AHP score of each innovative
construction tool derived by applying the above equation
is as follows (Table VI).
TABLE VI
MODIFIED-AHP SCORE OF EACH INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION TOOL
Tools
M-AHP
Rated Electrical Insulated Tools
5.60
PVC Bender
4.89
Bx/Flex Conduit Cutter
5.48
Cable Striper
4.80
Torque Tester & Calibrator
4.58
Wet/Dry Vacuum
4.49
Fume Extractor
4.44
Torque Wrench
4.62
Brady Boy Safety Barricade
3.25
Flammable Liquid Container
4.47
Reinforced Barricade Tape
5.25
Wheel Dolly
4.35
Dump Cart
5.49
Anchorage Connectors
5.63
Self-Retracting Fall Limiters
4.88
Beam Anchor & Beam Trolley
5.02
Portable Eye Shower
4.97
Their ranks were derived based on the Modified-AHP
score of each of the innovative construction tools. Based
on the overall ranks of innovative construction tools, the
upper 30%, the middle 40%, and the lower 30% were
classified into the upper, middle, and lower classes (Table
VII).
TABLE VII
EACH INNOVATIVE CONSTRUCTION TOOLS RANK
Tools
Rank
Class
Anchorage Connectors
1
Upper
Rated Electrical Insulated Tools
2
Dump Cart
3
Bx/Flex Conduit Cutter
4
Reinforced Barricade Tape
5
Beam Anchor & Beam Trolley
6
Middle
Portable Eye Shower
7
PVC Bender
8
Self-Retracting Fall Limiters
9
Cable Striper
10
Torque Wrench
11
Torque Tester & Calibrator
12
Wet/Dry Vacuum
13
Lower
Flammable Liquid Container
14
Fume Extractor
15
Wheel Dolly
16
Brady Boy Safety Barricade
17
The study looked at what elements the managers
focused on in introducing innovative construction tools
and what workers did in using them by analyzing the
questionnaires filled in by the managers and the workers.
Further, this study presented a relatively successful
example by dividing innovative construction tools into
upper, middle, and lower classes based on the Modified-
AHP scores of innovative construction tools.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
This study applied the Modified-AHP by focusing on
how to enhance labor productivity for productivity
improvement as a whole and collected opinions on each
innovative construction tool from managers and workers.
In this study, it is found to overcome limitations of
analyzing traditional method for selection of qualitative
construction tools by suggesting the construction tools
selection method using AHP, since there are no
quantitative analysis methods for innovative construction
tools. This study was able to calculate what major
elements managers and workers considered for each
innovative construction tool.
However, the number of survey samples was small,
which resulted in relatively low reliability. Therefore,
future study should derive weight by categories such as
electricity, facilities, and safety in order to create
measures for the introduction of each innovative
construction tool. Moreover, reliability should be
heightened by increasing the number of survey samples
on innovative construction tools.
A Modified-AHP Method of Productivity Analysis for Deployment of Innovative Construction tools on Construction Site
50 KICEM Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
REFERENCES
[1] J.S. Won, “An Analysis of the International Competitiveness of
Productivity in the Korea, Journal of Korea Institute of
Construction Engineering Management, KICEM, Vol. 9, no. 4, pp.
75-83, 2008.
[2] Y.S. Kim, “Analysis of the Factors Influencing Construction
Productivity”, Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, AIK,
vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 267-272, 1994.
[3] S.H. Park, “A Study on Accuracy Analysis of Based on Work
Factor System and Setting-up a Work-time of MODAPTS”,
Proceedings of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers (KIIE)
Spring Conference, pp. 545-554, 1992.
[4] H.K. Jung, “A Study on Productivity Analysis on Formworks
using Work Measuring Method”, Journal of Korea Institute of
Building Construction, KIC, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 131-137, 2005.
[5] B.S. Yoon, “Quantitative Analysis on Relation between Work
Management Method, Condition and Efficiency”, Masters Thesis
of KwangWoon University, 2010.
[6] F.B. Gilbreth, Motion Study: A Method for Increasing the
Efficiency of the Workman (1911), Kessinger Publishing, 2010.
[7] B.W. Niebel, K. Cho, S. Lee, Y. Cho, A Case Study for
Assembly Line Analysis with MTM”, Journal of the Korean
Institute of Industrial Engineers, KIIE, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 39-
44, 1980.
[8] M.N. Lee, “Introduction, Application, and Productivity Evaluation
of Advanced Tools”, Proceedings of Korea Institute of
Construction Engineering Management (KICEM), vol. 11, p. 33,
2011
[9] H.H. Jo, “A Study on Development of Work-analysis and
Evaluation Model on Building Construction”, Journal of the
Architectural Institute of Korea, AIK, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 145-152,
2001.
[10] S.H. Ahn, “A Study on Work Condition Management Method for
Improving Work Efficiency,” Journal of the Architectural Institute
of Korea, AIK, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 183-190, 2008.
[11] H.H. Jo, “A Study on the Motion Analysis and AHP Evaluation
Method in Construction Works”, Journal of the Architectural
Institute of Korea, AIK, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 1423-1429, 1997.
... To ensure the suitability of the BIM usage process, it is crucial for associations hoping to change to BIM to have the capacity to manage and measure these advantages. This article showed the discoveries of an activity study of a project with a small mechanical temporary worker who was investigating the effect of BIM on the productivity of work on an expansive business project (Kwon et al. 2014). The findings showed the assumption that Australian subcontractors are large contract workers only. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of management practices on the productivity of building construction projects in India. The methodology adopted for this study is to identify and analyse the management practice attributes from the literature review and expert focus group interviews. The identified attributes were analysed and priorities using relative weight were given by the respondents. The collected data were further analysed using SPSS 21 software. The quantitative research methodology was adopted to analyse the collected data and the following tools and techniques were applied to the data: reliability analysis to check the consistency of data collected for this study and relative importance index (RII) to prioritise and rank the attributes based on the weighted average score given by the respondents. The findings of this study concluded that coordination between all stakeholders, ability to handle the crisis by the project managers, social skills of key team managers, timely payment of completed works and design capability and frequent design changes are the most significant attributes of management practice, affecting construction productivity and having a rating on the RII of 0.91, 0.90, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.87.
... Contractors should reduce risks and ensure that their employees comply with the necessary safety procedures. It is important to complete security compliance and inspection checklists to ensure that the necessary safety precautions have been adopted by the construction organisation (Hajdu 2015), which would help to reduce the risk of an accident and provides evidence to eliminate any liability from your business (Zhai et al. 2009;Kwon et al. 2014;Chancellor and Abbott 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
A construction project is like a living entity and requires the interconnection and coordination of several stakeholders and many of them have their objectives, which sometimes create a conflict of interest between the teams and within the teams. The success of any project is repeatable, and a set of attributes for the success of a construction project can be identified, requiring discipline and hard work. The construction sector is the engine of growth for a nation and supplies services and goods to other industries. The objective of the study is to analyse the enabling factors affecting the performance construction projects in Architecture Engineering and Construction industry. The methodology chosen for the study is to collect primary data from the Indian construction industry using structured questionnaire surveys. The collected data are analysed using reliability and factor analyses. The findings of the study provide the value of reliability, that is, Cronbach's alpha value of (0.86) of the data collected using a questionnaire survey. Furthermore, exploratory factor analysis produced five main significant factors based on covariance between the attributes and grouped into factors such as site management and coordination, leadership and financial management, planning, commitment, and coordination having a variance of 17.65, 11.8, 9.1, 8.5, and 7.5%, respectively. This article is the extended version of the paper accepted and presented at CCC2019.
... The AHP method has also been used for the systematic evaluation of various factors, including building efficiency, safety, user comfort, reliability, functionality, and maintainability. In addition, it has been employed to characterise the design work, to evaluate the soft benefits in relation to the costs [7], [8], and to estimate the environmental work impact [9], [10]. Meanwhile, Teo and Ling [11] and Li et al. [12] used the AHP approach to evaluate the safety and administration of work sites, while Das et al. [13], Wu et al. [14], and Kettner and Diaz [15] used it in relation to construction management, and Ali and Nsairat [16] and Chang et al. [10] used it to estimate green building ratings. ...
Article
Full-text available
p class="Abstract"> The structural and anti-seismic performances of historical masonry churches are related not only to structural damage and masonry quality but also to other criticalities that can jeopardise the connections, wooden elements, and non-structural elements. As such, the technical and scientific communities are interested in the development of fast visual-survey approaches for assessing these issues and for performing exhaustive diagnostics by considering all the parameters affecting the building performance. In this paper, a new procedure for performing rapid visual surveys and the diagnostics of masonry buildings using a set of condition ratings is proposed. The proposed novel approach includes three synergistically related techniques: i) the analytic hierarchy process method for measuring and analysing both qualitative and quantitative data during a visual survey, ii) a suitable survey form to perform a rapid visual inspection implementable in a decision support system (DSS), and iii) a DSS procedure to provide a powerful computerised tool that would be useful in large-scale data acquisition. Finally, to demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach, the Romanesque masonry church SS. Salvatore in Capurso, Italy, is analysed. A comparison with a standard diagnostic workflow is also presented to validate the procedure and to emphasise the advantages of the novel diagnostics. </p
... Wong and Li [8] analyzed the selection of the intelligent building systems by identifying key selection criteria using AHP methodology. In addition, different contributions provide adequate solutions by AHP for the systematic evaluation of many factors, which include efficiency, user comfort, safety, reliability, functionality, and maintainability, to characterize the design work [9] and the weighting of soft benefits in comparison with costs [10,11] and environmental impact [12] and to support the selection of construction systems according to their contribution to sustainability [13]; ...
Article
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and in particular the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is widely used in construction thanks to its versatility and ability to involve qualitative and quantitative data in the analysis. On the other hand, many complex problems are difficult to be solved because of the large amount of information to be considered. In this paper, an Augmented Reality based Decision Making (AR-DM) is proposed to get a novel MCDA following the hierarchical structure of the AHP. For the first time, the AR immersive environment is combined with the Simos-Roy-Figueira method to provide a large amount of visual information during the decision phase. The proposed approach is tested to support the selection of an experimental Precast Concrete Panel for RC buildings retrofitting. Finally, a comparison with the classical approach and two other improved version of the AHP procedure is performed to validate and show the potential of the method.
... Starting from the project stage, Hsieh et al. (2004) used AHP, identifying key selection criteria in order to decide on the contractor selection, and Wong and Li (2008) in order to analyze the selection of the intelligent building systems. AHP has been used also for systematic evaluation of many factors such as building efficiency, safety, user comfort, reliability, functionality, and maintainability, for characterizing the design work, evaluating the soft benefits in comparison with costs (Reza et al. 2011;Kwon et al. 2014;Martiradonna et al. 2019). Li et al. (2013) used it to evaluate the work sites safety and the management, while Das et al. (2009) for the construction management. ...
Article
Full-text available
Surveys conducted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes have shown that the structural and anti-seismic performances of historical masonry churches are related not only to structural damages and masonry quality but also to other key features such as effectiveness of connections, damages of wooden elements or criticalities related to humidity. Technical and scientific communities are interested in developing or improving existing procedures for the fast-visual survey and diagnostics in order to measure and analyse all the parameters affecting the building performance. In this paper a new procedure, that can be implemented in a Decision Support System (DSS) based on the Analytic Hierarchy Processes (AHP), is developed to perform a rapid visual survey and diagnostics of masonry building through a set of condition ratings. The originality of the presented work is fourfold: 1) the AHP allows to include in the analysis qualitative and quantitative data such as the quality of masonry and connections effectiveness; 2) the proposed survey and diagnostics performed by suitable condition ratings allow an extensive application in order to identify the most damaged buildings that require more detailed structural investigations; 3) the proposed AHP-based approach is integrated in a DSS to provide a powerful computerised tool, useful to large scale data acquisition; 4) the comparison with a standard diagnostics is performed to validate the procedure and emphasise the advantages of the novel diagnostics.
... The studies in CP varies from process/ activity level studies to industry level studies, covering different projects and different countries. A majority of the researchers studied the factors and issues impacting CP and ranking them on the basis of different tools and techniques, few of them are analytic hierarchal process (AHP) [18,[89][90][91][92][93][94][95], relative importance index (RII) [8,37,39,65,[96][97][98]47], factor analysis [6,99,72], Pearson correlation analysis, one sample regression model, artificial neural networks and other qualitative techniques for analysis. The author's observed that the studies were conducted in the last 10 years can be grouped in 7 major areas are industry-level studies, the study of factors/attributes, measurement techniques, simulation and models, equipment and technology, issues and problems associated to CP, and improvement techniques and proposed frameworks Fig. 3. Labour productivity or the output every hour-worked is viewed as a best amongst other measures of production efficiency. ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors have attempted to summarize the evolution of research in Construction Productivity (CP) through a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) from the papers published from 2006 to 2017. The methodology adopted for the study is to use the systematic literature review for selecting the papers published in a few selected major journals of construction, built environment, and construction management fields. A total of eight journals selected for the SLR and 101 papers have been selected using the keyword ‘‘Construction Productivity in the title or the Keywords”. The findings of the study conclude that the studies in CP are focused in seven main areas are industry-level studies, the study of factors/attributes, measurement techniques, simulation and models, equipment and technology, issues and problems associated with CP, and improvement techniques and proposed frameworks.
... Moreover, Wong and Li (2008) analyzed the selection of the intelligent building systems by identifying key selection criteria using AHP methodology. In addition, different contributions provide adequate solutions by AHP for the systematic evaluation of many factors, which include efficiency, user comfort, safety, reliability, functionality, and maintainability, to characterize the design work and the weighting of soft benefits in comparison with costs (Kwon et al. 2014;Shapira and Goldenberg 2005) and environmental impact (Reza et al. 2011;Chang et al. 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Multicriteria decision making methods, in particular the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), are widely used in many sectors, and increasingly in the field of construction. The AHP is easily adaptable to many decision problems, but it presents great difficulties when the number of criteria or alternatives is large. This issue affects the consistency of the judgment matrix, which is related to the acceptability of the results. To overcome such a drawback of basic importance in the construction field, this paper proposes a novel optimized-AHP (O-AHP) method that redefines the judgment assignments and the generation of the judgment matrix by using a mathematical programming formu- lation. The validation benchmark tests show that the O-AHP exhibits the same effectiveness of the standard AHP, and it can be applied successfully when the number of alternatives is more than nine. Furthermore, the presented technique is applied to the building performance assessment in the field of antiseismic behavior. The results show that the O-AHP is an approach to simplify the decision-maker operations by defining a numerical value of the building pathology criticality index, which is useful for large-scale applications. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE) CO.1943-7862.0001418. © 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
Full-text available
The study's purpose is to analyze the impact of productivity in Indian transportation infrastructure projects. The study's methodology is to identify and analyse productivity attributes based on a literature review and expert focus group interviews. The identified attributes were identified and examined based on the respondents' relative weight. The data was gathered using a structured questionnaire across India, using both online and offline methods. SPSS 21 software was used to analyse the collected data. To analyse the collected data, quantitative research methodology was used, and the following tools and techniques were applied to the data: Reliability analysis was used to ensure the consistency of the data collected for the study, and the Relative importance index (RII) was used to set priorities and rank the attributes based on the weighted average score provided by the respondents. The study's findings show that planning and scheduling have the greatest impact on productivity in Indian transportation infrastructure projects, followed by construction methodology, storage area, poor construction method, and direction and coordination, with relative importance indexes (RII) of 0.79, 0.78, 0.77, 0.76, and 0.74, respectively. This study contributes to the current knowledge bank by identifying and analysing the impact of productivity in Indian transportation infrastructure projects. The study provides a solution for construction managers and project managers to apply the study's findings to their projects in order to control the issues of low productivity and project delays
Article
This study presents the results of our analysis and recommendations for process and productivity improvements. The project studied consists of a 5-story research building, with a structure of steel frames supporting concrete slabs. The observations focused on the analysis of the overall erection and framing process. The methods used for the analysis consisted in intensive visits on site, where construction processes were observed in term of resources, activities, durations, materials` handling procedures, and technology used. Back to the office, authors used the information captured to model the different trades` activities, using work sampling and 5-minute rating technique. The work sampling provides insight into the activity, hence allowing for process improvements. The productivity of various trades is strongly dependent on the organization of the work process and work site conditions. Improving the productivity of the entire project or company is not possible until everyone is committed to improvement.
Article
Factors affecting construction in Thailand were disclosed in previous studies carried out by the authors, which confirmed that the construction industry in Thailand has experienced productivity problems like many other countries [1-2]. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that should be focused upon, when productivity improvement is to be initiated. To do so, 34 project managers working in the construction industry in Thailand completed a structured questionnaire survey and the factors were ranked according to their perception of their levels of influence and their potential for improvement based on their overall experience in managing projects in the industry. To supplement the questionnaire data, in depth interviews were conducted with some project managers. This study is intended to create the foundation for further study of construction productivity measurement and improvement in Thailand, which aims to lead to overall productivity improvement. 1. The Construction Industry in Thailand Like many countries, the construction industry in Thailand has been dominated by a small number of large companies (>1,000 employees) and a large number of small companies (<20 employees), representing 0.2% and 68.1%, respectively of the 17512 organisations in the industry. Furthermore, these large companies have 21.5% of the market share, while the small companies, major players in the industry, only have 9.9% of the market share.Considering all organisations, 8% are involved in site preparation, 75.1% and 9.3% have their core business in civil engineering and building construction respectively, while 7.1% and 0.5% are involved with building completion and plant hire, respectively [3]. In respect of the workforce, the construction industry employs 1.28 million of the 33.00 million available workers, of which 80-90% are males, and has a turnover of 311,672.1 Million Baht (1£ = 64.54 Baht in July 2001), which is about 4% of GDP. During the last 8 years, industry contribution to GDP has ranged between 3 and 8% [3]. Any improvement in construction productivity would, consequently, assist the industry and the country to make significant financial savings.
Article
In the previous comparative studies of international competitiveness conducted before 2003, Korean construction productivity had been estimated to be lower (or poor) than that of developed countries such as US, UK, and Japan. However, the amount of international contracts Korean has won increased substantially, and Korean construction has progressed with creating two skyscrapers such as Petronas Tower and Burj Dubai. At this point we need to reevaluate what we are capable of. In this paper, we evaluated international competitiveness of our construction industry comparing to advanced countries by analyzing labor productivity. For evaluating construction competitiveness we measured labor productivity using the value of construction work in US dollar per hour based on domestic and foreign statistical data and analyzing completion days per a story and the ratio of underground floors to ground floors of buildings in Korea and Japan. As a result, although our construction productivity is not yet competitive with the US and Japan yet, we excel the UK.
Article
Many construction industry sectors have been experiencing chronic problems such as poor safety, inferior working conditions and insufficient quality. These problems have been identified as factors that affect construction’s productivity and will affect company’s performance. This paper investigates factors influencing construction productivity in Indonesia. Data was collected through questionnaires and personal interviews targeting non-residential building and infrastructure projects. Key factors influencing construction productivity and their causes were obtained through a series of statistical analyses based on the contracting companies’ approach. The findings suggest that the key factors and their causes were influenced by three issues: (1) characteristics of contractors; (2) inadequate management strategy; and (3) organisation’s focus. A conceptual model of factors influencing construction productivity was developed to provide the contractors with information on which factors they need to focus. In addition, five alternative solutions are recommended to be applied on-site to achieve the best outcome of contractors’ performance.
An Analysis of the International Competitiveness of Productivity in the Korea
  • J S Won
  • J S Won
A Study on Accuracy Analysis of Based on Work Factor System and Setting-up a Work-time of MODAPTS
  • S H Park
S.H. Park, "A Study on Accuracy Analysis of Based on Work Factor System and Setting-up a Work-time of MODAPTS", Proceedings of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers (KIIE) Spring Conference, pp. 545-554, 1992.
Introduction, Application, and Productivity Evaluation of Advanced Tools
  • M N Lee
M.N. Lee, "Introduction, Application, and Productivity Evaluation of Advanced Tools", Proceedings of Korea Institute of Construction Engineering Management (KICEM), vol. 11, p. 33, 2011
A Study on Development of Work-analysis and Evaluation Model on Building Construction
  • H H Jo
H.H. Jo, "A Study on Development of Work-analysis and Evaluation Model on Building Construction", Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, AIK, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 145-152, 2001.
A Study on the Motion Analysis and AHP Evaluation Method in Construction Works
  • H H Jo
H.H. Jo, "A Study on the Motion Analysis and AHP Evaluation Method in Construction Works", Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, AIK, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 1423-1429, 1997.