Protective Effect of Kimchi against A?25-35-induced Impairment of Cognition and Memory

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Kimchi is a Korean traditional fermented food with various health functionalities. However, the protective effects of kimchi against Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been studied yet. In this study, the protective activities of kimchi extract against oxidative stress and AD were investigated in an amyloid beta ()-induced AD model using ICR mice. Kimchi extract exerted strong scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical. In addition, T-maze, object cognition, and water maze tests were carried out using the AD model. The -injected groups showed impairment of cognition and memory. However, the abilities of novel object recognition and new route awareness were improved by administration of kimchi extract (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Furthermore, the results on water maze test indicated that kimchi extract exerted protective activity against cognitive impairment induced by . The present study suggested that kimchi protected against -induced impairment of memory and cognition as well as attenuated oxidative stress.

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... 16 In addition, kimchi was shown to protect against Ab-induced memory loss and cognitive deficits, where the beneficial effects were mediated through alleviation of oxidative stress. 17 These effects are generally attributed to the antioxidative properties of kimchi. Moreover, kimchi decreased hepatic apoptosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLr KO mice) via the suppression of ER stress and the upregulation of antioxidative enzymes regulated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). ...
... The mice were fed a HCD for 8 weeks, with administration of either distilled water as a vehicle (control group, n = 10) or KME at a dose of 200 mg$kg bw -1 $day -1 (KME group, n = 10), based on the previous study. 17 The administration of 200 mg/kg bw to mouse is equivalent to 15 g kimchi consumption by 60 kg adult. The HCD containing 1.25% cholesterol was prepared according to the guidelines of Paigen's atherogenic rodent diet. ...
... 18 The amount of KME administered to the mice was based on a previous study showing its beneficial effects in overcoming Ab-induced cognitive deficits in mice. 17 Upon completion of the 8-week KME treatment, the mice were anesthetized by CO 2 asphyxiation after a 12-h fasting period. The brain was excised, rinsed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), immediately placed on liquid nitrogen, and then stored at -80°C for further use. ...
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related unfolded peptide accumulation is closely associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases known as protein misfolding disorders. The antioxidative properties of kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable dish, have been well established. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of the kimchi methanol extract (KME) were examined in high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed mice. The animals were fed a HCD, with oral administration of either KME (KME group, 200 mg·kg bw-1·day-1, n = 10) or distilled water (Control group, n = 10) for 8 weeks. Compared with the levels in the control group, the reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and lipid peroxidation levels in the brain were significantly decreased in the KME group (P < .05), whereas the glutathione level was increased (P < .05). In addition, the ER stress biomarkers, phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit α, glucose-regulated protein 78, X-box binding protein 1, inositol-requiring enzyme 1, and C/EBP homologous protein and the nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated inflammation were significantly reduced in the KME group (P < .05). In contrast, the expression levels of antioxidative enzymes regulated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 were elevated (P < .05). The amyloid-beta expression levels of the KME group were lower than that of the control group (P < .05). Moreover, the expression levels of Bcl-2-associated X, and caspases-3 and -9 were downregulated, with a concomitant upregulation of B cell lymphoma 2 (P < .05). Accordingly, KME provide neuronal cell protection via suppressing ER stress and caspase cascade signaling.
... This effect represented that cabbage kimchi made by adding 30% of mustard leaves suppressed much more free radical production in the brain than standard kimchi. Moreover, in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, the administration of kimchi for 2 weeks considerably enhanced the objective cognitive ability [186]. Additionally, the administration of kimchi suppressed the deterioration of the cranial nerve function induced by Aβ-25-35 and lipid peroxidation in the mice brain [186]. ...
... Moreover, in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, the administration of kimchi for 2 weeks considerably enhanced the objective cognitive ability [186]. Additionally, the administration of kimchi suppressed the deterioration of the cranial nerve function induced by Aβ-25-35 and lipid peroxidation in the mice brain [186]. Thus, kimchi is expected to play an important role in preventing aging-related dementia and chronic diseases in the brain. ...
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Fermented foods are loved and enjoyed worldwide and are part of a tradition in several regions of the world. Koreans have traditionally had a healthy diet since people in this region have followed a fermented-foods diet for at least 5000 years. Fermented-product footprints are evolving beyond boundaries and taking the lead in the world of food. Fermented foods, such as jang (fermented soybean products), kimchi (fermented vegetables), jeotgal (fermented fish), and vinegar (liquor with grain and fruit fermentation), are prominent fermented foods in the Korean culture. These four major fermented foods have been passed down through the generations and define Korean cuisine. However, scientific advancements in the fermentation process have increased productivity rates and facilitated global exports. Recently, Korean kimchi and jang have garnered significant attention due to their nutritional and health-beneficial properties. The health benefits of various Korean fermented foods have been consistently supported by both preclinical and clinical research. Korean fermented foods effectively reduce the risk of cardiovascular and chronic metabolic diseases, such as immune regulation, memory improvement, obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Additionally, kimchi is known to prevent and improve multiple metabolic diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and improve beneficial intestinal bacteria. These functional health benefits may reflect the synergistic effect between raw materials and various physiologically active substances produced during fermentation. Thus, fermented foods all over the world not only enrich our dining table with taste, aroma, and nutrition, but also the microorganisms involved in fermentation and metabolites of various fermentations have a profound effect on human health. This article describes the production and physiological functions of Korean fermented foods, which are anticipated to play a significant role in the wellness of the world’s population in the coming decades.
... Kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented vegetable, contains numerous bioactive compounds because it is prepared with cabbage, red pepper, garlic, ginger, green onion, and fermented fish sauce. Consequently, kimchi has demonstrated various health-beneficial effects, including the prevention of oxidative stress [11], inflammation [12], and cancer [13], and improvement of cognitive abilities [3]. These effects of kimchi might be attributed to the antioxidative activity of its component bioactive compounds [14]. ...
... Behavioral task tests are among the tools used to evaluate cognitive deficits in the mouse model of AD [2,3], with the T-maze, novel object recognition, and Morris water maze tests being the most widely applied. Specifically, the novel object recognition test [4] and the T-maze test [5] are designed to evaluate cognitive ability through observation of the subject's exploratory behaviors toward a new ...
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This study investigated the abilities of kimchi and its bioactive compounds to ameliorate amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced memory and cognitive impairments. Mice were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35, followed by a daily oral administration of capsaicin (10 mg·kg-bw–1), 3-(4′-hydroxyl-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (50 mg/kg bw), ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg bw), or kimchi methanol extract (KME; 200 mg/kg bw) for 2 weeks (n = 7 per group). Carboxymethylcellulose was used as a vehicle for the normal and control groups. Behavioral task tests showed that the learning and memory abilities were significantly waned by the injected Aβ25-35, but these cognitive deficits were recovered by the administrated KME and kimchi bioactive compounds (p < 0.05). The reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were lower, and the glutathione level was higher, in the KME and bioactive compound groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the KME and bioactive compound groups, the protein expression levels of antioxidant enzymes (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-regulated superoxide dismutase-1 and glutathione peroxidase) were increased, whereas those of inflammation-related enzymes (nuclear factor-kappaB -regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were decreased (p < 0.05). Thus, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive compounds-rich kimchi might help to attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
... 타민, 무기질 이 외에도 β-sitosterol, capsaicin, allyl 등의 화합 물을 함유하는 것으로 보고되었다 [6,7]. 이처럼 김치의 다양한 생리활성성분들이 보고됨에 따라 국내외에서는 김치의 항암효 과, 장 건강, 면역조절 효과, 대사증후군 개선 효과, 인지능 개 선 효과 등의 건강 기능성 연구도 활발히 이루어지고 있다 [8][9][10]. ...
A wide variety of lactic acid-fermented fruits and vegetables currently exists. Among them, kimchi and sauerkraut are the ones that have met worldwide commercial significance and are most widely consumed. Cabbage is the primary ingredient for both; however, kimchi production involves incorporating many more ingredients, reflected in the complexity of the respective micro-ecosystem. Traditional fermented foods have a long history of being consumed by local communities and are important nutritional and functional properties. Their health functionality includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrinolytic effect, antioxidative, antiaging, brain health promotion, immune promotion, skin health promotion, etc. This chapter presents and critically discusses the various aspects of fermentation and processing along with nutritional and health functionalities of kimchi and sauerkraut.
This study investigated the inhibitory effects of kimchi bioactive compounds against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis in amyloid beta (Aβ)-injected mice. Mice received a single intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35, except for the normal group. Mice had oral administration of 10 mg capsaicin, 50 mg (3-(4′-hydroxyl-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HDMPPA), 50 mg quercetin, 50 mg ascorbic acid, or 200 mg kimchi methanol extract (KME) per Kg body weight for 2 weeks, respectively (n = 7 per group). In the in vitro BBB permeability test, all bioactive compounds penetrated the BBB, except ascorbic acid. Protein expression level of APP, BACE, and p-Tau elevated by Aβ injection was decreased by kimchi bioactive compounds (P<0.05). Quercetin, HDMPPA, and KME decreased oxidative stress such as ROS and TBARS levels (P<0.05). The protein expression level of ER stress markers GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, XBP1, and CHOP and the proapoptotic molecules Bax, p-JNK, and cleaved caspases-3 and -9 decreased (P<0.05). In contrast, the protein expression level of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl2 and cIAP increased (P<0.05). These results were supported by histological analysis.
This study investigated the effect of kimchi on hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice fed high cholesterol diet (HCD) with an oral administration of kimchi methanol extracts (KME, 200 mg kg bw⁻¹ day⁻¹) or distilled water for 8 weeks (n = 10 per group). Compared with the control group, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations were lower in the kimchi group (p < 0.05), which was confirmed with hepatic histological examination by Oil Red O staining. Hepatic expressions for fatty acid synthesis were downregulated whereas those for beta-oxidation were upregulated in the kimchi group (p < 0.05). Hepatic expressions for cholesterol synthesis were decreased but those for cholesterol export was increased in the kimchi group (p < 0.05). Moreover, kimchi intake reduced expression for inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.05). Kimchi exerted beneficial effects on HCD-induced hepatic damage by suppressing lipid synthesis and inflammation, and facilitating fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol excretion.
This study was examined inhibitory effects of kimchi with antioxidant, lipid lowering, and antiinflammatory activities on hepatic steatosis by suppression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Animals were fed HCD for 8 weeks with oral administration of kimchi methanol extracts (200 mg/kg bw/day) (kimchi group, n = 10) or distilled water as a vehicle (control group, n = 10). In kimchi group, hepatic lipid peroxidation was reduced. Protein expression of ER stress molecules such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, XBP1, and CHOP were decreased. In addition, protein expression of anti-apoptotic molecules were increased, but those for the pro-apoptotic molecules were decreased. Protein expression of antioxidant enzymes regulated by Nrf2 was elevated. Histological analysis showed that hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kimchi group were less severe. In conclusion, hepatic steatosis induced by HCD can be alleviated by kimchi via suppressing ER stress.
Kimchi is a probiotic lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) fermented vegetable food, the most common of which is baechu (cabbage, Brassica rapa) kimchi (>70% of kimchi). The health benefits and quality of kimchi are dependent on its raw ingredients, fermentation conditions, and the LAB involved in the fermentation. Kimchi has antioxidative and antiaging, antimutagenic, anticancer, antiobesity, and other health benefits. Moreover, kimchi LAB exhibit antioxidative, anticancer, immune-stimulatory effects, and antiobesity and other probiotic activities. Kimchi is safe from the contamination of NO3, NO2, nitrosamines and biogenic amines, and NaCl content. The health-promoting, probiotic, and functional food properties of kimchi can be optimized or increased by manipulating the types and amounts of ingredients, as well as by using appropriate probiotic starters and kimchi preparation methods. In this chapter, we introduce the process of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, and health benefits of kimchi as a probiotic food.
Kimchi is a fermented vegetable (Baechu kimchi is the representative one) with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Vegetables, especially cruciferous vegetables, and subingredients of garlic, ginger, and red pepper powders, contain various nutraceuticals that have health benefits. The functional metabolites formed from the ingredients during the fermentation by LAB also increase the functionalities of kimchi. In addition, probiotic LAB which are present at 108-9CFU/g in kimchi after the fermentation, make kimchi an excellent probiotic food. Because kimchi is prepared with healthy vegetables and condiments, and fermented with probiotic LAB, it has various health benefits along with tasting good. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of others, includes anticancer, antioxidative, antiobesity, anticonstipation, serum cholesterol and lipid-controlling, antidiabetic, and immune-boosting. Kimchi is also safe from the contamination of NO3, NO2, and nitrosoamines, salt levels in kimchi are low (1.2-2.0%), and can be safely made by using different kinds of salt and fermentation processes. They can compensate for any negative effects of NaCl. In this chapter, we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi, and the probiotic properties of its LAB.
This study was carried out to investigate the nitrite scavenging activities (NSA) of nine kinds of wild vegetables in a NaNO2 model system and nitrite of Chinese cabbage as well as the inhibitory effect of kimchi containing a mixture of wild vegetables (MWV) with nitrite scavenging activity on brain neuronal cell death. NSA was higher at pH 1.2 than pH 4.2 in all samples. NSA of extracts from sprouts of Oenothera laciniata and Aster scaber (AS) was above 90% at pH 1.2. AS, Codonopsis lanceolate (CL), Adenophora triphylla (AT), Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), and Taraxacum officinale (TO) extracts showed significantly higher levels of NSA than those from other extracts at pH 4.2. CL, AT, PG, and TO extracts showed high NSA on nitrite of Chinese cabbage. In addition, the effects of MWV on antioxidant and brain neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress were investigated in human brain neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. MWV extract attenuated H2O2-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in SK-N-SH cells. MWV extract showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenger activity when compared to normal kimchi extract. MWV extract showed an inhibitory effect on brain neuronal cell death against oxidative stress by antioxidant activities. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
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Behavioral tests have become important tools for the analysis of functional effects of induced mutations in transgenic mice. However, depending on the type of mutation and several experimental parameters, false positive or negative findings may be obtained. Given the fact that molecular neurobiologists now make increasing use of behavioral paradigms in their research, it is imperative to revisit such problems. In this review three tests, T-maze spontaneous alternation task (T-CAT), Context dependent fear conditioning (CDFC), and Morris water maze (MWM) sensitive to hippocampal function, serve as illustrative examples for the potential problems. Spontaneous alternation tests are sometimes flawed because the handling procedure makes the test dependent on fear rather than exploratory behavior leading to altered alternation rates independent of hippocampal function. CDFC can provide misleading results because the context test, assumed to be a configural task dependent on the hippocampus, may have a significant elemental, i.e. cued, component. MWM may pose problems if its visible platform task is disproportionately easier for the subjects to solve than the hidden platform task, if the order of administration of visible and hidden platform tasks is not counterbalanced, or if inappropriate parameters are measured. Without attempting to be exhaustive, this review discusses such experimental problems and gives examples on how to avoid them.
Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and amyloid beta(1-42) peptide is good drug targets for Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. Among the twenty enthusiasm reducing herbals, the 70% methanol extracts (1 mg/ml) of Moutan Radicis Cortex and Forsythiae Fructus showed 91.5% and 85.3% about acethylcholinesterase inhibition, respectively. The extracts (1 mg/ml) of Coptidis Rhizoma and Paeoniae Radix Rubra showed more than 85% inhibition rate against amyloid beta (1-42) peptide aggregation. The neuroprotective effect of the extracts (1 mg/ml) of Moutan Radicis Cortex, Forsythiae Fructus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra showed 90.0%, 87.4% and 85.1% to compare with amyloid beta (1-42) peptide treated cells (IMR-32), respectively. Three herbs, Moutan Radicis Cortex, Forsythiae Fructus and Paeoniae Radix Rubra are promising candidates from natural products for development of Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.
The effects of methanol extracts of 51 spices on ·OH scavenging were studied in detail. 2-Deoxyribose oxidation and sodium benzoic acid hydroxylation methods were used for detecting the scavenging activity of ·OH. Mustard varieties, thyme, oregano, clove, and allspice all exhibited strong ·OH-scavenging activity. In particular, 3 varieties of mustard had above 90% ·OH-scavenging activity with a 1 μg/ml concentration of their extracts. The ·OH scavenger of Brassica nigra (brown mustard) was isolated and purified by XAD-2 column chromatography and preparative HPLC, and was identified as a 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester by MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester was prepared by methylating of sinapic acid with diazomethane.
Rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and mice were utilized as in vitro and in vivo models to determine the neuroprotective effects of a 70% acetone extract of black soybean seed coat (BSSCE). BSSCE showed higher total phenolic contents than other extracts. Intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation from treatment of PC12 cells was significantly reduced when BSSCE was present in the media compared to PC12 cells treated with only. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) reduction assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay also showed significantly increased protective effects in PC12 cells. In addition, BSSCE improved the in vivo cognitive ability against amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal deficits.
Colour and texture are the most difficult quality aspects of Kimchi to maintain during storage. Therefore, this study investigated how to maintain superior quality Kimchi during fermentation without changes in color and texture. By examining differences between samples covered with vinyl(A group) and not covered with vinyl(B group) and assessing pH, total acidity, total viable cell count, total lactic acid bacteria cell count and sensory characteristics. The results are indicated that pH, total acidity, total viable cell and total lactic acid bacteria were similar between group A and B. Group A showed higher sensory score for colour, taste, texture and acceptability than group B(p
Kinds of ingredient of Chinese cabbage kimchi were standardized by the sensory evaluation, chemical properties, and functional properties of antimutagenic effect and inhibitory effect on the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The kinds of ingredient in control kimchi from the previous study, but Gueun salt instead of Chunil salt, exhibited better overall acceptability and less moldy smell and moldy flavor than any other kinds of ingredient added chinese cabbage kimchi in the taste. The kimchi showed chemical properties of properly fermented kimchi, pH 4.3 and acidity 0.72% and also contained 1.6 g% reducing sugar and Leuconostoc sp. The juice of standardized kimchi with the above kinds of ingredient showed not only high antimutagenicity (74%) against aflatoxin in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 but also strong inhibitory effect (60%) on the growth of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in SRB assay. From the taste, chemical and functional properties, the standardized kinds of ingredient were Youngyang taeyangcho red pepper powder, anchovy juice, Gueun salt, Garak sin 1 ho Chinese cabbage.
Kinchi is and important source of various vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, organic acids and other nutrients. In order to get a basic information for developing vitamins-rich funtional kimchi, we investigated microorganisms which are capable of synthesis of vitamin C in Kimchi system. Microorganisms isolated from aliquots of kimchi were screened and cultured by using MRS or nutrient agar medium. L-Ascorbic acid produced by microorganism in medium was measured with high performance liquid chromatography. As the result, we isolated two bacteria strins N7 and N5202 preducing L-ascorbic acid from the kimchi system. Morphological and Gram staining experiment showed that N7 was Gram positive bacilli, while N5202 was Gram negative. There were also several bacteria that were considered to synthesizs erythorbic acid which is an analog of ascorbic acid. These results suggested that vitamin C-rich functional food could be developed by using the kimchi microorganisms.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the deficits in the cholinergic system and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ) in the form of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. Since the cholinergic system plays an important role in the regulation of learning and memory processes, it has been targetted for the design of anti-Alzheimer's drugs. Cholinesterase inhibitors enhance cholinergic transmission directly by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which hydrolyses acetylcholine. Furthermore, it has been also demonstrated that both acetylcholinesterase and butrylcholinesterase (BuChE) play an important role in Aβ-aggregation during the early stages of senile plaque formation. Therefore, AChE and BuChE inhibition have been documented as critical targets for the effective management of AD by an increase in the availability of acetylcholine in the brain regions and decrease in the Aβ deposition. This review discusses the different classes of cholinesterase inhibitors including tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, xanthostigmine, para-aminobenzoic acid, coumarin, flavonoid, and pyrrolo-isoxazole analogues developed for the treatment of AD.
Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat (TB) and common buckwheat (CB) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced impairment of cognition and memory function were investigated in vivo in order to identify potential therapeutic agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated progressive memory deficits, cognitive impairment, and personality changes. An in vivo mouse model of AD was created by injecting the brains of ICR mice with Aβ(25-35), a fragment of the full-length Aβ protein. Damage of mice recognition ability through following Aβ(25-35) brain injections was confirmed using the T-maze test, the object recognition test, and the Morris water maze test. Results of behavior tests in AD model showed that oral administration of the methanol (MeOH) extracts of TB and CB improved cognition and memory function following Aβ(25-35) injections. Furthermore, in groups receiving the MeOH extracts of TB and CB, lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited, and nitric oxide levels in tissue, which are elevated by injection of Aβ(25-35), were also decrease. In particular, the MeOH extract of TB exerted a stronger protective activity than CB against Aβ(25-35)-induced memory and cognition impairment. The results indicate that TB may play a promising role in preventing or reversing memory and cognition loss associated with Aβ(25-35)-induced AD.
The KNUC25 strain isolated from over-fermented whole Chinese cabbage kimchi was examined for its physi-ological characteristics using API 50 CHL system assay and identified as Lactobacillus paraplantarum by analysis of whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE pattern assay and similarity of 16S rDNA sequence. L. paraplan-tarum KNUC25 had a broad antimicrobial activity spectrum from Gram positive to Gram negative bacteria. Scanning electron micrograph analysis showed that KNUC25 might attack to cell surface of indicator cells and destruction can lead to inhibition of the cell growth. The antimicrobial substance of the KNUC25 strain was stable to various degrading enzymes and at high temperature and not a plasmid-born matter. Resistance to proteolytic enzymes showed that an antimicrobial activity of KNUC25 might not be caused by proteinous sub-stance. Maximum production of antimicrobial substance was the exponential growth phase at 30 o C.
Amyloid beta fragment 25-35 (Abeta(25-35)) is the neurotoxic domain of the full-length Abeta(1-42) and causes memory impairments in rodents. Recent research suggests that agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, has a neuroprotective role. This study investigated the effects of a single bilateral i.c.v. infusion of aggregated Abeta(25-35) (30 nmol) in a battery of behavioural tests conducted during the period 4-6 (Experiment 1) and 4-14 (Experiment 2) weeks post-Abeta(25-35) infusion, and evaluated the protective effect of agmatine (40 mg/kg) administered i.p. 30 min prior to Abeta(25-35) infusion and once daily for a further nine consecutive days. In Experiment 1, Abeta(25-35) rats with saline treatment were not impaired in the elevated plus maze and open field and mildly impaired in the reference memory version of the water maze task, but performed poorly in the working memory version of the water maze task and the object recognition memory task, relative to the control rats that received the i.c.v. infusion of Abeta(35-25) (inactive peptide) and saline treatment. By contrast, Abeta(25-35) rats with agmatine treatment did not show performance impairments in the working memory version of the water maze task and the object recognition memory task. In Experiment 2, Abeta(25-35) rats with saline treatment were significantly impaired in the standard radial arm maze task, but only displayed no or very mild impairments in the delayed non-match to position and reference memory versions of the radial arm maze task, T-maze, object recognition memory task, both the reference and working memory versions of the water maze task, elevated plus maze and open field. By contrast, Abeta(25-35) rats with agmatine treatment were not impaired in the standard radial arm maze and performed even better than the controls in the reference memory version of the task. These results demonstrate that agmatine is able to protect against Abeta(25-35)-induced memory deficits.
Using albino rats and a right-angle cross runway apparatus, it was possible to independently vary place and turn by alternating starting boxes at extreme ends of one arm of the cross in massed or staggered order. Animals were rewarded for all choices. Results indicated that alternation of place occurred above chance level when the starting position was shifted in the counter-balanced order, but that alternation of turn remained at a chance level. The results are interpreted as not confirmatory of the prediction from a reactive inhibition hypothesis, but supportive of an exploratory-tendency hypothesis.
The present study investigated the effects of gossypin, 3,3',4',5,7,8-hexahydroxyflavone 8-glucoside, on the toxicity induced by oxidative stress or beta-amyloid (Abeta) in primary cultured rat cortical cells. The antioxidant properties of gossypin were also evaluated by cell-free assays. Gossypin was found to inhibit the oxidative neuronal damage induced by xanthine/xanthine oxidase or by a glutathione depleting agent, D,L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine. In addition, gossypin significantly attenuated the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta(25-35). Furthermore, gossypin dramatically inhibited lipid peroxidation initiated by Fe2+ and ascorbic acid in rat brain homogenates. It also exhibited potent radical scavenging activity generated from 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. These results indicate that gossypin exerts neuroprotective effects in the cultured cortical cells by inhibiting oxidative stress- and Abeta-induced toxicity, and that the antioxidant properties of gossypin may contribute to its neuroprotective actions.
Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages, modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. Thus antioxidants have been studied for their effectiveness in reducing these deleterious effects and neuronal death in many in vitro and in vivo studies. Increasing number of studies demonstrated the efficacy of polyphenolic antioxidants from fruits and vegetables to reduce or to block neuronal death occurring in the pathophysiology of these disorders. These studies revealed that other mechanisms than the antioxidant activities could be involved in the neuroprotective effect of these phenolic compounds. We will review some of these mechanisms and particular emphasis will be given to polyphenolic compounds from green tea, the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, blueberries extracts, wine components and curcumin.
Rats and mice have a tendency to interact more with a novel object than with a familiar object. This tendency has been used by behavioral pharmacologists and neuroscientists to study learning and memory. A popular protocol for such research is the object-recognition task. Animals are first placed in an apparatus and allowed to explore an object. After a prescribed interval, the animal is returned to the apparatus, which now contains the familiar object and a novel object. Object recognition is distinguished by more time spent interacting with the novel object. Although the exact processes that underlie this 'recognition memory' requires further elucidation, this method has been used to study mutant mice, aging deficits, early developmental influences, nootropic manipulations, teratological drug exposure and novelty seeking.
The effects of 3-(4'-hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HDMPPA) originating from Korean cabbage kimchi were investigated, showing an antioxidant effect on the prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twenty-one 3-month-old rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% (w/w) cholesterol and 10% (w/w) coconut oil, whereas another two groups were given an atherogenic diet with intravenous injection of either HDMPPA or simvastatin (0.33 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. HDMPPA inhibited the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (IC 50 = 1.4 microg/mL) and increased 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (IC 50 = 0.78 microg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, the thickness of intima of aorta of the HDMPPA group was significantly reduced (control versus HDMPPA, 42%; simvastatin, 38%) without a plasma cholesterol-lowering effect. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance formation in the plasma of the HDMPPA group was significantly decreased compared to that of the control group. Furthermore, the generation of vascular reactive oxygen species in HDMPPA group was suppressed as the cyclooxygenase-2 protein level decreased. These findings suggest that HDMPPA prevents the development of aortic atherosclerosis in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits. The antiatherosclerotic effect of HDMPPA may be due to an antioxidative effect at a low dose without cholesterol-lowering effects.
beta-Amyloid peptide (Abeta), the major constituent of the senile plaques observed in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, is cytotoxic to neurons and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous studies have suggested that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanisms of Abeta-induced neurotoxicity in vivo. Here, we used a mouse model of brain dysfunction induced by dl-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO: 3micromol/3microL/mouse, i.c.v.), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. In the novel object recognition test, we found impairments of exploratory preference in the retention trial but not the training trial 24h after BSO treatment, suggesting that BSO produces cognitive dysfunction in mice. In the forebrain of this model, we observed increase in carbonyl protein levels, an index of biochemical oxidative damage of proteins, compared to vehicle-treated mice. Pretreatment with ferulic acid (5mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 6 days inhibited the induction of deficits in memory and increase in carbonyl protein levels by BSO. These findings suggest that pretreatment with FA may attenuate the memory deficits and increase the carbonyl protein levels induced by BSO in mice.
The effects of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer on hydrogen peroxide and β-amyloid peptide-induced PC 12 cells by Semen Ziziphi Spinosae water extract
  • S W Lee
  • D H Kim
  • J H Yun
  • J W Kim
  • E Y Jung
  • S G Lee
  • K S Lee
  • T H Kim
  • Y S Lyu
  • H W Kang
Lee SW, Kim DH, Yun JH, Kim JW, Jung EY, Lee SG, Lee KS, Kim TH, Lyu YS, Kang HW. 2008. The effects of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer on hydrogen peroxide and β-amyloid peptide-induced PC 12 cells by Semen Ziziphi Spinosae water extract. J Orient Neuropsychiatry 19: 179-193.
Protective effect of green tea extract on amyloid β peptide-induced neurotoxicity
  • Y I Kim
  • J Y Park
  • S J Choi
  • J K Kim
  • C H Jeong
  • S G Choi
  • S C Lee
  • S H Cho
  • H J Heo
Kim YI, Park JY, Choi SJ, Kim JK, Jeong CH, Choi SG, Lee SC, Cho SH, Heo HJ. 2008. Protective effect of green tea extract on amyloid β peptide-induced neurotoxicity. Korean J Food Preserv 15: 743-748.
Effects of kimchi on tissue and fecal lipid composition and apolipoprotein and thyroxine levels in rats
  • M J Kwon
  • Y O Song
  • Y S Song
Kwon MJ, Song YO, Song YS. 1997. Effects of kimchi on tissue and fecal lipid composition and apolipoprotein and thyroxine levels in rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 507-513.
Anticarcinogenic effect of kimchi extract on 2-AAF-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis system
  • K Y Park
  • H C Kim
  • Jung Ko
Park KY, Kim HC, Jung KO. 2000. Anticarcinogenic effect of kimchi extract on 2-AAF-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis system. J Korean Assoc Cancer Prev 5: 81-86.
Effects of the interaction of tannins with co-existing substances, Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide VI anion radical, and on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraqyl radical
  • T Hatano
  • R Edamatsu
  • M Hiramatsu
  • A Mori
  • Y Fjuita
  • T Yasuhara
  • T Yoshida
  • T Okuda
Hatano T, Edamatsu R, Hiramatsu M, Mori A, Fjuita Y, Yasuhara T, Yoshida T, Okuda T. 1989. Effects of the interaction of tannins with co-existing substances, Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide VI anion radical, and on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraqyl radical. Chem Pharm Bull 37: 2016-2021.
Antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from freeze dried kimchi
  • Y O Lee
  • H S Cheigh
Lee YO, Cheigh HS. 1996. Antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from freeze dried kimchi. J Life Sci 6: 66-71.
Biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid by microorganism in kimchi fermentation process
  • H S Cheigh
  • R Yu
  • H J Choi
  • H K Jun
Cheigh HS, Yu R, Choi HJ, Jun HK. 1996. Biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid by microorganism in kimchi fermentation process. J Food Sci Nutr 1: 37-40.
Standardization of kinds of ingredient in Chinese cabbage kimchi
  • E J Cho
  • S M Lee
  • K Y Park
Cho EJ, Lee SM, Park KY. 1998. Standardization of kinds of ingredient in Chinese cabbage kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol 30: 1456-1463.